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The goal of qualitative research is to achieve,as best as possible, understanding – a deepknowledge of a social setting or phenomenon.Understanding requires time in the field.-Creswell, 1998Qualitative Research requires a desire tounderstand
Time makes more converts than reason.-Thomas PaineQualitative Research Requires Time inthe Field
The creative person is willing to live with ambiguity.-Abe TannenbaumQualitative Research Requires a Tolerancefor Ambiguity
We were born to unite with our fellow men, andto join in community with the human race.-CiceroQualitative Research requires communitywith those we research
Interviews• Conversation with a purpose• Participants views are valuable and useful• There to listen, not to talk• There to yield data in quantity quickly• Cooperation is necessary• Interviewer is involved with participants
Example for Libraries• Interviewing instructional librarians in howthey incorporate technology into theirteaching.Ideas?
Focus Groups• Also interview based but with groups• Usually range from 4-12 in number• Large amounts of data• Can be very useful• Method is socially oriented• Have to be careful of Groupthink. Everyone ofagreeing, or overpowering others in thought
Example for Libraries• Focus group of students on ideas in how touse empty classroom space in libraryIdeas?
Questionnaires• Standardized format• Very similar to surveys• Typically contain open ended content• Useful in gaining a sample• Useful in narrowing a large group down to a small(for interviews, focus groups, etc)• Rapid data• Poor return rates unless you are aggressive incollection
Example for Libraries• How librarians use social media in theirprofessional practice.Ideas?
Case Studies• Usually looking at groups of people or anorganization• Typically involves multiple qualitative methods(interviews, questionnaires, observations,document analysis, etc)• Time consuming• Very involved• Small numbers of groups or orgs. Sometimesonly one
Examples for Libraries• Case Study of the administrative practices ofminority female deans of libraries.Ideas?
Observations• Popular Qualitative Method• Noting and recording events and behaviors• Commonly referred to as “Field Notes”• Observer is meant to blend in, not to be a partof the environment• Observer is looking for recurring behaviors,patterns.• Have to be in the moment, always
Example for Libraries• Observing student use of learning commonsareas.Ideas?
Ethnography• Looking at cultural data• Culture through the participant’s perspective• Rich narrative descriptions• Interviewer has to build rapport. Veryimportant in a cultural study• These types of study can be done withphotography and video as well. Veryexpressive
Example for Libraries• Libraries in Appalachian Culture• Building of libraries in other countriesIdeas?
Phenomenology• Study of lived experiences. A phenomenon!• Study a concept or phenomenon that a groupof people share• Focus on deep, lived situations• Very labor intensive• Can be highly emotional• Highly reflective• Connection and relationships commonly built
Example for Libraries• Experiences of librarians who built the 4/16collection or a similar collection in ArchivesIdeas?
Narrative Inquiry/Text Analysis• Sometimes spoken, sometimes written• Analysis of text• Participants can write or tell stories• Takes in depth listening skills• Can rely on journals, photos, autobiographicalwriting, messages, and more• More story based
Example for Libraries• Storyteller experiences• Stories of storytellers• Career choice of librariansIdeas?
Qualitative Involves• Good listening skills• Multiple devices for recording• Patience• Time• Desire to learn• Interest to be involved (What makes dataweak in some researchers opinion)
Proposal for Study Should Include• Plan for Entry and Ethical Considerations• Data Collection Techniques• Data Recording Techniques• Strategies for Data Analysis• Management Plan/Timeline for final reporting ofstudy• IRB for University will have other items toconsider as well (Interview protocols, consentforms, email formats, etc)