WHAT IS COMPUTER?
Computer is an Electronic Device. It
is use to calculate and manipulate
data. If we give any instruction to
FULL FORM OF COMPUTER
FATHER OF COMPUTER
Charles Babbage, British Mathematics
professor regarded as the Father of
He was born in England in 1792 as the
son of a rich banker.
He began to design a "difference engine"
It was very complicated machine for
doing calculations automatically.
He began design of another machine
"the analytical machine", which could
carry out many different types of
His machine was too ahead of the time
Lack of better technology Babbage could
not complete their work and passed
away in 1871 before he had completed
GENERATION OF COMPUTER
First Generation - 1940-1956:
Second Generation - 1956-1963:
Third Generation - 1964-1971:
Fourth Generation - 1971-Present:
Fifth Generation - Present and Beyond:
advertisement in "Electronic News"
The "brain" of the computer,
microprocessors drive technology.
They are used in each type of
computer from supercomputers to
In addition, many electronic
devices have central processing
units (CPU) embedded.
The CPU performs computer
instructions relative to the data it
For example, a cell phone or mobile
device executes game instructions
by way of the microprocessor.
microprocessor holds data about
your last action and executes
software instructions for the
"computer's" next move.
desktop computers designed for an
individual's use. They run
programs designed to help
individuals accomplish their work
Servers are not designed
to be used directly. They make
programs and data available for
people hooked up to a computer
computers connected together
so that they can exchange data.
Minicomputers are multi-user systems
that can handle the computing needs of
organization. Many people use them
simultaneously by means of remote
terminals or personal computers.
Mainframes are huge, multi-user
systems designed to handle gigantic
processing jobs in large corporations or
computers designed to process huge
amounts of scientific data then display
the underlying patterns that have been
Any machine that feeds data into a computer. That's
called input devices. Key board, Mouse, track ball, mice
, light pen
An output device is any piece of computer hardware
equipment used to communicate the results of data
Monitor, Speaker, Printer , Projector, Disc etc.
TYPE OF MONITOR
Cathode Ray Tube
Liquid Crystal Display
Thin Film Transistor
Light Emitting Diode
Cathode Ray Tube
Best picture quality,
Give off more radiation
it's still negligible
More affordable than LCD Monitor
CRT monitor price in India is above Rs. 4000/-
Liquid Crystal Display
Smaller size/ Lighter weight
Lower power consumption
Less heat generation
Better image contrast
LCD's more expensive than CRT
Thin Film Transistor
Save lots of desk space
Less risk of eye strain
Colors are more varied
They are just like lcd's.
Light Emitting Diode
Lowest power consumption
Thin form factor
Sharp text rendering
Good color fidelity
Printers produce a hard copy, The information is printed on paper and can be used when the
device is off. It is also called a printout .
Dot matrix Printer
Uses metal pins to strike an inked ribbon to make
dots on a piece of paper.
Can see the dots that make up the letters or
Lowest print quality of all of the printers, very low
in cost per page to use.
Rarely used today because of the poor print
quality, but still used in business to print multi-part
Use drops of magnetic ink to produce dots on a page to
produce text or images.
The print quality is almost the same as a laser printer's.
Problems with the ink and it is very expensive and water
soluble that will run if the paper gets wet
Highest cost per page of all the printers
producing color documents, it has the highest quality
at a reasonable price.
How the laser printer produces an image
Toner (very tiny particles of plastic) stick to
the drum where the dots where made
laser or LEDs make dots on a light sensitive
Paper is pressed against the drum and the
toner is placed on the paper
The paper is heated and the toner melts into
Produces the highest quality printout
black and white printouts, very low cost per
Printout is permanent
Color laser printers are still fairly expensive ($3,000
Type of mouse
A hard rubber ball that rolls as the mouse is
moved. Sensors inside the mouse body detect
the movement and translate it into
information that the computer interprets.
Uses an LED sensor to detect tabletop
movement and then sends off that information to
the computer for merry munching.
A cordless mouse frees you from cord problems.
It connects to your computer with a radio (rather
than an infrared) signal. We can also
say that wireless mouse
The different types of keyboards
QWERTY and AZERTY, DVORAK.
The QWERTY keyboards are most
commonly used nowadays and have
the six alphabets (Q,W,E,R,T,Y) in
the first row .
The AZERTY keyboards are used in
the French countries.
The PS/2 and USB are the two
wired connections that connect
keyboards are very commonly
used and they are called so
because they use the PS/2
connection. They are one of the
cheapest keyboards that are
available in the market.
The USB keyboards use a USB
(Universal Serial Bus) to connect
to the CPU. The PS/2 and USB
keyboards are usually plug and
COMPUTER BINARY LANGUAGE
Computer understands only binary language. It accepts
data in 0,1.
binary code is a way of representing text or computer
processor instructions by the use of the binary number
system's two-binary digits 0 and 1.
1 KILOBYTE (KB)
1 MEGABYTE (MB)
1 GIGABYTE (GB)
1 TERABYTE (TB)
Storage Devices are the data storage devices
that are used in the computers to store the data.
DVD, CD, Pen drive, Floppy.
Hard Disk Drive(HDD)
Hard disk drives were introduced in 1956 as data storage
for an IBM
The hard disk drive is largest, data storage device in a computer.
The operating system, software titles and most other files are stored in the
hard disk drive.
The hard drive is referred to as the "C drive" due to the fact that Microsoft
Windows designates the "C" drive.
For example, some computers have multiple drive letters (i.e. C, D, E)
representing areas across one or more hard drives.
CD Stands for Compact Disk. It is Firstly Developed by
Phillips and Sony company.
The Storage capacity of CD is 700MB.
DIGITAL VERSALTILE DISK(DVD )
•A DVD is an optical disc storage media format, invented
and Panasonic in 1995.
• DVD originally stood for Digital Versatile Disk, or
Digital Video Disk. The acronym was dropped after DVD
proved to have more uses than just storing video content.
The pen drive is a portable USB flash memory device
It can be used to quickly transfer audio, video, and data
files from the hard drive of one computer to another.
With a construction that is small enough to fit into a
FLOPPY DISK DRIVE(FDD)
A floppy disk is a disk storage medium composed of
a disk of thin and flexible
It is invented by IBM . Capacity of FDD is 1.44 MB
TYPES OF MEMORY
Random Access Memory
RAM can be compared to a person's short-term memory .
The data in RAM stays there only as long as your
computer is running.
When you turn the computer off, RAM loses its data.
When you turn your computer on again, your operating
system and other files are once again loaded into RAM
It's much smaller than your hard disk. That is also called
Read Only Memory
One major type of memory that is used in PCs is
called read-only memory,
ROM is a type of memory that normally can only be
read, as opposed to RAM which can be both read and
There are two main reasons that read-only memory is
used for certain functions within the PC
That is also called non- volatile memory.
In computing, booting is a process that starts operating systems when the
user turns on a computer system. A boot sequence is the initial set of
operations that the computer performs when power is switched on.
One method of resetting a computer system that is already powered on
commonly used to recover from errors that cannot be recovered,
when a computer locks. A warm boot can be accomplished by pressing
the CTRL - ALT - DEL keys
Alternatively referred to as a hard boot a cold boot is a term used to
describe the process of turning on the computer after it has been
For example, when you first turn your computer on after being off 26
for the night that is referred to as cold booting the computer.
FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
INTRODUCTION TO BILL GATES/MICROSOFT
William (Bill) H. Gates is chairman of
Microsoft Corporation, the worldwide leader
in software, services and solutions.
He was Born on Oct. 28, 1955.
In his junior year, Gates left Harvard
University to devote his energies to
Microsoft company, he had begun in
1975 with his childhood friend Paul
Paul Allen is the first programmer of
In 1999, Gates wrote "Business @ the
Speed of Thought", a book that shows
how computer technology can solve
IBM / MICROSOFT
IBM has been present in India since 1992.
IBM, acronym for International Business Machines, is a
multinational computer technology and consulting corporation.
Microsoft Corporation is American public multinational corporation
headquartered in Redmond, Washington
In 1980, IBM first approached Bill Gates of Microsoft, to discuss the
state of home computers and what Microsoft products could do for IBM.
IBM called Microsoft in July 1980 inquiring about programming
languages for its upcoming PC line after failed negotiations with another
company, IBM gave Microsoft a contract to develop the OS for
the new line of PCs.
Software is the general term for information
that's recorded onto some kind of medium.
For example, when you go to the video store
and rent or buy a tape or DVD, what you're really
getting is the software that's stored on that tape
or disk. Your VCR or DVD player are hardware
devices that are capable of reading the software
from a tape or disk and projecting it onto your TV
Software is also called programs.
Types of Software
There are two kinds of User Interfaces
Graphic User Interface (GUI)
Presents information to the use in the form of pull-down menus
and icons. It has pull-down menus the user clicks on to display
the menu Icons
Windows 98, Windows 2000, Mac OS
Command user Interface (CUI)
Presents information to the user in the form of text., Have to type in
commands or select commands from a menu displayed as text on
the screen. It is hard to use or learn, because the user must
memorize and type in commands.
MS-Dos (Microsoft Disk Operating System)
Pro Dos (Professional Disk Operating System)
System Software Or Operating system
•Used by the computer to accomplish a task. It controls the
internal function of the computer It controls other devices
connected to the CPU
•It directs all the activities and sets all the rules for how the
hardware and software work together. MS DOS and Microsoft
Windows are examples of system software or operating system
The operating system is usually located on a disk. It Can be on either the hard
disk drive, a floppy disk, or CD-ROM disk
An operating system works with application software.
Does basic tasks, like printing a document or saving a file
The operating system starts (launches) the application software so that it can be used
Is An Operating System
Introduced By Microsoft Corporation, United
state of America.
Windows is the area on the screen
having the border on all four sides, to perform a
GRAPHICAL OPERATING SYSTEM
MICROSOFT WINDOWS OS
A SMALL GRAPHICAL PICTURE ON THE SCREEN IS
TYPE OF ICON
COMMAND BASE OS
MICROSOFT DISK OPERATION SYSTEM
Application software programs work with the operating
system software to help you use your computer to do
specific types of work such as word processing to type a
Some common kinds of application software
•Word Processor software
• Web Page Browsers
A file in a format that the computer can directly execute.
Unlike source files, executable files cannot be read by humans. To
transform a source file into an executable file, you need to pass it
through a compiler or assembler.
Some examples of exe files
Winword for Microsoft word
Mspaint for paint software
Powerpnt for PowerPoint
A FILENAME EXTENSION IS A SUFFIX
(SEPARATED FROM THE BASE
FILE NAME BY A DOT) TO THE NAME OF A COMPUTER FILE APPLIED
TO INDICATE THE ENCODING
FORMAT) OF ITS CONTENTS OR
Rich Text file
Joint Photography Experts Group
Document Text File 2002, 2003
Document Text file 2007
Excel workbook 2007
Workbooks in workspace mode
Data base(MS Access)
WHAT IS A VIRUS?
a program or file enabling it to spread from one computer to
another, leaving infections as it travels. Like a human virus, a
computer virus can range in severity: some may cause only
mildly annoying effects while others can damage your
hardware, software or files. Almost all viruses are attached to
an executable file, which means the virus may exist on your
computer but it actually cannot infect your computer unless
you run or open the malicious program. It is important to note
that a virus cannot be spread without a human action, (such
as running an infected program) to keep it going. Because a
virus is spread by human action people will unknowingly
continue the spread of a computer virus by sharing infecting
files or sending emails with viruses asattachments in the
Motherboard - The motherboard is the main circuit board of a microcomputer. It is also known as
the main board or system board.
CPU - The CPU is the central electronic chip that determines the processing power of the computer.
Memory - Memory is the part of the computer that temporarily stores applications, documents, and stem
Bus - A bus is an electronic line that allows 1s and 0s to move from one place to another.
Expansion Slots - Expansions slots appear on the motherboard. They are sockets into which adapters
Ports and Connectors - A port is a connector located on the motherboard or on a separate adapter.
Bays - A bay is a space inside the computer case where a hard drive, floppy drive or CD-ROM drive
Power Supply - A power supply changes normal household electricity into electricity that a computer
Sound Components - A sound card lets a computer play and record high quality sound.