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Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
Low visibility operations   rev.1-2012
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Low visibility operations rev.1-2012

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Low visibility presentation

Low visibility presentation

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  • 1. Low Visibility OperationsTraining Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 2. IntroductionWELCOME • Instructor: – Start Time: 09: 0 – Coffee break: 10: -10: - – Lunch: 1 - – Coffee break: 1 : - : – End time: 1 Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 3. Introduction • Course Rules – Language – Security Issues – Mobile phones – Smokers (breaks)Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 4. Introduction • Course Rules – Keep an open mind – Speak up – Participate – Feel free to disagreeTraining Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 5. Introduction COURSE SCHEDULE (DAY 1) • Airfield Requirements • Low Visibility T/O • Cat II/III ApproachesTraining Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 6. Introduction • Introduction of participants – Name, position, background – What are yours responsibilities? – Previous contacts with ......subjects...... – Define your expectations.Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 7. Airfield Requirements Airfield RequirementsTraining Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev.1
  • 8. Airfield Requirements - Introduction IntroductionAn operator shall not use an airfield for CAT II or CAT III operations unless it is approved for suchoperations by the state in which the airfield is located.Airfield requirements are contained in the ICAO document "All-Weather Operations Manual" whichrefers to standards and recommendations from ICAO Annex 10 first volume (ILS) and ICAO annex14 (Aerodrome). ICAO standards are internationally accepted but additional requirements orvariants may be found in national regulations (AC120.29 and AC120.28C for FAA for instance) or inthe ECAC document n 17.The present chapter addresses the following subjects: runway characteristics, visual aids, non-Visual aids (ILS), RVR measurements, obstacle clearance area,The aim of this chapter is to present a summary view of the typical CAT II or CAT III airfieldrequirements.Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 9. Airfield Requirements – Rwy Characteristics RUNWAY CHARACTERISTICS RUNWAY LENGTH There is no specific requirement concerning runway length for an aerodrome to be CAT II or III approved. The runway length is only an operational limitation. RUNWAY WIDTH The runway width should be normally not less than 45m. RUNWAY SLOPE For CAT II or CAT III, disregarding normal standards, it is recommended that for the first and the last quarter of the length of the runway the slope does not exceed 0.8%. To permit the use of the automatic landing system, ICAO also recommends that slope changes must be avoided or, when it is not possible, kept to a maximum of 2% per 30m (i.e. a minimum radius of curvature of 1500m) in the area located just before the threshold (60m wide, 200m long). This limitation is due to the fact that automatic landing systems use radio altimeter and a rapid slope change could disturb the landing. During airworthiness certification, it must be demonstrated that the automatic landing system works on a particular runway profile. OBJECTS ON RUNWAY STRIPS It is recommended that for runways intended for use for CAT II or CAT III approaches, no fixed object (other than frangible visual aids) are installed on a runway strip within 60m of the centerline. During landing, no mobile objects are permitted in the same area. TAXI-HOLDING POSITION A taxi-holding position is established at each intersection of a taxiway and the runway. The distance between the holding position and the centerline of the runway is not less than 90m (greater if the runway elevation exceeds 700m).Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 10. Airfield Requirements – Rwy Marks VISUAL AIDS-RUNWAY MARKS RUNWAY CENTRELINE MARKS For CAT II or CAT III operations, the runway centerline marks, as shown in Figure 1, must have a width not less than 0.90m (or not less than 0.45m for CAT I). TOUCHDOWN ZONE MARKS Touchdown zone marks, as shown in Figure 1, are required for all precision approaches, unless the authority declares that they are unnecessary. They are painted in the touchdown zone (the zone beginning at the threshold and extending to a distance of 900m). TAXIWAY MARKS Taxiway marks are not a specific CAT II or CAT III requirement, but experience has shown that they are an efficient means of guiding aircraft in low visibility conditions during the day. TAXI-HOLDING POSITION MARKINGS The taxi-holding positions must be as shown in pattern A for the closest marks to the runway and pattern B for the other markings (see Figure 2). Either CAT II or CAT III is written on the surface when the area exceeds 60m width. CAT II or CAT III signs are also placed on either edge of the taxiway at the holding-position and the sign CAT III must be accompanied with flashing lights. These markings or signs are an efficient means to avoid aircraft intruding into the obstacle-free zone or in the critical/sensitive area.Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 11. Airfield Requirements – Mandatory Instruction Signs MANDATORY INSTRUCTION SIGNS CAT I CAT II CAT II/III NO ENTRY CAT III CAT II - IIITraining Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 12. Airfield Requirements – Visual AIDS-RWY VISUAL AIDS-RUNWAY LIGHTSRunway lights on runways intended for use by CAT II or CAT III operations consist of high intensitythreshold lights, runway end lights, runway touchdown zone lights, runway edge lights, and runwaycenterline lights.The basic pattern of runway lights and requirements for taxiway lights is shown in Figure 3. RUNWAY EDGE LIGHTS Runway edge lights are placed along the full length of the runway in two parallel rows equidistant from the centerline, with a distance of no more than 3m to the runway edge. These lights are uniformly spaced at intervals of no more than 60m and may be omitted at the intersections. The lights are fixed lights showing variable white. THRESHOLD LIGHTS Threshold lights are placed in a row at right angles to the runway axis, outside the runway with a distance of no more than 3m to the threshold. The lights are fixed unidirectional lights showing green, uniformly spaced at intervals of no more than 3m. RUNWAY END LIGHTS Runway end lights are placed in a row at right angles to the runway axis, outside the runway with a distance of no more than 3m to the runway end. The lights are fixed unidirectional lights showing red, with a minimum number of 6 lights. ICAO also recommends a spacing between the lights of no more than 6m for runways intended for use by CAT III approaches.Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 13. Airfield Requirements – Visual AIDS-RWY RUNWAY CENTERLINE LIGHTS Runway centerline lights are a specific requirement for CAT II or CAT III approaches. They are located along the centerline of the runway, with a longitudinal spacing of approximately 7.5m, 15m or 30m for CAT II and only 7.5m or 15m for CAT Ill.  These lights are fixed lights showing:  Variable white from the threshold to the point 900m from the runway end.  Alternate red and variable white from the point 900m to the point 300m from the runway end (pairs of red lights followed by pairs of variable white lights if the spacing is only 7.5m)  Red from the point 300m to the runway end. (If the runway length is less than 1800m, the alternate red and variable white lights are extended from the mid-point of the runway to 300m from the runway end). TOUCHDOWN ZONE LIGHTS Runway touchdown zone lights are a specific requirement for CAT II or CAT III approaches. They extend from the threshold for a longitudinal distance of 900m (full touchdown zone) but do not extend beyond the mid-point if runway length is less than 1800m. The pattern is formed by pairs of barrettes containing at least three lights. The lights inside each barrette are fixed unidirectional lights showing variable white, spaced at an interval of no more than 1.5m. Each barrette must be not less than 3m and no more than 4.5m in length. The lateral spacing (or gauge) between the lights is not less than 18m and no more than 22.5m with a preference of 18m. The longitudinal spacing between pairs of barrettes is 60m or 30m, but it is recommended to have a spacing of 30m for low minima.Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 14. Airfield Requirements – Visual Aids-RWY TAXIWAY EDGE LIGHTS Taxiway edge lights are not a specific CAT II or CAT III requirement, but provide efficient visual aid during low-visibility operations. The lights are fixed lights showing blue. TAXIWAY CENTERLINE LIGHTS Taxiway centerline lights have to be installed on airfields intended for use by operations with an RVR 400m or less (400m is the mean value for CAT II approach). The lateral spacing between lights must not exceed 15m but the proximity of a curve must be indicated by a spacing equal to, or less than, 7.5m. The lights are fixed lights showing green, but from the beginning of the taxiway to the perimeter of the ILS critical area/sensitive area or the lower edge of the inner transitional surface, the lights are alternately showing green and yellow.Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 15. Airfield Requirements – Visual AIDS-APP VISUAL AIDS-APPROACH LIGHT SYSTEMThe approach light system is mandatory for CAT II operations, and only optional for CAT IIIoperations. It consists of a row of lights on the extended centerline of the runway, extendingover a distance of 300m from the threshold (over 900m for CAT I).In addition, the system has two side rows of lights, extending 270m from the threshold, andtwo crossbars, one at 150m and one at 300m from the threshold as shown in Figure 5.5.It is specified by the ECAC that sequenced strobe lighting is considered to be incompatiblewith CAT II and III operations. When installed for other operation, it should be switched offwhen CAT II or CAT III approaches are in progress. EXTENDED CENTERLINE LIGHTSThe lights forming the centerline are placed at longitudinal intervals of 30m, with the first onelocated 30m from the threshold.These lights consist of barrettes showing variable white. Each barrette is at least 4m inlength. When a barrette is composed of point sources, the lights are uniformly spaced atintervals of no more than 1.5m.Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 16. Airfield Requirements – Visual AIDS-APP SIDE ROW LIGHTSThe lights forming the side rows are placed on each side of the centerline, at alongitudinal spacing equal to that of the extended centerline lights (30m), with thefirst ones located 30m from the threshold. The lateral spacing (or gauge) betweenthe lights is not less than 18m and no more than 22.5m, with a preference for 18m.In any case, the lateral spacing shall be equal to that of the touchdown zone lights(see Figure 4).These lights consist of barrettes showing red. The length of a side row barrette andthe longitudinal spacing of its lights shall be equal to those of the touchdown lightsbarrettes. CROSSBAR LIGHTSThe crossbar provided at 150m from the threshold fills in the gap between thecenterline and the side row lights. The crossbar provided at 300m is extended onboth sides of the centerline lights to a distance of 15m from the centerline. Thelights forming the two crossbars are fixed lights showing variable white.Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 17. Airfield Requirements – Obstacle clearence OBSTACLE CLEARANCE AREADue to the very low visibility in CAT II and CAT III operations, each airfield must meet stringent criteriaconcerning obstacle clearance to avoid any aircraft on approach, landing or go-around touching obstacleson the ground. The basis of those criteria are fully included in ICAO Annex 14 and PANS-OPS Doc 8168and in other national documents. In CAT II and III operations, two important concepts are often mentionedin the regulations.  − the Obstacle Free Zone (OFZ),  − the Obstacle Clearance Height (OCH).Provided below are the definitions of the OCH and OFZ as defined in ICAO. OCA/OCH: The lowest altitude (OCA), or alternatively the lowest height above the elevation of the relevant runway threshold or above the aerodrome elevation as applicable (OCH), used in establishing compliance with appropriate obstacle clearance criteria.Sometimes, the term OCL (obstacle clearance limit) can be found in the documentation, but this term isbeing phased out.When an operator establishes his operating aerodrome minima, he must take into account the OCH onlyfor CAT II. The minimum DH for CAT II is always equal to or higher than any OCH mentioned in theaerodrome chart. This OCH is a function of the category of aircraft (A to E). OFZ: The airspace above the inner approach surface, inner transitional surfaces, and balked landing surfaces and that portion of the strip bounded by these surfaces, which is not penetrated by any fixed obstacle other than a low-mass and frangible mounted and required for air transportation purposes.Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 18. Airfield Requirements – ILS Facility ILS FACILITY DESCRIPTION Nowadays, all CAT II and III approaches are based on ILS facilities. The ILS installation must conform to the appropriate specifications contained in ICAO Annex 10, Volume 1, Part 1, Chapters 2 and 3, and be designed and operated in accordance with the guidance material contained in attachments C to part 1 of Annex 10.There are three categories of ILS, providing guidance down to a height higher orequal to  60m(200ft) for CAT I,  15m(50ft) for CAT II,  runway surface and along the runway for CAT III.Generally, the authority requires a CAT II ILS facility for the performance of CAT II approaches, and a CATIll ILS facility for the performance of CAT III approaches.However, it is acceptable to use a category II ILS facility for the performance of CAT III approaches with thehighest minima (for example CAT III A or CAT III with DH not less than 50ft). Generally, a specialagreement from the authority should be obtained. Mainly, the authority will take account of the continuity ofservice objective and the integrity objective of those installations.Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 19. Airfield Requirements – ILS Facility ILS PROTECTION In CAT II and III approaches, the ILS beams must be protected from unacceptable disturbance. For this purpose, two kinds of protection area are defined  the critical area,  the sensitive area.  ILS critical area An area of defined dimensions about the localizer and glide path antennas where vehicles, including aircraft, are excluded during all ILS operations. The critical area is protected because the presence of vehicles and/or aircraft inside the boundaries will cause unacceptable disturbance to the ILS signal-in-space.  ILS sensitive area An area extending beyond the critical area where the parking and/or movement of vehicles, including aircraft, is controlled to prevent the possibility of unacceptable interference to the ILS signal during ILS operations. The sensitive area is protected to provide protection against interference caused by large moving objects outside the critical area but still normally within the airfield boundary. The ILS beam is also protected by longitudinal separation between aircraft on landing or take-off. ILS protection is mandatory when low visibility procedures are in force.Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 20. Airfield Requirements – ILS facility Typical localizer critical and sensitive areas dimension variations for a 3 000 m (10 000 ft) runwayFigure 4 Typical glide path critical andsensitive areas dimension variationsFigure 4.1Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 21. Airfield Requirements - RVR RVR (Runway Visual Range) RVR MEASUREMENTSThe RVR measurements are provided by a system of calibrated transmissometers and take account of theeffects of ambient background light and the intensity of runway lights.Description of RVR measurement system RVR measurement system includes:  One or more transmissometer(s): A transmissometer is a system providing the value of the opaqueness of the atmosphere on a reference distance through the ratio between the transmitted light flux and the received light flux.There are two types of transmissometer commonly used as shown Figure 5. LOCATION OF THE TRANSMISSOMETERSThe RVR measurements are basically provided for three parts of the runway.  the touch-down zone (TDZ),  the mid runway portion (MID),  the roll-out portion or stop-end.The required number of measurements depends on the type of operations. Transmissometers should beplaced at each zone in which they are intended to provide an RVR measurement. The location issupervised by the technical services of the authority. The transmissometer must be close enough to therunway to provide an acceptable value, but at the same time must be a non-hazardous obstacle for theaircraft.Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 22. Airfield Requirements - RVR RVR MEASUREMENT REPORTSICAO recommends that RVR reports are given with 50m increments when the RVR is less than 800m and25m increments when the RVR is less 150m. In any case, any change of the RVR value must be known bythe ATC as soon as possible and in less than 15 seconds.During operations, the pilot must know the RVR value related to the touch-down. Generally, it is notnecessary to give the other values (MID, stop-end) unless these values are lower than the TDZ report orthere is special mention in the ATC procedures.Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 23. Airfield Requirements - RVRFigure 5Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 24. Airport Facilities – Aerodrome Operating Minima Aerodrome Operating MinimaEach aerodrome is different and requires different consideration for the efficient and expeditiousoperation of airplanes. The Operator must establish by law Aerodrome Operating Minima(AOM), which specify the minimum meteorological conditions necessary and specific requirementsfor pilots to achieve before operating aircraft into or from the aerodrome.The AOM are not universally applied but are specific to the aerodrome, the type of airplane, thetype of operation, the qualification of the crew, and many other criteria. However, the minimaspecified by the Operator are not to be less than those approved by the Authority of the State inwhich the aerodrome is located which, in turn, is not less than the minima stated in Annex 6 andJAR-OPS.In specifying the minima, the Operator needs to take into account: The type, performance, and handling characteristics of the airplane The composition, competence, and experience of the crew Dimensions and characteristics of the runway used Adequacy and performance of ground aids Airplane equipment for navigation and/or the control of the airplane during the takeoff, approach, the flare, the landing, the roll-out, and the missed approach Obstacles in the approach, missed approach and climb-out areas The obstacle clearance height/altitude (OCH/A) for instrument approaches The means of determining and reporting meteorological conditionsTraining Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 25. Low Visibility Take Off Low Visibility T/OTraining Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 26. Low Visibility Take Off – Take Off Minima Take Off Minima Takeoff with RVR less than 400m is considered as LVTO by JAR OPS 1. The maximum RVR at Takeoff is quite independent of the aircraft type and aircraft equipment except for very low RVR. The Takeoff minima is mainly determined by the airport installation (runway lighting system, RVR measurement system, ...). When weather conditions are more severe than the landing minima, a takeoff alternate is normally required:  − within one hour for twins  − within two hours for quads  − within the maximum approved diversion time for aircraft qualified for ETOPS, but not more than 2 hours (JAR OPS). (Above time is determined at the one engine inoperative speed). Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 27. Low Visibility Take Off – Take Off MinimaTraining Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 28. Low Visibility T/O – Operational procedures Take Off with RVR ≥ 150m CM1 is PF Line up with care, check QFU and LOC deviation TOGA Static T/O Highest flaps setting Lowest VR CM2 looks inside (call deviation of Loc Left or right via YAW bar) FMA to be read by CM2 on T/O CM2 monitor and call out any abnormalityTraining Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 29. Low Visibility T/O – Operational proceduresTraining Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 30. Low Visibility T/O – Operational procedures Take Off with 125m ≤ RVR ≤ 150mSame as T/O with RVR ≥ 150m, plus… Both pilots must be previously simulated trained (in order to have the required authorization) Max Xwind 10 kts Braking action not lower than “good” Loc indication is recommended on PFD’s Vis from cockpit must not be less than 90m at start of TOR (6 lights spaced 15m or 12 lights spaced 7.5m) (slant vis from cockpit A320 12.5m) 15mTraining Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 31. Low Visibility T/O – Operational procedures Take Off with 125m ≤ RVR ≤ 150m (cont’d) If the reported RVR in the initial part of the T/O is given as 125m, a 90 m visual segment (6 centre lights if spaced 15m) must be available from the cockpit at the start of the take-off run. The required RVR value must be achieved for all RVR reporting points. s.  In this case no pilot assessment is allowed to substitute “A” point.Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 32. Low Visibility T/O – Operational procedures Take Off in LVO PF PNF HEAD.............................................. UP  HEAD............................................................ DOWN RUNWAY CENTERLINE ................ VISUALLY FOLLOW  YAW BAR/ILS .............................................. MONITOR (VISUAL CUES REMAIN THE PRIMARY MEANS TO TRACK THE RUNWAY  FLIGHT & ENGINE INSTRUMENTS ............ MONITOR CENTERLINE. THE YAW BAR PROVIDES AN ASSISTANCE IN CASE OF UNEXPECTED FOG PATCHES.)  SPEEDS ........................................................ CALL  ROTATION .................................................. MONITOR  DEVIATIONS ................................................ MONITOR (ADVISE PF IN CASE ANY DEVIATION OCCURS)  The PFD displays a Yaw Bar in green below 30 ft RA and if a localizer signal is available:  During takeoff (in RWY mode) and  Upon landing (in FLARE and ROLL OUT mode).Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 33. Low Visibility T/O – Operational procedures Take Off with 75m ≤ RVR ≤ 125mSame as T/O with 125m ≤ RVR ≤ 150m plus… Front beam of Cat III loc must appear on PFD Airborne lateral guidance system must be certified for T/O on both PFD’s RWY in use must be protected with procedures equivalent with Cat III OpsTraining Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 34. Low Visibility Take Off – Take Off Alternate Take Off AlternateWhen operational performance or meteorological conditions preclude to return to departure aerodorome(i.e. Wheater condition do not fulfill applicable minima for approach and landing), a takeoff alternateaerodrome must be selected.For an aerodrome to be selected as a takeoff alternate the folowing condition must be met: The appropriate weather reports or forecasts or any combination thereof indicate that, during a period commencing one (1) hour before and ending one (1) hour after the estimated time of arrival at the aerodrome, the weather will be at or above the applicable Aerodrome operating minima; When the only approaches available are non-precision and/or circling, the cloud ceiling must be taken into account; Any limitation related to one engine inoperative operations must be taken into account; For twin engine aircrafts, the specified take off alternate is equivalent to a range of one (1) hour flying time at single-engine cruising speed; The distance of a take-off alternate from the departure aerodrome is not to exceed the specified for the aircraft type in the table below:Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 35. CAT II/III app CAT II/III approachesTraining Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 36. CAT II/III app - Definitions Introduction The main objective of Cat II/III operations is to provide a level of safety equivalent to other operations but in the most adverse weather condition and associated visibility. Approval for CAT II/III ops is dependent on the following elements in order to maintain the required level of safety  The Airfield  The Aircraft  The Crew  The operatorTraining Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 37. CAT II/III app – Definitions (cont’d) Cat II (EASA)  A category II approach is a precision instrument approach and landing with decision height lower than 200ft (60m) but not lower than 100ft (30m), and a runway visual range not less than 300m (1000ft)  (NOTE: CAT II weather minima has been established to provide sufficient visual references at DH to permit a manual landing (or a missed approach) to be executed (it does not mean that the landing must be made manually) Cat III A (EASA)  A category III A approach is a precision instrument approach and landing with a decision height lower than 100ft (30m) and a runway visual range not less than 200m (700ft) Cat III B (EASA)  A category III B approach is a precision approach and landing with no decision height or a decision height lower than 50ft (15m) and a runway visual range less than 200m (700ft), but not less than 75m (250ft) Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 38. CAT II/III app – Definitions (cont’d) In contrast to other operations, CAT III weather minima do not provide sufficient visual references to allow a manual landing to be made. The minima only permit the pilot to decide if the aircraft will land in the touchdown zone (basically CAT III A) and to ensure safety during rollout (basically CAT III B). Therefore an automatic landing system is mandatory to perform Category III operations. Its reliability must be sufficient to control the aircraft to touchdown in CAT III A operations and through rollout to a safe taxi speed in CAT III B (and CAT III C when authorized).Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 39. CAT II/III app – Definitions (cont’d) Decision Height Decision height is the wheel height above the runway elevation by which a go-around must be initiated unless adequate visual reference has been established and the aircraft position and approach path have been assessed as satisfactory to continue the approach and landing in safety (JAA) In this definition, runway elevation means the elevation of the highest point in the touchdown zone. According to the JAA, the DH recognition must be by means of height measured by radio-altimeter At the DH, the pilot must make an operational decision, he must decide if the visual reference to safely continue the approach have been established  If the visual reference are not established a G/A must be initiated  If the visual reference have been established, the approach may be continued. However if a sudden degradation in visual reference occurs or in case of flight path deviation a G/A may still be initiated.Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 40. CAT II/III app – Definitions (cont’d)Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 41. CAT II/III app – Definitions (cont’d) Alert Height An Alert Height is a height above the runway, based on the characteristics of the airplane and its fail-operational automatic landing system, above which a Category III approach would be discontinued and a missed approach initiated if a failure occurred in one of the redundant parts of the automatic landing system, or in the relevant ground equipment. In other AH definitions, it is generally stated that if a failure occurred below the Alert Height, it would be ignored and the approach continued. (ICAO) Alert Height Concept Alert height is a height defined for Category III operations with a fail-operational landing system.  Above AH, a go-around must be initiated if a failure(1) affects the fail-operational landing system. (1) The list of these failures is mentioned in the AFM.  Below AH, the approach will be continued (except if AUTOLAND warning is triggered). The AH is evaluated during aircraft certification; it is set at 100ft for A319, A320, A321.Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 42. CAT II/III app – Definitions (cont’d) Note: AUTOLAND is triggered for: loss of A/P, ACFT gets too far off LOC or Glide, loss of LOC signal above 15ft or glide above 100ft (transmitter or receiver), difference between both RA is greater than 15ftTraining Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 43. CAT II/III app – Definitions (cont’d) Runway Visual Range (RVR) Runway Visual Range (RVR) is the range over which a pilot of an aircraft on the centerline of the runway can see the runway surface markings or the lights delineating the runway or identifying its centerline. (ICAO) Categories II and III operations require rapidly updated and reliable reports of the visibility conditions which a pilot may expect to encounter in the touchdown zone and along the runway. RVR measurements replace the use of Reported Visibility Values (RVV) which is not appropriate for conditions encountered during the final approach and landing in low visibility, because the visibility observations are often several miles away from the touchdown zone of the runway. Slant Visual Range (SVR) SVR is the range over which a pilot of an aircraft in the final stages of approach or landing can see the markings or the lights as described in RVR definition.Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 44. CAT II/III app – Definitions (cont’d)Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 45. CAT II/III app – Definitions (cont’d) Fail-Passive Automatic Landing System An automatic landing system is fail-passive if, in the event of a failure, there is no significant out-of-trim condition or deviation of flight path or attitude but the landing is not completed automatically. For a fail-passive automatic landing system the pilot assumes control of the aircraft after a failure (JAA). On Airbus aircraft since the A320, fail-passive capability is announced by the display of CAT 3 SINGLE on the PFD.Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 46. CAT II/III app – Definitions (cont’d) Fail-Operational Automatic Landing System An automatic landing system is fail-operational if, in the event of a failure below alert height, the approach, the flare and landing can be completed by the remaining part of the automatic system. In the event of failure, the automatic landing system will operate as a fail-passive system (JAA). On Airbus aircraft since the A320, fail operational capability is announced by the display of CAT 3 DUAL on the PFD.Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 47. CAT II/III app – Operational Procedures A320F OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES A320F AIRPORT AIRCRAFT CREW WX Status Qualification LVO Active Procedure if Failure Seat Position Notams Use of AutoBrakes Sterile Cockpit and Reverse Airport Equipment GO-AROUND Task Sharing procedures Minima and Callouts Approach Procedures Landing DistanceTraining Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 48. CAT II/III app – Operational Procedures A320FIn addition to normal preparation, the following planning must be performed whenCat II/III are foreseen Airport  Wx at destination and alternate (including specific winds limitations)  Check Low Visibility operations are in effect in order to guarantee the full availability of the necessary radio aids and aerodrome visual aids  Check Notams  Check the status of the facilities at the airport (ILS, lights,…), they could have an effect on the operating minima.  More…Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 49. CAT II/III app – Operational Procedures A320FEffect ofdowngradedEquipmentTraining Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 50. CAT II/III app – Operational Procedures A320F  Check the status of the facilities at the airport (ILS, lights,…), they could have an effect on the operating minima.  Review minima, approach profile, missed approach and G/A procedure.  More…Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 51. CAT II/III app – Operational Procedures A320F APPROACH PROFILEThe app may only be continued past the OM or equivalent position (if not specified use 1000 Ft AGL) ifthe latest reported RVR for the relevant (controlling) Point(s) is equal to or higher than The Commander may normally commence an instrument approach regardless of the reported RVR/Vis GO AROUND If insufficient visual referencesRelevant (required) means that part of therunway used during the high speed phaseof the landing down to a speed of 60 kts Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 52. CAT II/III app – Operational Procedures A320F  Check the status of the facilities at the airport (ILS, lights,…), they could have an effect on the operating minima.  Review minima, approach profile, missed approach and G/A procedure.  Check the required landing distance to determine which part of RWY will be “relevant”.  More…Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 53. CAT II/III app – Operational Procedures A320F Required Landing Distance For Cat II use the table Configuration Full Dry for Cat III use the table Configuration Full Medium Use the appropriate tableTraining Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 54. CAT II/III app – Operational Procedures A320F Aircraft  Check the Status page to determine the Landing capability of the ACFT, for non monitored items refer to QRH OPS.04  More…Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 55. CAT II/III app – Operational Procedures A320F  Check the Status page to determine the Landing capability of the ACFT, for non monitored items refer to QRH OPS.04 (A320)  Review procedure in case of failure  Above 1000 ft perform ECAM actions and if necessary revert to higher minima  Below 1000 ft Go Around  Below AH 100ftA320family, continue except in case of red Auto land warning Review G/A procedure  Use Auto brake Medium and reverse  Use of lights (Strobe, landing lights?)Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 56. CAT II/III app – Operational Procedures A320F FAILURES AND ASSOCIATED ACTIONS BELOW 1 000 FT DURING A CAT II APPROACH GO AROUND If insufficient visual references INCORRECT SELECTED COURSE AT 350FT  Disengage the autopilot at 50ft at the latest IF NOSE WHEEL STEERING FAIL CONTINUE  Disengage the autopilot at touchdown Landing IF ANTI SKID FAILED  Disengage the autopilot at touchdown NO “FLARE” AT 30FT IF AUTOLAND WARNING LIGHT COMES UP BELOW DH  Disengage the autopilot and complete manually the landing  Disengage the autopilot and perform a manual landing if visual references are sufficient Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 57. CAT II/III app – Operational Procedures A320F FAILURES AND ASSOCIATED ACTIONS BELOW 1 000 FT DURING A CAT III APPROACH WITH DH GO AROUND If insufficient visual referencesINCORRECT SELECTED COURSE AT 350FT Revert to CAT II Minima Disengage the autopilot at 50ft at the latest IF NOSE WHEEL STEERING FAILED  Minimum DH = 50ft  Disengage the autopilot at touchdown IF ANTI SKID FAILS  Revert to CAT III Single NO “FLARE” AT 30FT  Disengage the autopilot at touchdown If visual references are sufficient  Disengage the autopilot and complete IF AUTOLAND WARNING LIGHT COMES ON BELOW DH manually the landing if not, execute a  A GO-AROUND must be performed unless visual references GO-AROUND are sufficient for a manual landing Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 58. CAT II/III app – Operational Procedures A320F FAILURES AND ASSOCIATED ACTIONS BELOW 1 000 FT DURING A CAT III APPROACH WITH NO DH GO AROUND If insufficient visual referencesINCORRECT SELECTED COURSE AT 350FT Revert to CAT II Minima Disengage the autopilot at 50ft at the latest IF NOSE WHEEL STEERING FAILED  Minimum DH = 50ft  Disengage the autopilot at touchdown IF ANTI SKID FAILS  Revert to CAT III Single NO “FLARE” AT 30FT  Disengage the autopilot at touchdown If visual references are sufficient  Disengage the autopilot and complete IF AUTOLAND WARNING LIGHT COMES ON BELOW DH manually the landing if not, execute a  A GO-AROUND must be performed unless visual references GO-AROUND are sufficient for a manual landing Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 59. CAT II/III app – Operational Procedures A320F Crew  Verify crew qualification  Adjust seat position  Brief Cabin Crew of Sterile cockpit concept  Review task sharing  Review call outs  FLARE and ROLL OUT must be checked and announced by CM2  3 things must be done manually in Autoland  Retard THR LEVERS when ordered  Select Reverse on main wheel touch down  Disconnect AP’s at the end of ROLLOUTTraining Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 60. CAT II/III app – Operational Procedures A320F TASK SHARING AND CALLOUTS FOR CAT II – III WITH DH & NO DH ALTITUDE COMMANDER CM2 OM ALTITUDE Checked COMMANDER OM/FAF Alt… ft CM2 1000 ft ALTITUDE Checked COMMANDER 1000 ft CM2 350 ft ALTITUDE LAND COMMANDER Checked CM2 DH + 100 ft ALTITUDE Checked COMMANDER Hundred Above CM2 DH ALTITUDE Continue or G/A Flaps COMMANDER Hundred Above CM2 AH Continue or G/A FlapsTraining Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 61. CAT II/III app – Operational Procedures A320FLOW GO-AROUND AIRCRAFT TOUCHES THE RUNWAY  Case 1 – TOGA was applied before Touch Down  The G/A phase will not be disturbed even when the aircraft touches the runway  Modes stay at the same, spoilers will not extend  AP remain engaged  Case 2 – TOGA is applied after Touch Down  TOGA thrust applied, CONFIG warning if CONF FULL  AP Disengages  Landing gear up when positive rate of climb and no risk of further touch down  Climb out as for standard GO-AROUND  If reverse thrust already applied, full stop landing must be completedTraining Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 62. CAT II/III app – Operational Procedures A320F FAILURES AND ASSOCIATED ACTIONS ABOVE 1 000 FT FOR CAT II OR CAT IIITraining Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 63. Low Visibility Operations Appendix and references  OM A part 8  QRH OPS.04  Getting to grips Airbus with Cat II & Cat III  PRO-NOR-SRP Systems Related ProceduresTraining Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 64. Low Visibility Operations QUESTIONSTraining Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012
  • 65. Low Visibility Operations THANK YOU!Training Department Low Visibility Operations – Rev. 1/2012

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