D. latum

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  • D. latum

    1. 1. HISTORY Diphyllobothrium Latum
    2. 2. ANCIENT & MODERN Earliest infection of tapeworms in general was found in 2 million year old African pre- human remains Earliest infection of D. latum found in 4,000-10,000 year old human remains in South America, yet few cases are now reported in South America (mainly in Europe and Asia) However, no distinct ‘point’ in time where D. latum infected humans In Europe, epidemics traditionally started with Jewish women tasting uncooked fish while preparing gefilte fish Introduced to North America by Scandinavian immigrants; spread by dogs that were fed raw fish
    3. 3. TREATMENT Diphy!obothrium Latum
    4. 4. PHARMACEUTICALS Praziquantel- 95% effective, preferable Niclosamide- slightly less effective, with few side effects 1-2 hours after taking drug, saline purge person to flush worms out of body Both are available in oral tablets, and only need to be taken once.
    5. 5. PREVENTION PLANS Avoid eating raw fish Proper disposal of human feces; no dumping of sewage into bodies of water. Fish that is brined, completely cooked, or frozen at -10˚C for 24 hours is free of infection Prompt treatment of infected humans Preventing large mammals to gain access to aquaculture sites (as in Chile)
    6. 6. DISCUSSION Often people refuse to take the pharmaceutical drugs and use herbal remedies (ie: buttermilk with Sprague powder, lemon juice with black salt, etc) in their place. Since these remedies lack the 95% effectiveness of medication, how can these people be convinced to take Praziquantel? By completely avoiding raw fish, Diphyllobothriasis can be completely eradicated. So, why not mandate that all fish be frozen, smoked, or cooked?

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