Research writing


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Research writing

  1. 1. Writing the Title of Research
  2. 2. Writing the Title of Research1. Write clearly.2. Include the main concepts.3. Write the variables being investigated. In case many variables are being studied, choose terms that will summarize these variables instead of spelling them all out.
  3. 3. Writing the Title of Research4. For specificity, a) Indicate relationships among variables: difference, effect, association as the case may be; b) Write the target population.5. Use a maximum of 20 substantive words (function words not included in the count).
  4. 4. Writing the Title of Research6. For brevity in the title, the following expressions should be dropped: “An investigation of”, “A study of”, “An inquiry into”, “A comparison of” , and the like. All theses and dissertations are investigations.
  5. 5. Writing the Outline
  6. 6. Writing the OutlineA. Functions of Outlines: Outlines show points that still need research; indicate items (topics) that have been over-researched; improve the thinking process; form basis of thesis or research report.
  7. 7. Writing the OutlineB. Kinds of Outline: 1. Topic outline 2. Sentence outline contains more formal and complete thought units than the topic outline
  8. 8. Writing the OutlineC. Methods of Outlining:1. Number – Letter Sequence 2. Decimal Pattern Example: Example: I. __________ 1. __________ A. __________ 1.1 __________ 1. __________ a. __________ 1.2 __________ b. __________ 1.21 __________ 2. __________ a. __________ 1.22 __________ b. __________ 2. ____________ c. __________ B. __________ 2.1 __________ 1. __________ 2.2 __________ 2. __________ II. __________
  9. 9. Writing the OutlineD. Important Note on the Method: Level I cannot exist without at least Level II; Level A cannot exist without at least Level B, and so forth. There should be at least two similar levels in an outline.E. Table of Contents is a less detailed outline but contains highlights of the thesis.
  10. 10. Writing the Definition
  11. 11. Writing the DefinitionTo define a term, place it into the next larger class orcategory of similar objects.Then, add the special characteristics which make thisobject different from the rest of the objects in that class.Example: Term: A computer...... Class: ..…is an electronic machine..... Characteristics: ..…which stores, retrieves and manipulates information.
  12. 12. Writing the DefinitionNote: Avoid the temptation of using the term or avariation of it in the definition.Example: A computer is an electronic machine that computes data.
  13. 13. Main Body or Text of the Report
  14. 14. Chapter I - The Introduction
  15. 15. Chapter I – The Introduction 1. The Background of the Study – what leads the researcher to undertake the study. 2. The Research Problem and Sub-Problems – anything in the universe that leads to a “better life” for man.
  16. 16. Chapter I – The Introduction 2. The Research Problem and Sub-Problems (cont’d.) Energizers: Difficulty spurts a need to explore. Out of an old problem, a new problem may evolve. A thinker is stimulated by what he reads. An individual group has the urge to achieve and contribute something to society. An individual likes to exercise resourcefulness, ingenuity and creativeness. Note: Inventions are usually brought about because of the inventor’s resourcefulness.
  17. 17. Chapter I – The Introduction 3. The Importance or Significance of the Study Who are the probable users of the research results? In what specific manner could the findings be used? Will it benefit society as a whole? Why should the problem be explored?
  18. 18. Chapter I – The Introduction 4. The Objectives or Hypotheses Objectives are set goals or those that are sought in the study; serve as pointers in the development of the tool used in gathering data; guide the organization of situations – in analysis of data or discussion of results. Hypothesis is a “hunch” that is to be tested in order that it be accepted or rejected,
  19. 19. Chapter I – The Introduction 4. The Objectives or Hypotheses (cont’d.) Objectives and Hypotheses should be specific clearly stated systematic in ordering situations short few highly relevant to the problem
  20. 20. Chapter I – The Introduction 5. The Limitations of the Study State why other aspects relevant to the study are omitted. Describe unusual occurrences in the process of data collection and others. 6. Definition of Terms
  21. 21. Chapter II – The Review of Related Literature
  22. 22. Chapter II – The Review of Related LiteraturePart 1 – General concepts, principles and theoriesrelated to the studyPart 2 – Local studies done along the same line ofresearchPart 3 – Foreign Studies
  23. 23. Chapter II – The Review of Related LiteratureNotes: The study is not a mere repetition of a previous work or a replicate of a previous study. The important past works of others are not overlooked. The study could be a verification of findings of past researchers.
  24. 24. Chapter III – The Methodology or Procedure
  25. 25. Chapter III – The Methodology or ProcedureExperimental research involves an attempt tocontrol all essential factors save a singlevariable.The variables are manipulated with a view todetermine and measure their effects onspecified experimental conditions.
  26. 26. Chapter III – The Methodology or ProcedureThe stages in carrying out the experimentsshould be described in sufficient detail so thatthe entire procedure could be replicated byanother researcher who would wish to repeatthe experiment.The better the quality of the equipment, themore accurate and reliable the results.
  27. 27. Chapter IV – The Presentationand Interpretation of Results
  28. 28. Chapter IV – The Presentation and Interpretation of Results Experimental and control groups are usually presented side by side in tables or graphs to vividly present existing differences. Findings are interpreted in the light of results found by other researchers.
  29. 29. Chapter IV – The Presentation and Interpretation of Results Empirical observations may be used to explain occurrences. Interpretations deduced from reviews of literature and other research studies should be properly documented.
  30. 30. Chapter V – Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
  31. 31. Chapter V – Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations In the summary, no interpretation of results should be made; however, emphasis should be given to results that are “outstanding”. The goal of a researcher is to make general statements that could be explained by the data gathered.
  32. 32. Chapter V – Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations Recommendations are meant to improve a particular field of study, a situation or life in general. Devoid of implications, the research is meaningless.