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HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language)

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  • 1. Hyper Text Markup Language HTML
  • 2. HTML INTRODUCTION  Example Explained <!DOCTYPE html> <html> •The DOCTYPE declaration defines the document type <body> <h1>My First Heading</h1> •The text between <html> and </html> describes the web page <p>My first paragraph.</p> •The text between <body> and </body> is the visible page content </body> •The text between <h1> and </h1> is </html> displayed as a heading •The text between <p> and </p> is displayed as a paragraph
  • 3. WHAT IS HTML?        HTML is a language for describing web pages. HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language HTML is a markup language A markup language is a set of markup tags The tags describes document content HTML documents contain HTML tags and plain text HTML documents are also called web pages
  • 4. HTML TAGS       HTML markup tags are usually called HTML tags HTML tags are keywords (tag names) surrounded by angle brackets like <html> HTML tags normally come in pairs like <b> and </b> The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tag The end tag is written like the start tag, with a forward slash before the tag name Start and end tags are also called opening tags and closing tags
  • 5. HTML ELEMENTS "HTML tags" and "HTML elements" are often used to describe the same thing.  But strictly speaking, an HTML element is everything between the start tag and the end tag, including the tags:  HTML Element:   <p>This is a paragraph.</p>
  • 6. WEB BROWSERS  The purpose of a web browser (such as Google Chrome, Internet Explorer, Firefox, Safari) is to read HTML documents and display them as web pages. The browser does not display the HTML tags, but uses the tags to interpret the content of the page:
  • 7. HTML VERSIONS  Since the early days of the web, there have been many versions of HTML: Version HTML HTML+ HTML 2.0 HTML 3.2 HTML 4.01 XHTML 1.0 HTML5 XHTML5 Year 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2000 2012 2013
  • 8. THE <!DOCTYPE> DECLARATION   The <!DOCTYPE> declaration helps the browser to display a web page correctly. There are many different documents on the web, and a browser can only display an HTML page 100% correctly if it knows the HTML type and version used.
  • 9. COMMON DECLARATIONS       HTML5 <!DOCTYPE html> HTML 4.01 <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> XHTML 1.0 <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
  • 10. TAGS <html> </html>  <body> </body>   Bgcolor  Background  Topmargin  Leftmargin  Rightmargin  bottommargin
  • 11. <head></head>  <title></title>  <p></p>   Align  left,right,center
  • 12. HTML COMMENT <!-    The comment tag is used to insert comments in the source code. Comments are not displayed in the browsers. You can use comments to explain your code, which can help you when you edit the source code at a later date. This is especially useful if you have a lot of code. It is also a good practice to use the comment tag to "hide" scripts from browsers without support for it (so they don't show them as plain text): <!--This can be viewed in the HTML part of a document-->
  • 13. <!DOCTYPE>  The <!DOCTYPE> declaration must be the very first thing in your HTML document, before the <html> tag.  The <!DOCTYPE> declaration is not an HTML tag; it is an instruction to the web browser about what version of HTML the page is written in.  In HTML 4.01, the <!DOCTYPE> declaration refers to a DTD, because HTML 4.01 was based on SGML. The DTD specifies the rules for the markup language, so that the browsers render the content correctly.  HTML5 is not based on SGML, and therefore does not require a reference to a DTD.  <!DOCTYPE html>  <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">
  • 14. <!DOCTYPE>  HTML 5  <!DOCTYPE html>  HTML 4.01 Strict  This DTD contains all HTML elements and attributes, but does NOT INCLUDE presentational or deprecated elements (like font). Framesets are not allowed.  <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">  HTML 4.01 Transitional  This DTD contains all HTML elements and attributes, INCLUDING presentational and deprecated elements (like font). Framesets are not allowed.  <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
  • 15. <!DOCTYPE>  HTML 4.01 Frameset  This DTD is equal to HTML 4.01 Transitional, but allows the use of frameset content.  <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Frameset//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/frameset.dtd">    XHTML 1.0 Strict This DTD contains all HTML elements and attributes, but does NOT INCLUDE presentational or deprecated elements (like font). Framesets are not allowed. The markup must also be written as well-formed XML. <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
  • 16. <!DOCTYPE>          XHTML 1.0 Transitional This DTD contains all HTML elements and attributes, INCLUDING presentational and deprecated elements (like font). Framesets are not allowed. The markup must also be written as well-formed XML. <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> XHTML 1.0 Frameset This DTD is equal to XHTML 1.0 Transitional, but allows the use of frameset content. <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Frameset//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-frameset.dtd"> XHTML 1.1 This DTD is equal to XHTML 1.0 Strict, but allows you to add modules (for example to provide ruby support for East-Asian languages). <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.1//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml11/DTD/xhtml11.dtd">
  • 17. HTML EDITORS Writing HTML Using Notepad or TextEdit  HTML can be edited by using a professional HTML editor like:  Adobe Dreamweaver  Microsoft Expression Web  CoffeeCup HTML Editor   However, for learning HTML we recommend a text editor like Notepad (PC) or TextEdit (Mac). We believe using a simple text editor is a good way to learn HTML.
  • 18. FOLLOW THE 4 STEPS BELOW TO CREATE YOUR FIRST WEB PAGE WITH NOTEPAD.
  • 19. STEP 1 : START NOTEPAD To start Notepad go to:  Start All Programs Accessories Notepad 
  • 20. STEP 2: EDIT YOUR HTML WITH NOTEPAD  Type your HTML code into your Notepad:
  • 21. STEP 3: SAVE YOUR HTML Select Save as.. in Notepad's file menu.  When you save an HTML file, you can use either the .htm or the .html file extension. There is no difference, it is entirely up to you.  Save the file in a folder that is easy to remember. 
  • 22. STEP 4 : RUN THE HTML IN YOUR BROWSER   Start your web browser and open your html file from the File, Open menu, or just browse the folder and double-click your HTML file. The result should look much like this:
  • 23. <FONT> </FONT>  Attribute  Color  Size  Face
  • 24. TAGS FOR FORMATTING <b></b>  <i></i>  <u></u>  <strike></strike>  <sub></sub>  <sup></sup>  <tt></tt>  <pre></pre> 
  • 25. HEADING LEVEL <h1></h1>  <h2></h2>  <h3></h3>  <h4></h4>  <h5></h5>  <h6></h6> 
  • 26. <IMG SRC=“”>  Attributes  Width  Height  border
  • 27. HORIZONTAL RULE  <hr width="25%" color="#6699ff" size="6" />
  • 28. <MARQUEE></MARQUEE> Bgcolor  Scrollamount  Width  Height  Direction (up,down,left,right)  Loop 
  • 29. MENU  <menu> <li type="disc">List item 1</li> <li type="circle">List item 2</li> <li type="square">List item 3</li> </menu>
  • 30. ORDER LIST  Attributes  Start  Type <ol>  <li>one</li>  <li>two</li>  </ol>  A,a,i,I,1
  • 31. UNORDERLIST  Attributes  Start  Type <ul>  <li>one</li>  <li>two</li>  </ul>  circle,square,disc
  • 32. DEFINITION TERM   Definition Description, Definition List, Definition List <dd>  <dl> <dt>Definition Term</dt> <dd>Definition of the term</dd> <dt>Definition Term</dt> <dd>Definition of the term</dd> </dl>
  • 33. HTML EMBED OBJECT  <embed src="yourfile.mid" width="100%" height="60" align="center">  <embed src="yourfile.mid" autostart="true" hidden="false" loop="false"> <noembed><bgsound src="yourfile.mid" loop="1"></noembed>
  • 34. <OBJECT> TAG     The <object> tag defines an embedded object within an HTML document. Use this element to embed multimedia (like audio, video, Java applets, ActiveX, PDF, and Flash) in your web pages. You can also use the <object> tag to embed another webpage into your HTML document. You can use the <param> tag to pass parameters to plugins that have been embedded with the <object> tag. <object width="400" height="400“ data="helloworld.swf"></object>
  • 35. <TABLE></TABLE>  Attributes  bgcolor  Width  Height  Cellspacing  Cellpadding  background <tr></tr> <td></td> <th></th>
  • 36. ANCHOR TAG  The <a> tag defines a hyperlink, which is used to link from one page to another.  <a href=“”>Clickme</a>  <a href=“”><img src=“”></a>  By default, links will appear as follows in all browsers:    An unvisited link is underlined and blue A visited link is underlined and purple An active link is underlined and red
  • 37. <BASEFONT> TAG  HTML <basefont> Tag. Not Supported in HTML5  <basefont color="red" size="5" />
  • 38. <STYLE> TAG  The <style> tag is used to define style information for an HTML document.  Inside the <style> element you specify how HTML elements should render in a browser.  Each HTML document can contain multiple <style> tags.
  • 39. STYLE  <html> <head> <style type="text/css"> h1 {color:red;} p {color:blue;} </style> </head> <body> <h1>A heading</h1> <p>A paragraph.</p> </body> </html>
  • 40. <BLOCKQUOTE> TAG    The <blockquote> tag specifies a section that is quoted from another source. The <basefont> tag is not supported in HTML5. Use CSS instead. <blockquote cite="http://www.worldwildlife.org/who/index.html"> For 50 years, WWF has been protecting the future of nature. The world’s leading conservation organization, WWF works in 100 countries and is supported by 1.2 million members in the United States and close to 5 million globally. </blockquote>
  • 41. FORM <form></form>  <form action="mailto:you@yourdomain.com"> Action   Method post/get
  • 42. INPUT TAG <input type=“text”>  <input type=“radio”>  <input type=“checkbox”>  <input type=“password”>  <textarea></textarea>  <select></select>  (allow=multiple) for list  Size to define number of fields   <input type=“file”> (rows,cols)
  • 43. FIELDSET   The <fieldset> tag is used to group related elements in a form. The <fieldset> tag draws a box around the related elements.  <form> <fieldset> <legend>Personalia:</legend> Name: <input type="text"><br> Email: <input type="text"><br> Date of birth: <input type="text"> </fieldset> </form>
  • 44. FRAMESET <frameset rows=“50%,50%”>  <frame src=“”>  <frame src=“”>  </frameset> 
  • 45. IFRAME <iframe src=“” width=400 height=400>  </iframe> 
  • 46. MAP TAG  The <map> tag is used to define a client-side image-map. An image-map is an image with clickable areas.  The required name attribute of the <map> element is associated with the <img>'s usemap attribute and creates a relationship between the image and the map.  The <map> element contains a number of <area> elements, that defines the clickable areas in the image map.
  • 47. IMAGE MAP  <img src="planets.gif" width="145" height="126" alt="Planets" usemap="#planetmap"> <map name="planetmap"> <area shape="rect" coords="0,0,82,126" href="sun.htm" alt="Sun"> <area shape="circle" coords="90,58,3" href="mercur.htm" alt="Mercury"> <area shape="circle" coords="124,58,8" href="venus.htm" alt="Venus"> </map>
  • 48. META TAG  <meta name="Description" content="Description of your site"> <meta name="keywords" content="keywords describing your site">  <meta HTTP-EQUIV="Refresh" CONTENT="4;URL=http://www.yourdomain.com/">  <meta http-equiv="Pragma" content="no-cache"> <meta name="rating" content="General"> <meta name="robots" content="all"> <meta name="robots" content="noindex,follow">   