Action Items

               Who? Assign
               only to a Team
               Member
Date   What?   present       ...
1. Action items. Action items are to-do's assigned to attendees at the meeting
How?   Decision or Open?



               ...
d to attendees at the meeting. Record the task, the person responsible and the date agreed upon to complete the task.



 ...
complete the task.
DEFINE OPPORTUNITIES
                                                          What is Important?
revised 8/28Charter Work...
Smart Goals                                                       Lower acceptable limit
  Specific (What?)
              ...
Stakeholders-                      Trigger Points                         Link to SM Scorecard-

  Sponsor -              ...
11:42:1111/27/2008SIXSigmaToolstemplate-122781483509-phpapp03.xls
11:42:1211/27/2008SIXSigmaToolstemplate-122781483509-phpapp03.xls
1) Why are you working on this project rather than others? Explain quantitatively.
      BUSINESS CASE & OPPORTUNITY
     ...
DMADV




  11:42:1311/27/2008SIXSigmaToolstemplate-122781483509-phpapp03.xls
DMADD




  11:42:1311/27/2008SIXSigmaToolstemplate-122781483509-phpapp03.xls
DEFINE OPPORTUNITIES
                                                                        What is Important?
          ...
Internal - Depts
who receive
outputs from your
process



Buyers




Commodity Mgrs
Factory/Reqers




Design




Receiving
AP




EQE
NPI




Supply Chain Mgmt
E OPPORTUNITIES                                                             What complaints do you get from your
at is Imp...
ints do you get from your
 out the outputs of your process?
the Voice of the Business
s CBR's CTQ's or CTP's
entify CCR's
...
1
1




1




1




1




1

1
1




1

1



1




1



1



1



1
1


1


1




1


1




1


1



1

1

1

1

1

1


1

1



1

1
1
1

1
1




1

1

1

1


1

1


1


1


1


1




1


1

1

1


1
1
1

     1

     1

     1

     1


     1


     1

     1
     1

     1

     1




     1




     1


     1

     1
...
DEFINE
OPPORTUNITIES
What is Important?
   Kano Analysis
Help
DEFINE OPPORTUNITIES
                                              What's Important?

                                    ...
5. Not long-winded and repetitive so as to avoid weariness
                               factor

Step 6 - Contact Methods...
Step 11 - Analysis :

                       Do not extend results that are valid for the given sample to the
            ...
Use Compass Polls   example




Survey
DEFINE OPPORTUNITIES
                                                          What's Important?
revised 4/8


           ...
DEFINE OPPORTUNITIES
         What's Important?                                              revised      uploaded


uppli...
SIPOC stands for suppliers, inputs, process, output, and
       customers. You obtain inputs from suppliers, add value
   ...
DEFINE OPPORTUNITIES
                                                                        What's Important?
           ...
Payback Pareto
$120,000.00

$100,000.00

 $80,000.00

 $60,000.00

 $40,000.00

 $20,000.00

        $-
              Exam...
E OPPORTUNITIES
hat's Important?
ocess Output to Customers (SIPOC)


ancially Valuating Key Measures
            Cost Bene...
0   #DIV/0!   0
                 0   #DIV/0!   0
                 0   #DIV/0!   0
                 0   #DIV/0!   0
       ...
Total 5 year   How long        Savings this   Where can    Estimated
Benefit        will it take to year           Benefit...
0
           0
           0
           0
           0
           0
           0
           0
           0




Column Q
DEFINE OPPORTUNITIES
                                               What's Important?
                                    ...
ROCESS




         OUTPUT TO CUSTOMER (Receiving, AP,

                Requisitioner or Planner

                    and ...
DEFINE OPPORTUNITIES
                            What is Important?
revised 4/8


                       Functional Deploy...
ss Map



                                                       What costs are
                                          ...
DEFINE
                                                          OPPORTUNITIES
                                           ...
Reciprocity - doing someone a favor and getting a return-

           Scarcity
           People perceive things to be mor...
duce Uncertainty




Jim wants it
Stock goes up
Management supports
IBM and Intels secret tool revealed
6 sigma is above t...
r in limited accessability




 to call and may win vacation to ?
OPPORTUNITIES
                             What is Important?
                                      Kansei




           ...
Kansei
              Definition
              Kansei Engineering


              means psychological feeling or image of a...
DEFINE OPPORTUN
                                                                                 What is Importan
        ...
DEFINE OPPORTUNITIES
     What is Important?
                          Quick Win Diagram




                             ...
Implemented
    date
DEFINE OPPORTUNITIES
                                                        What is Important?
                          ...
PPORTUNITIES
is Important?
  ouse of Quality
                                                        http://www.qualisoft....
DEFINE OPPORTUNITIES
                                                          What is Important?
revised 4/8
            ...
RTUNITIES
ortant?
d to this Process
                          Req to Pay Reference Guide

        Approvers   URL   Audit ...
y=f(x1..x2..x3…)
What knobs when turned will improve y   CTQ Flowdown -variance allocation
                               ...
nd X influence




           x=

what drives the Y?




           x=

what drives the Y?
Average high - Average low = effect

Plot Y data

Capability analysis

IMR chart

one way anova
revised 4/8

                                                                                               What can we me...
Is population finite or infinate?

Risks in Decisions                           Defendant's True Status
                  ...
Determine what to MEASURE
                                   How are we doing?
          What can we measure that shows ou...
nite or infinate?

  Defendant's True Status
           Guilty
           Beta Error
           Correct Decsion           ...
Medium         Week           No
Relationship   Relationship   Relationship



                                           ...
1 compared to a sample 1 sample                                                1
1 compared to 1        F test
           ...
Determine what to MEASURE
                                                                       How are we doing?
revised...
ent status?
                                           MiniTab

          Y FACTOR                            Most
Output ...
Determine what to MEASUR
                                                                                How are we doing?...
ne what to MEASURE
w are we doing?
ta Collection                                             MiniTab
sure that shows our c...
Determine wha
                                                                                             How are w
     ...
Determine what to MEASURE
       How are we doing?
  What can we measure that shows our current status?
    Measurement Sy...
How can Variation be eliminated




overall process variability.
Determine what to MEASURE
                                         How are we doing?
          revised 4/8


             ...
ASURE
g?

ur current status?       MiniTab



and Capablity
                                   Normality Test
            ...
Determine what to MEASURE
                                                            How are we doing?
        revised 4/...
Appraisal
         Factory Inspection
         Material Inspection
         Engineering Maintenance

Internal Failure
    ...
t to MEASURE
 e doing?
 hows our current status?
ss Performance                                                           ...
0   0   0   0   0   0   0
rnal Failure and External Failure.




COPQ – Suppliers
Cost of Poor Quality from Suppliers

Suppliers can generally affec...
ANALYZE THE OPPORTUNITY
                                                                     What is Wrong?
revised 4/8


...
PPORTUNITY
rong?



OT CAUSE


             SOURCES OF VARIATION OR DEFECTS:

             INPUT DEFECTS:
             wha...
ANALYZE THE OPPORTUNITY
                                                    What is Wrong?

                              ...
Transfer function




                             Fitted Line Plot      Is there a relationship between X and Y?




acit...
ANALYZE THE OPPORTUNITY
                                                              What is Wrong?



                  ...
Definitions




umbers as Inputs


Output values
ANALYZE THE OPPORTUNITY
                   What is Wrong?
revised 4/8
                      FISHBONE
Help



                      PROCESS TITLE


The 4 M's
Methods, Machines, Materials, Manpower
The 4 P’s
          Place, ...
S TITLE




ople, Policies

iers, Systems, Skills
ANALYZE THE OPPORTUNITY
                                            What is Wrong?
revised 4/8

                          ...
Help




Data
ANALYZ
                                                                                                                   ...
Process/Product:
                                      FMEA Team:
                                         Black Belt:

  ...
ANALYZE THE OPPORTUNITY
                  What is Wrong?
                                 Help                      FMEA  ...
10
                                                           Detection




              Number
                         ...
Review/create process flow diagram and review FMEA procedures
Review information/begin FMEA
Finish FMEA/assign actions



...
Responsibility and Target Completion Date




                    Text
                                                   ...
ANALYZE THE OPPORTUNITY
                                                         What is Wrong?
           revised 4/8



...
Sub-Sub level of sampling   L1,L2,L3   L1,L2,L3


component veriation = day/dow/
SOV


                  Behavior of the process is observed in production
                  mode.

                  Data ...
L1,L2,L3
ANALYZE THE OPPORTUNITY
                                                     What is Wrong?
          Analysis of Variance...
ANOVA
            Is Sample size, sample rate and sample structure good?
            Tree Diagram
            Input a MODE...
ANALYZE THE OPPORTUNITY
                                                      What is Wrong?

                            ...
Fit is the relationship between X and Y

                      Minimize the Residual Variance

                      Sigma...
scaled and can be compared

ext point will occur
ANALYZE THE OPPORTUNITY
                                              What is Wrong?

                                    ...
you can see a lot by looking         yogi

                       Collect Data from the Process Passively

               ...
ANALYZE THE OPPORTUNITY
       What is Wrong?

        Regression - Curve Fitting
            Find what is important
by es...
R sqd adjusted begins to be significant
           want R sq and R sq adjusted to close to one another

Slopes are in diff...
measurement error




asurement (X's) error (p value)
ANALYZE THE OPPORTUNITY
                                                      What is Wrong?


                           ...
http://www.ideationtriz.com/
                       http://inp.nsk.su/~dolgash/triz
                       http://ideaconn...
IMPROVE PERFORMANCE
                                    What needs to be done?
revised 4/7




                           ...
LE SOLUTIONS

                             Then
               Remove showstoppers

               Remove items that do no...
IMPROVE PERFORMANCE
                                  What needs to be done?
revised 4/8




                             ...
HELP




                1. Rapidly group ideas that seem to belong
                together.
                2. It isn't ...
IMPROVE PERFORMANCE
                                    What needs to be done?
revised 4/8
     revised        uploaded


...
To find the priority of a list of causes according to the team:

1 List Team and Causes

2 Count the number of Causes (n)
...
ast important until all causes are assigned a value.
IMPROVE PERFORMANCE
               What needs to be done?
revised 4/8

                    Solution Map




              ...
Start with core premise (goal you
want to achieve), root cause, or
problem statement. Brainstorm
related clusters of poten...
revised 4/8

                                     IMPROVE
                                  PERFORMANCE
                  ...
IMPROVE PERFORMANCE
                        What needs to be done?
revised 4/8


                 Functional Deployment Pr...
DMADDD
                      Design - If this is a new
ss Map
                      process the 2B will be
               ...
IMPROVE PERFORMANCE
                                                  What needs to be done?
revised 4/8



              ...
cess


       Can this
       step be
       Combined Don't need Need to     This Step
       with     this step - Add thi...
revised 4/8

                                                                         IMPROVE PERFORMANCE
                ...
Capability Flow-UP
Take part of a process (where you have the
RMANCE                                least confidence, and pilot or simulate t...
Measureme
nts
            Measurem
            ents
IMPROVE PERFORMANCE
                         What needs to be done?
revised   4/8



                              Verify ...
ERFORMANCE
s to be done?



        Pilot Observations:



        GAP Analysis/Root
        Cause:


        Follow-up Ac...
Control Performance
revised 4/8                                               How do we guarantee performance?

          ...
trol Performance
e guarantee performance?

Implementation Plan



           Check Lists




           How will this Data...
Control Performance
revised 4/8                                                How do we guarantee performance?
          ...
rmance
performance?
ted to this New
s



         Approvers   URL   Audit Results   Changes needed




      Definition
Control Performance
revised 4/14                                                  How do we guarantee performance?




   ...
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
Six Sigma Tools Template
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Six Sigma Tools Template

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Transcript of "Six Sigma Tools Template"

  1. 1. Action Items Who? Assign only to a Team Member Date What? present When Done? Where?
  2. 2. 1. Action items. Action items are to-do's assigned to attendees at the meeting How? Decision or Open? 2. Decisions. All decisions that may affect future choices of the group should 3. Open issues. New issues raised at the meeting but not resolved there shou
  3. 3. d to attendees at the meeting. Record the task, the person responsible and the date agreed upon to complete the task. choices of the group should be recorded. g but not resolved there should be recorded so they can be carried over to a future meeting.
  4. 4. complete the task.
  5. 5. DEFINE OPPORTUNITIES What is Important? revised 8/28Charter Worksheet Team 6 Sigma Terms Team Charter Worksheet Define Phase Cost Savings Site Team Charter Title: Problem Statement Major Milestones for this project Result/Date due Business Case for Action (Current Situation) Vision (Opportunities) Why have you selected this project over others? Opportunities - Processes Affected: What pain are you currently experiencing Value-added Proposition - AS-IS Process - Stretch Goals and Key Benefits - TO-BE Process - High Level Business Requirements - How Vision supports Business, Customers, Actors - Consequences of No Change - Competitive Analysis - How Vision supports SM Stategy and Scorecard - How much is this project worth (estimate)? Scope - Goal Statement Project Scope 11:42:1111/27/2008SIXSigmaToolstemplate-122781483509-phpapp03.xls
  6. 6. Smart Goals Lower acceptable limit Specific (What?) What authority does team have? Measurable (Where are targets?) Attainable (How?) Upper acceptable limit Relevant (Why?) Time Bound (When?) ProjectTime-Line - Month 1 Month 1 Month 1 Month 1 Month 1 Month 1 Month 1 Actors (Alignment of Key People) Mechanisms Metrics Team Selection 11:42:1111/27/2008SIXSigmaToolstemplate-122781483509-phpapp03.xls
  7. 7. Stakeholders- Trigger Points Link to SM Scorecard- Sponsor - Affect on Cash Flow and Margin- Champion- Key Business Partners - System Resources- ROI - Benefit - Investment Team Leader (Owner) - What can we measure, how often, and by whom - Training needed- Team Members (cross functional Deliverables- experts)- Quick Wins- Finance Expert- Key Process Indicators affected - IT Resources - Other Resources Need Measureable Results - Best Communication Methods - Best Training Methods - DMAIC deals mostly with root causes DMADV what design features (opportunities) we have under our control that we can work on that will impact the ccrs DMADDD Design Digitize Drawdown 11:42:1111/27/2008SIXSigmaToolstemplate-122781483509-phpapp03.xls
  8. 8. 11:42:1111/27/2008SIXSigmaToolstemplate-122781483509-phpapp03.xls
  9. 9. 11:42:1211/27/2008SIXSigmaToolstemplate-122781483509-phpapp03.xls
  10. 10. 1) Why are you working on this project rather than others? Explain quantitatively. BUSINESS CASE & OPPORTUNITY 2) Show from schematic how vital (result)? to big Y; Analyze numbers. BUSINESS CASE 3) What are you trying to achieve X relates GOAL STATEMENT 4) What are the critical Customer Requirements and how were they determined? 5) What are the risks of this project and is there a plan to minimize them? 6) What is our communication plan going forward (who is setting up meetings and communicating)? 11:42:1211/27/2008SIXSigmaToolstemplate-122781483509-phpapp03.xls
  11. 11. DMADV 11:42:1311/27/2008SIXSigmaToolstemplate-122781483509-phpapp03.xls
  12. 12. DMADD 11:42:1311/27/2008SIXSigmaToolstemplate-122781483509-phpapp03.xls
  13. 13. DEFINE OPPORTUNITIES What is Important? Voice of the Customer VOB CBR's CTQ's Voice of the Business Critical to Quality Critical Business Price/Unit Requirements Delivery time What do comustomers Spec Reqs want? Quality? Cost? Service level Delivery? Service & Safety? Business Issues Who Receives an Output to the Process? External Customers - Who pays money for your product? Vendors End Customers
  14. 14. Internal - Depts who receive outputs from your process Buyers Commodity Mgrs
  15. 15. Factory/Reqers Design Receiving
  16. 16. AP EQE
  17. 17. NPI Supply Chain Mgmt
  18. 18. E OPPORTUNITIES What complaints do you get from your at is Important? customers about the outputs of your process? ce of the Customer Write them in the Voice of the Business Identify them as CBR's CTQ's or CTP's From these identify CCR's Identify how to measure the current status of the C If possible, Dollarize the Cost Currently Incurred CTP's CCR's VOC Critical to Process Critical Customer Voice of the Customer Key measures Cost/Unit Requirements How does this effect the Productivity Must have - Must be ultimate customer? What and How Regulation Compliance Key issues Would the Customer Pay Rework for it? Safety Training hours
  19. 19. ints do you get from your out the outputs of your process? the Voice of the Business s CBR's CTQ's or CTP's entify CCR's measure the current status of the CCR's llarize the Cost Currently Incurred Opportunity Dollarized Sort 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  20. 20. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  21. 21. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  22. 22. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  23. 23. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 $-
  24. 24. DEFINE OPPORTUNITIES What is Important? Kano Analysis
  25. 25. Help
  26. 26. DEFINE OPPORTUNITIES What's Important? Supplier Input Using a Survey 12 Steps to creating a Survey Step 1 - Objective : Describe the Objective of your survey in a few bullet points. Avoid accumulating objectives. 2 or 3 main points are a limit to a good survey. Although it may sound restrictive, it is very unlikely that your interviewees will be able to stomach more than this (with the exception of highly specialized business to business surveys focussed on professionals) Failing to describe your objective will make you lose sight of the overall purpose of the survey and will have serious consequences on the length, the accuracy and the sequencing of your questions. Step 2 - Population : Define the total population concerned with your survey Match this definition with the objective stated in Step 1, i.e. neither too wide or too narrow Step 3 - Pre-study : A Pre-study (caution, a pre-study is NOT a pre-test) should never be overlooked Carry out the study on a few individuals concerned with your study Avoid prejudices (yours or more likely, your customer's !) which could make you jump to conclusions even before the beginning of the survey Step 4 - Assumptions : State clearly the points (in accordance with Step 1), that you wish to clarify or verify, or even contradict Do not filter these assumptions according to your own prejudices, i.e. avoid attitudes such as quot;I don't need to check that point because I feel that ... quot; unless you already have evidence of the phenomenon in the first place. Step 5 - Writing the Questions : Check the wording of your questions so that they are ... 1. Understandable 2. Unbiased 3. Non suggestive 4. Not built in a way that interviewees react defensively
  27. 27. 5. Not long-winded and repetitive so as to avoid weariness factor Step 6 - Contact Methods : Pre test your questionnaire on a representative sample of the given population If cards have to be shown to the interviewees, then add to pre test Choose Contact mode 1. Mail Questionnaire 2. Personal interviewing (arranged or quot;interceptquot;) 3. Phone interviewing (New methods may include fax, Email, or even Html forms, but one may wish to stress the difficulty in using these new media. In a sense, they bear a strong resemblance with the phone in so far as the interviewee is invisible and difficult to identify. These media can only be used for short questions aimed at checking precise assumptions. As for the population involved, it goes without saying that Web usage is not pervasive enough - even in the USA - in order to use this medium to survey wide populations of interviewees. At the moment, the web is best suited for Internet survey, but things might change in the near future) Modify questions in accordance with Pre test results Modify sequencing of questions in accordance with Pre test results Suppress redundant questions (this is often a sore point) Insert missing questions If cards have to be shown to the interviewees, ensure that contents match questionnaire. Step 7 - Sampling : Define the representative sample Give a sufficient size to the sample (methods of appraisal of error margins can be used) Step 8 - Administration : Administer Questionnaire in a neutral fashion (i.e. preventing interviewers from introducing personal biases while asking the questions. This may imply that these interviewers must be either trained or skilled professionals, and that a clear, thorough and comprehensive debriefing session takes place). Step 9 - Non responses : Response rate is an important factor. Do not just overlook them. They are a good indicator the quality of your questionnaire (amongst other things, namely if a gift is sent to all respondents) Step 10 - Interpretation : Interpretation should be distinct from the opinion of the collector of the data Step 11 - Analysis : Analyse ALL the responses (avoid partial analysis)
  28. 28. Step 11 - Analysis : Do not extend results that are valid for the given sample to the entire population without taking the necessary precautions Note: A famous example of a bad survey analysis that is given by the focus groups that led Coca Cola to change their flagship product at the end of the 1980's. The analysts of the focus groups were adamant that traditional Coke had to be changed, but the assumption was wrong, the methodology too, and eventually, the decision that arose from these groups almost led the Atlanta giant to a disaster. Step 12 - Report : Write a report that will describe the results comprehensively Avoid biased conclusions Minimise prejudices Avoid quot;politically correctquot; conclusions Mention numbers and percentages (both are necessary)
  29. 29. Use Compass Polls example Survey
  30. 30. DEFINE OPPORTUNITIES What's Important? revised 4/8 Supplier Input Process Output to Customers (SI Starting Date Ending Date Suppliers Suppliers Inputs to Process External Inputs Requirement supplied to SM Internal Inputs Requirement supplied to SM
  31. 31. DEFINE OPPORTUNITIES What's Important? revised uploaded upplier Input Process Output to Customers (SIPOC) SIPOC Diagram AS-IS PROCESS FLOW Outputs from Process Customers (see Functional Deployment Process Map) Results of Process External to SM Results of Process Internal to SM
  32. 32. SIPOC stands for suppliers, inputs, process, output, and customers. You obtain inputs from suppliers, add value through your process, and provide an output that meets or exceeds your customer's requirements. Supplier-Input-Process-Output-Customer: Method that helps you not to forget something when mapping help processes.
  33. 33. DEFINE OPPORTUNITIES What's Important? Supplier Input Process Output to Customers Financially Valuating Key Meas (Total Investment + Cost of Capital) / Benefit per month= Paybac Key measures Hard Dollar Soft Dollar Operating Non Capital Financing Benefits Benefits Activities Investing Activities Costs (qual) Activities Costs Example $1,000,000.00 $50,000.00 $1,000.00 $-
  34. 34. Payback Pareto $120,000.00 $100,000.00 $80,000.00 $60,000.00 $40,000.00 $20,000.00 $- Example
  35. 35. E OPPORTUNITIES hat's Important? ocess Output to Customers (SIPOC) ancially Valuating Key Measures Cost Benefit Analysis pital) / Benefit per month= Payback Months Team Costs Capital Costs Cost to Train Payback $ Payback 5 years NPV of $1000n & Implement Months Benefit? Future $1000n Funds $50,000.00 $100,000.00 $10,000.00 $949,000.00 2.54 $4,745,000.00 4% $- #DIV/0! $- $- #DIV/0! $- $- #DIV/0! $- $- #DIV/0! $- $- #DIV/0! $- $- #DIV/0! $- $- #DIV/0! $- $- #DIV/0! $- $- #DIV/0! $- $- #DIV/0! $- $- #DIV/0! $- $- #DIV/0! $- $- #DIV/0! $- $- #DIV/0! $- $- #DIV/0! $- $- #DIV/0! $- $- #DIV/0! $- $- #DIV/0! $- $- #DIV/0! $- $- #DIV/0! $- $- #DIV/0! $- $- #DIV/0! $- $- #DIV/0! $- $- #DIV/0! $- $- #DIV/0! $- $- #DIV/0! $- $- #DIV/0! $- 0 #DIV/0! 0 0 #DIV/0! 0 0 #DIV/0! 0 0 #DIV/0! 0 0 #DIV/0! 0 0 #DIV/0! 0 0 #DIV/0! 0 0 #DIV/0! 0 0 #DIV/0! 0 0 #DIV/0! 0
  36. 36. 0 #DIV/0! 0 0 #DIV/0! 0 0 #DIV/0! 0 0 #DIV/0! 0 0 #DIV/0! 0 0 #DIV/0! 0 0 #DIV/0! 0 0 #DIV/0! 0 0 #DIV/0! 0 Payback Pareto Column Q
  37. 37. Total 5 year How long Savings this Where can Estimated Benefit will it take to year Benefit be Parallel achieve applied Benefit Benefit? elsewhere? $4,934,800.00 6mo ### $- $- $- $- $- $- $- $- $- $- $- $- $- $- $- $- $- $- $- $- $- $- $- $- $- $- $- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  38. 38. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Column Q
  39. 39. DEFINE OPPORTUNITIES What's Important? Process Mapping PURCHASE ORDER PROCESS CONTROLS Rules, Regulations, Standards, Polices, Procedures, Work Instructions, Goals, Metrics, & People (Process Owner) QPL/QSL: Vendor Master; Material Master; SOP 8-4; SIC 3.2 314W checklist GVM Profile ↓ SUPPLIER INPUT (Requisitioner, PROCUREMENT PROCESS Customer, Planner, Commodity Team) Materials or Information consumed Work done (by the Buyer) to the Inputs to or transformed by the Process to Transform Inputs into Output (PO) produce output Master Data Vendor, Info Record, Source List, QPL Requisition/Demand Create and Transmit PO from Inputs. (Schedule Sharing) Review & Approval MECHANISM People, Equipment, Tools, Software that perform the Process SAP Buyer Commodity Team WWCM PO Type TIGERS
  40. 40. ROCESS OUTPUT TO CUSTOMER (Receiving, AP, Requisitioner or Planner and the Supplier) Information or Product created by the Process Good PO that can be performed to by the Supplier, received, and paid.
  41. 41. DEFINE OPPORTUNITIES What is Important? revised 4/8 Functional Deployment Process Map AS_IS Process Flow Process Mapping help Department Sub-Process Start boundary
  42. 42. ss Map What costs are associatied with each step Qualitative Review (Value Added Analysis) Would anyone pay for this? Low Hanging Customer? Operations? Other fruit
  43. 43. DEFINE OPPORTUNITIES What's Important? Supplier Input Process Output to Customers (SIPOC) Using Science to Influence to Reduce Uncertain Compliance force, have to, coersion, rules and regulations, Conformity do it cuz you want to, ought to, peer pressure, ethics Internalization Willing total and deliberate, do it cuz you want to, Contrast Phenomenon Contrast something or some other process with yours as a competing activity Illustration how it will be used-illustrate aspects of use Context established before making a requrest Selling something as something it is not - Humbie - Military/status symbol Pet Rock, Chia Pet Concensus Jim wants it Amplifier - number of people behaving a certain way Stock goes up Bandwagon effect = everyone is doing it Management supports Product endorsements IBM and Intels secret too Similar groups of people do it 6 sigma is above the ben Like people do like things Uncertainty Consistancy Phone service ads that mention once you can get someone to take a stand on something…the bigger a commitment they will b Moto phones need to say more Value system appeal - Get commitment to become active - even a one word commitment Have people write down your own ideas…then share with the team Make their commitments public - issue minutes after meeting, have instrumental member issu Make goals public Want voluntary commitments - easist done when you know their values then to talk someone i Ask your friends for a commitment - people play golf together - build relationships
  44. 44. Reciprocity - doing someone a favor and getting a return- Scarcity People perceive things to be more valuable if they think it is scarce or in limited accessability Phrasing scarcity in terms of a loss is 2 - 4 times more effective than possitive Make it Unique Competition for something scarce Exclusive Information is more persuasive - Limited number - only supplier Limited run - Collectables market Limited edition cell phone - combines several different features Have a one of a kind cell phone - with unique personalized addons Have a cell phone contest that cell phones have a unique phone number in them to call and may win vaca What is the market segment? Who should we target? Why should we target them? What's the benefit to the customer? What are the features
  45. 45. duce Uncertainty Jim wants it Stock goes up Management supports IBM and Intels secret tool revealed 6 sigma is above the bench r a commitment they will begin to make nstrumental member issue minutes, presentation sharing es then to talk someone into something they don’t believe in relationships
  46. 46. r in limited accessability to call and may win vacation to ?
  47. 47. OPPORTUNITIES What is Important? Kansei Emotional/Subjective Aspects of the Customer Requirements Measuring Perceptions Touch and Feel Stylish Functional Simple Complex Powerful Weak Easy to Use Hard to Use Usability Stylish Functional Simple Complex Powerful Weak Visual Stylish Functional Simple Complex Powerful Weak Stylish Functional Simple Complex Powerful Weak Stylish Functional Simple Complex Powerful Weak
  48. 48. Kansei Definition Kansei Engineering means psychological feeling or image of a product. Kansei engineering refers to the translation of consumers' psychological feeling about a product into perceptual design elements. Kansei engineering is also sometimes referred to as quot;sensory engineeringquot; or quot;emotional usability.quot; Random Sample of Market Segment Know audience so words have meaning Use a Factor analysis to compute 2-5 major customer drivers Hard to Use source more...
  49. 49. DEFINE OPPORTUN What is Importan Quic Goals: Elilminate Change Rearrange Combine Simplify Imagine Potential Quick Win Easy to Implement Fast to Opportunity (ü) Implement (ü) Kill a Defect WEFEC defect 1 Within sphere of influence Easy to implement Fast to implement Easily reversible Cheap to implement
  50. 50. DEFINE OPPORTUNITIES What is Important? Quick Win Diagram Benefits will be gained Within the Implement Implemented by: Cheap to Team’s Implement (ü) Control (ü) (Yes/No) (ü) Kill a Defect WEFEC defect2 defect3 defect4
  51. 51. Implemented date
  52. 52. DEFINE OPPORTUNITIES What is Important? QFD = House of Quality QFD QFD is a good tool to employ in all phases 1. Derive top-level product requirements or technical characteristics from customer needs (Product Planning Matrix 2. Develop product concepts to satisfy these requirements. 3. Evaluate product concepts to select most optimum (Concept Selection Matrix). 4. Partition system concept or architecture into subsystems or assemblies and flow-down higher- level requirement 5. Derive lower-level product requirements (assembly or part characteristics) and specifications from subsystem/as 6. For critical assemblies or parts, flow-down lower-level product requirements (assembly or part characteristics) to 7. Determine manufacturing process steps to meet these assembly or part characteristics. 8. Based in these process steps, determine set-up requirements, process controls and quality controls to assure ac
  53. 53. PPORTUNITIES is Important? ouse of Quality http://www.qualisoft.com/ tool to employ in all phases om customer needs (Product Planning Matrix). lies and flow-down higher- level requirements or technical characteristics to these subsystems or assemblies. ristics) and specifications from subsystem/assembly requirements (Assembly/Part Deployment Matrix). irements (assembly or part characteristics) to process planning. part characteristics. ess controls and quality controls to assure achievement of these critical assembly or part characteristics.
  54. 54. DEFINE OPPORTUNITIES What is Important? revised 4/8 Documentation Related to this Process Doc. Number Title Creation date Last Revised Related Specifications Policies Procedures Work Instructions Guidelines Forms Websites Training Materials Key Terms Term Definition
  55. 55. RTUNITIES ortant? d to this Process Req to Pay Reference Guide Approvers URL Audit Results Changes needed Definition
  56. 56. y=f(x1..x2..x3…) What knobs when turned will improve y CTQ Flowdown -variance allocation Capability Flowup Transfer functions - predict the Y and X influence y= y= x= x knobs (inputs) x knobs what drives the Y? what drives the Y? y= y= x= x knobs x knobs what drives the Y? what drives the Y?
  57. 57. nd X influence x= what drives the Y? x= what drives the Y?
  58. 58. Average high - Average low = effect Plot Y data Capability analysis IMR chart one way anova
  59. 59. revised 4/8 What can we meas Represen MiniTab MEASUREMENT WO 6 Sigma Terms Search Minitab Website X Factors Quantitative Verifiable Predictive Process Predictive Input Indicators Measurement Indicators Scrap Rework Cycle Time Random Selection will eliminate bias Surveys are often biased, must sample the Non-Resp
  60. 60. Is population finite or infinate? Risks in Decisions Defendant's True Status Inocent Not Guilty Correct Decision Guilty Alph Error Patientt's True Status Inocent Healthy Correct Decision Ill Alph Error Test Statistics Drive the P Value Observed value of Population Parameter Subtract the standard value Divided by measure of dispersion Assuming that Null Hypothesis is true Risk and Circumstance always go in the oposite direction construct a reference distribution for the test statistic how reliable is the sample in representing the populat
  61. 61. Determine what to MEASURE How are we doing? What can we measure that shows our current status? Representative Samples are a must Top Level quot;Yquot; is observable at the Business Unit level and often verified with the Strong MEASUREMENT WORKSHEET End Customer Relationship Y Factors Output Performance Quantiative Verifiable Indicators Quantitative Verifiable Measurement CTQ's CTP's Measurement Priority ten biased, must sample the Non-Responders
  62. 62. nite or infinate? Defendant's True Status Guilty Beta Error Correct Decsion 1 compared to a sample 1 compared to 1 x Multiple Patientt's True Status Guilty Beta Error Correct Decsion Don’t have to worry about normality Drive the P Value e of Population Parameter andard value sure of dispersion expected variability in the y Null Hypothesis is true oposite direction rence distribution for the test statistic the sample in representing the population?
  63. 63. Medium Week No Relationship Relationship Relationship Sampling Plan function of the risk of being wrong; variability of the population; difference to be Factor Factor Factor detected
  64. 64. 1 compared to a sample 1 sample 1 1 compared to 1 F test Bartlett or Lavine Don’t have to worry about normality if you are working with averages - Central Limits Theorum
  65. 65. Determine what to MEASURE How are we doing? revised 4/8 What can we measure that shows our current status? Search Minitab Website From SIPOC Gather Input and Output Indicators X FACTORS Y FACTOR Input Indicators Process Indicators Steps Output Indicators What measures evaluate the degree to What measures evaluate dimen which the inputs to a process provided by What are the steps and the output - may focus on the suppliers are consistent with what the What measure evaluates the activities used to convert performance of the business as process needs to effectively and efficiently effectiveness, efficiency and quality of the the inputs into customer that associated with the deliver convert into customer satisfying outputs transforation processes satisfying outputs? services and products to custom Ex. Number of Receipts Ex. Number of defective Receipts Ex. Backup Receipt Ex. Payment issues
  66. 66. ent status? MiniTab Y FACTOR Most Output Indicators important What measures evaluate dimensions of the output - may focus on the performance of the business as well as that associated with the delivery of the services and products to customers Ex. Payment issues
  67. 67. Determine what to MEASUR How are we doing? revised 4/8 Data Collection Search Minitab Website What can we measure that shows our curre Performance Data Source that Strongly affects Measurement Operational Definition Output Display Describe Defect Continuous Discrete Analysis Tool Or Metric Ordinal Nominal How will data be used? ID Largest Contributors Is Data Normally Distributed? Sigma Level and Variation Root Cause Analysis? Correlation Analysis? Is Comparision of 1 sample or two or many What is NULL Hypothesis= 0= no relationship= Start with this assumption is TRUE Want to accept the Alternative Hypothesis Sometimes we do not want to look for an alternative
  68. 68. ne what to MEASURE w are we doing? ta Collection MiniTab sure that shows our current status? Charts Sample Size When will How will Other Data Who will collect Data be Data be collected at Cost? collected collected same time Practical? Frequency? Random? How will Data be Displayed? Pareto Chart Histogram Control Chart Scatter Diagram
  69. 69. Determine wha How are w What can we measu Measurement Sy MSA help Search Minitab Website Where are sources of Variation in Process Procedure Transaction Source of Data Report Used Measurement system analysis (MSA) is an experimental and mathematical method of determining There are five parameters to investigate in an MSA: bias, linearity, stability, repeatability and repro According to AIAG (2002), a general rule of thumb for measurement system acceptability is: Under 10 percent error is acceptable.
  70. 70. Determine what to MEASURE How are we doing? What can we measure that shows our current status? Measurement Systems Analysis Definitions re sources of Variation in Measurement System? Physical Verification Bias to Standard Repeatable? Accurate? Precise? al method of determining how much the variation within the measurement process contributes to overall process variability. ity, repeatability and reproducibility. tem acceptability is:
  71. 71. How can Variation be eliminated overall process variability.
  72. 72. Determine what to MEASURE How are we doing? revised 4/8 What can we measure that shows our current status? Search Minitab Website Display and Evaluate Understanding Variation, Stability, and Capablity Use MiniTab Evaluate Measurement System How much error could be in the tool being used to gather da
  73. 73. ASURE g? ur current status? MiniTab and Capablity Normality Test Look at Pvalue if lower than .05 Null must go Compare line with dots - same shows Normal If not normal use Box-Cox Control Chart IM chart with reference data Gage R&R Nested if did not use the same thing to test R&R by Operator - Precision Total Gage R&R must be less than 10 - 30% Capability Cpk potential capability g used to gather data?
  74. 74. Determine what to MEASURE How are we doing? revised 4/14 What can we measure that shows our current status? Determine Process Performance What is the Cost of Poor Quality COPQ help AS-IS Process Items from A Item Item Prevention MTD YTD MTD Quality Management Preventative Maintenance Factory Training Supply Chain Process Improvement Appraisal Inspection Material Inspection Engineering Maintenance Internal Failure Scrap Excess Inventory Obsolete Inventory Rework External Failure Warranty Costs Call Centers Totals 0 0 0 TO-BE Process Items from Cause Item Item Prevention MTD YTD MTD Quality Management Preventative Maintenance Factory Training Supply Chain Process Improvement
  75. 75. Appraisal Factory Inspection Material Inspection Engineering Maintenance Internal Failure Scrap Excess Inventory Obsolete Inventory Rework External Failure Warranty Costs Call Centers Totals 0 0 0
  76. 76. t to MEASURE e doing? hows our current status? ss Performance Help of Poor Quality Characterize Costs in AS-IS Process Estimate costs fitting the 4 Categories In TO-BE Process Try to eliminate costs of Appraisal, Internal Failure and External Failure. Items from AS-IS Process Item Item Item Item YTD MTD YTD MTD YTD MTD YTD COPQ – Suppliers Cost of Poor Quality from Supplier Suppliers can generally affect our c a) Producing defective material. b) Damaging material during delive Our COPQ will generally cover the 1) Cost of labor to fix the problem. 2) Cost of extra material used. 3) Cost of extra utilities . 4) Cost of lost opportunity a) Loss of sales/revenue (profit ma b) Potential loss of market share c) Lower service level to customers 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Items from Cause and Effect Diagram Item Item Item Item YTD MTD YTD MTD YTD MTD YTD
  77. 77. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  78. 78. rnal Failure and External Failure. COPQ – Suppliers Cost of Poor Quality from Suppliers Suppliers can generally affect our cost due to: a) Producing defective material. b) Damaging material during delivery. Our COPQ will generally cover the followings: 1) Cost of labor to fix the problem. 2) Cost of extra material used. 3) Cost of extra utilities . 4) Cost of lost opportunity a) Loss of sales/revenue (profit margin) b) Potential loss of market share c) Lower service level to customers/consumers
  79. 79. ANALYZE THE OPPORTUNITY What is Wrong? revised 4/8 IDENTIFY ROOT CAUSE Help PROBLEM STATEMENT What is the REAL Problem that needs to be solved? What is the root cause that is resulting in the effect? 5 WHY'S Ask WHY 5 TIMES to arrive at root cause Problem: Why? Why? Why? Why? Why? REAL PROBLEM:
  80. 80. PPORTUNITY rong? OT CAUSE SOURCES OF VARIATION OR DEFECTS: INPUT DEFECTS: what inputs were defective? t cause PROCESS DEFECTS: look at fdpm and find process defects DOCUMENTATION/MATERIALS what documents need to be changed DMADV Identify, prioritize, and quantify impact of key factors affecting product process performance Derive transfer functions which capture key relationships Select high level desing alternatives paradigm busting most often occurs here Track CTQ Flow Down, assess attainment of goals document assumptions Revise business case if necessary KISS or KILL
  81. 81. ANALYZE THE OPPORTUNITY What is Wrong? Transfer Functions - Finding Relationships in Data Transfer Function = Regression Model Y= the function (x1,x2,x3…) indicator functions 0= no affect; n for affect Pancakes Taste = Assembly - bottlenecks make this difficult Productivity = F(Layout, WIP, capacities, changeover times Use Process simulation instead Relationship based on scientific principles physics etchrate thermodynamics Empirical data ANOVA, Multiple Regressions Designed experimentation or existing data Financial relationships Income COGS Direct Costs Indirect Costs Business Models Simulation as transfer functions Simulation software Physical simulations (experiment) What if some of the Xs are things outside of my control Measure Interaction between these and other variables Calculate the if the affect on the Big Y
  82. 82. Transfer function Fitted Line Plot Is there a relationship between X and Y? acities, changeover times) tion or existing data Red Band is 95% confidence of existing residuals Blue Band is 95% predictive of future residuals Process Model Alph Risk reject the null lhypothesis when it is true Beta Risk accept the null hypothesis when it is false
  83. 83. ANALYZE THE OPPORTUNITY What is Wrong? IDENTIFY ROOT CAUSE How does the variablity in X drive the Y Hierarchical Transfer Fuctions and how Variability in the X's At Risk Program is being looked at by one team Quantifying how capability of Y drives limits on X's Monte Carlo Simutation Low cost test Insurance policy for system performance Random number generation Transfer Functions use Random numbers as Inputs Select Input Values Transfer Function Calculated Output values Research time + Review Time = Total Cycle Time Indicator variable split worksheet
  84. 84. Definitions umbers as Inputs Output values
  85. 85. ANALYZE THE OPPORTUNITY What is Wrong? revised 4/8 FISHBONE
  86. 86. Help PROCESS TITLE The 4 M's Methods, Machines, Materials, Manpower The 4 P’s Place, Procedure, People, Policies The 4 S’s Surroundings, Suppliers, Systems, Skills
  87. 87. S TITLE ople, Policies iers, Systems, Skills
  88. 88. ANALYZE THE OPPORTUNITY What is Wrong? revised 4/8 Pareto Stratification USE MINITAB Data 16 14 12 10 Data 8 6 4 2 0 Column E Column F Column G Column H Column I Data 15 10 9 5 3
  89. 89. Help Data
  90. 90. ANALYZ W revised 4/8 Process steps 1 List process step and input Process/Product 2 List potential failure modes Failure 3 List potential effects 4 Assign severity rating 5 List potential causes 6 Assign occurrence Rating 7 List current controls 8 Assign detection rating 9 Calculate Risk Priority number 1-10 10 Use RPNs to help decide on high priority failure modes 11 Plan to reduce or eliminate the risk associated with high priority failure modes 12 Re-computing RPN to reflect impact of action taken on failure mode Process Potential Item Potential Potential Cause(s) Process Process Failure Effects of of the Current Risk Steps inputs Mode the Failure Severity Failure Occurance Controls Detection Priority Failure Modes & Effects Analysis
  91. 91. Process/Product: FMEA Team: Black Belt: Process Item Process Steps Potential Effects of Failure Occurrence inputs Severity Potential Failure Mode Potential Cause(s) of Failure Current Controls Text Text Text Number Text Number Text 5 Correct 7 Stock checked twice Stock Stock in Unable to locate location is a year inventory wrong stock full location Damage Insufficient d product
  92. 92. ANALYZE THE OPPORTUNITY What is Wrong? Help FMEA Meeting schedule Failure Mode Effects Analysis 1 Review/create process flow diagr RISK ANALYSIS 2 Review information/begin FMEA 3 - 4 Finish FMEA/assign actions ailure modes How can the process go wrong? Actions Results Target Completion Recommended Action Responsibility Date Action Taken Severity Occurance
  93. 93. 10 Detection Number Risk Priority Number Calculation 0 0 0 0 350 Recommended Action Text Actions Responsibility and Target Completion Date Text Page: (Revised) FMEA Date: (original)
  94. 94. Review/create process flow diagram and review FMEA procedures Review information/begin FMEA Finish FMEA/assign actions s Risk Detection Priority
  95. 95. Responsibility and Target Completion Date Text Action Taken Text Severity Number of Results Occurrence Number Detection n Risk Priority Number Number Calculatio 0 0 0 0 0
  96. 96. ANALYZE THE OPPORTUNITY What is Wrong? revised 4/8 Sources of Variation Show Correlation between Defect and Problem When preparing to numerically analyze sources of variation in Minitab, ALWAYS do a tree diagram and multivari chart to assess the data Process Variation Source 1 Where in the process? Measurement Variation Source 2 Where in the Measurement Tool? Total Variation σ 2 Process Variation = σ2 Factor is an input to your process Time Crossed or Nested Highest level of sampling T1 T2 Crossed are controlable factors Temporature, flow rate Sub level of sampling P1,P2,P3 P4,P5,P6 Nested factors are parts, locations
  97. 97. Sub-Sub level of sampling L1,L2,L3 L1,L2,L3 component veriation = day/dow/
  98. 98. SOV Behavior of the process is observed in production mode. Data is collected of a long enough period of time to capture a high percentage of the historical variation Graphs are used to illustrate and identify major causes of total variation multivari chart Statistical methods are used Minitab can be used to model data between Multiple X factors and Y with General Linear Model MultiVari Study- graphical tool to assess factors Construct Tree Diagram Box Plot Understand the data: Nested - Random Crossed - Fixed ANOVA + Measurement system variation σ2 T3 P7,P8,P9
  99. 99. L1,L2,L3
  100. 100. ANALYZE THE OPPORTUNITY What is Wrong? Analysis of Variance Use Averages Analysis of Variation One Way ANOVA - one factor Multi Way ANOVA - Two way ANOVA - two fixed variables MiniTab Analysis of Variance Table Degress of Freedom Sum of the Squares Mean of Sigma P-Value
  101. 101. ANOVA Is Sample size, sample rate and sample structure good? Tree Diagram Input a MODEL into MiniTab Model = representation of a relationship of items MiniTab Response= factor1+factor2+factor3 Response= Mean+factor1+factor2+factor3 Expect factors to be 0 variation Balanced ANOVA Nested ANOVA General Linear ANOVA (mix fixed and random) Measurement System %R to R, % P to T Excellent if MSA is 10% Random effect puts a variance on the X - tells you how big the proble is Fixed descrete effects estimates the differences or contrast between the categories Fixed continuous effects give you an equation describing the effect If you treat a variable (X) as random, estimating the effect on Y If you treat a variable (X) as continuous, you will attach an equation on it mean square error is the estimate of the unexplained residual variability contrasts are generally measured from the mean
  102. 102. ANALYZE THE OPPORTUNITY What is Wrong? Regression - Curve Fitting Find what is important by estimating the relationship of X and Y Matrix Plot - identifies where there is no data in your test - wrong decisions may be made introducing bias
  103. 103. Fit is the relationship between X and Y Minimize the Residual Variance Sigma is the estimate of residual values Red and Blue lines are bands estimated events be made introducing bias Appliying regression techniques to passive data extablish Correlation not Causation Use simple linear regression when you only have one continuous Y against one continuous X Graphical tool for evaluationg correlation is a scatter plot or a matrix plot One of the dangers in using Multiple Regression Analysis is confounded data To compare coefficients in the model, code the data on a -1 and +1 then all are on an equal scaled and can be comp On a fitted line plot a prediction interval tells us the interval around the fitted line where the next point will occur
  104. 104. scaled and can be compared ext point will occur
  105. 105. ANALYZE THE OPPORTUNITY What is Wrong? Residuals - What is Left Over Residual = Observed Valu - Predicted Value Assumptions Tested Residuals Equal Independe Plot Variance Normality nce Random Lack of Fit Vs Run Order Vs. X Vs. Predicted Y Normal Prob. OK not enough data straight line normal distribution OFAT= one factor at a time
  106. 106. you can see a lot by looking yogi Collect Data from the Process Passively Confounded Data - Lack of interdependance of data Are we seeing a variable change due to another variable affecting it Care should be taken to draw conclusions - ie. Infomercial claims Outliers Find FIT and Residuals time series Assumptions: residuals are independent look for trends nomality plot residuals are normally distriubed control chart From a stable population Equal population variance Is there some systematic reaction going on? Are there Outliers - can seriously affect the results R sq is the amount of variation that is explained R sq over 100% indicates that data is not dependent Slop is the residual value on the Regression Plot for every unit of response, slop up or down value of unit Control Chart slop = 13.1387 In Control Prediction (Fit) against Residuals scatter
  107. 107. ANALYZE THE OPPORTUNITY What is Wrong? Regression - Curve Fitting Find what is important by estimating the relationship of X and Y How can we evaluate a response due to multiple factors Have I caught the important causes?
  108. 108. R sqd adjusted begins to be significant want R sq and R sq adjusted to close to one another Slopes are in different units No simple graph in 2 dimensions Correlation between X factors can dramactically affect results Graph Time Series on Matrix Plot Dotplot Correlation coefficient measure of the strenghth of correlation P value shows if hypothese is good SE Standard Error Coefficient Remaining error variation T = Signal to Noise ratio Model Lack of Fit Approximation Replication error - If you run the same test several times, you wont get the same measurement error Input error error of observation Bucketize Error Tot Error=Model error, lack of fit error (missing variations), observation error, Measurement (X's) error (p v Care most about: Lack of Fit error (all the right X's with measurements) Measurement error depends on how big it is Observation error is important to know how much is affecting LOF
  109. 109. measurement error asurement (X's) error (p value)
  110. 110. ANALYZE THE OPPORTUNITY What is Wrong? Theory of Solving Problems Inventively Classify solutions that come out of invention Most problems have been solved in other fields State problem as contradiction There are 40 Inovative Principles which can be viewed here Segmentation Divide an object or system into independent parts Make an object easy to disassemble Separation Separate the only necessary part (or property) or an interfering part of property from an object or system Symmetry Change The Collaborative Innovation (CI) Process Additional Resources: Inventive Problem Solving (IPS) -- A powerful method for eliminating technological roadblocks related to the developm Anticipatory Failure Determination (AFD) -- an efficient and effective method for analyzing, predicting and eliminating Directed Evolution (DE) -- A method for developing a comprehensive set of scenarios describing future generations o
  111. 111. http://www.ideationtriz.com/ http://inp.nsk.su/~dolgash/triz http://ideaconnections.com http://triz-journal.com I-TRIZ began evolving in the mid-1980s when TRIZ, in its classical form, ceased development. The research and development of I-TRIZ has continued unabated since its inception. As a result, I- TRIZ not only contains enhanced versions of classical TRIZ tools, but includes an expanded knowledge base, new tools for applying this knowledge and for analyzing problems more effectively, and the following comprehensive applications: rom an object or system ks related to the development and use of products and processes. Applicable to all engineering disciplines, IPS can be used to solve problem redicting and eliminating failures in systems, products, and processes. ibing future generations of a system. DE is based on an extensive set of patterns that reveal the evolutionary tendencies of technological sys
  112. 112. IMPROVE PERFORMANCE What needs to be done? revised 4/7 GENERATE SOLUTIONS PROBLEM STATEMENT: USE BRAINSTORM TOOLS TO IDENTIFY POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS FROM ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS FROM PARETO CHARTS FROM FMEA FROM 2B PROCESS FLOW FROM AFFINITY DIAGRAM FROM 6 HATS FROM SOLUTION MAP
  113. 113. LE SOLUTIONS Then Remove showstoppers Remove items that do not fit the organization Narrow list to best 4 - 7 using CDAM: combine, delete, add or modify Solution Matrix based on Sigma impact, Timeing, Cost and Benefits Weight ideas by performance factor Prioritize Solutions based on data
  114. 114. IMPROVE PERFORMANCE What needs to be done? revised 4/8 AFFINITY DIAGRAM PROBLEM STATEMENT: GROUP LIKE (AFFINITY) SOLUTIONS TOGETHER BRAINSTORM SOLUTIONS AFFINITY SETS
  115. 115. HELP 1. Rapidly group ideas that seem to belong together. 2. It isn't important to define why they belong together. 3. Clarify any ideas in question. IONS TOGETHER 4. Copy an idea into in more than one affinity set if appropriate. 5. Look for small sets. Should they belong in a larger group? 6. Do large sets need to be broken down more precisely? the ideas have been sorted, 7. When most of you can start to enter titles for each affinity set
  116. 116. IMPROVE PERFORMANCE What needs to be done? revised 4/8 revised uploaded Nominal Group Technique List Team Members List Causes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
  117. 117. To find the priority of a list of causes according to the team: 1 List Team and Causes 2 Count the number of Causes (n) 3 Team Members individually assign a value to each cause. The highest priority should be noted as n. The least important cause should be noted as 1 4 Each team member continues to choose the next most important and the next least important until all cau 5 Record each members scoring 3 Total all scores for each cause. 4 Sort total scores decending 5 Pareto the results. Priority 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  118. 118. ast important until all causes are assigned a value.
  119. 119. IMPROVE PERFORMANCE What needs to be done? revised 4/8 Solution Map CORE PREMISE:
  120. 120. Start with core premise (goal you want to achieve), root cause, or problem statement. Brainstorm related clusters of potential solutions in the boxes. Brainstorm solutions from around the core premise When one person offers and idea, have other team mebers try to expand it or turn it into another idea.
  121. 121. revised 4/8 IMPROVE PERFORMANCE What needs to be done? FORCE FIELD ANALYSIS SOLUTION: DRIVING FORCES RESTRAINING FORCES
  122. 122. IMPROVE PERFORMANCE What needs to be done? revised 4/8 Functional Deployment Process Map TO - BE Process Flow Process Steps Department Sub-Process Start boundary
  123. 123. DMADDD Design - If this is a new ss Map process the 2B will be the new Design which will be Verified by the Pilot Qualitative Review (Value Added Analysis) Would anyone pay for this? Low Hanging Customer? Operations? Other fruit
  124. 124. IMPROVE PERFORMANCE What needs to be done? revised 4/8 Evaluate your new Process Process Steps Department What is Sub-Process What is the Cost Fits Impact on the Time Benefit Other Show Stopper? Organization? Sigma? Impact? Impact? Impacts? Start boundary
  125. 125. cess Can this step be Combined Don't need Need to This Step with this step - Add this has been another? Delete Step Modified Qualitative Review (Value Added Analysis) Would anyone pay for this? Low Hanging Customer? Operations? Other fruit
  126. 126. revised 4/8 IMPROVE PERFORMANCE What needs to be done? PILOT THE PROJECT Implementation checklist Pilot Team Detailed Implementation Training Plan Communication Plan Event Select Small Group Design DOE RSM Validated/Refined Model Identified sigma x's Variance Allocation Optimized design parameters Reduced variation sensitivity Analysis Monte Carlo Simulation Product Requirements Design Features 1 How well are Customer wants Expectations satisfied? Product Requirements 3 Measurements Measurements
  127. 127. Capability Flow-UP
  128. 128. Take part of a process (where you have the RMANCE least confidence, and pilot or simulate the e done? process Controls Measures Verify Results Verify Capability Flow-up Set Xs according to design parameters Flow-up to CCRs thruough transfer function Determine whether Ys hit targets Mfg Processes Process Operation Design features 3 Mfg Processes 4
  129. 129. Measureme nts Measurem ents
  130. 130. IMPROVE PERFORMANCE What needs to be done? revised 4/8 Verify Results End Product: Customer: Process Tested: Desired Results: Process Steps tested:
  131. 131. ERFORMANCE s to be done? Pilot Observations: GAP Analysis/Root Cause: Follow-up Actions: Questions:
  132. 132. Control Performance revised 4/8 How do we guarantee performance? Implementation Plan Potential Problems (RISK) of Recommended Internal implementing Solution (FMEA) Controls quot;Hardwired Controlsquot; What Data is to be Process Control System collected Who will collect this Data Documented Procedures Documented Guidelines Training Plan Changed Changed Method of Communication Plan Leadership support Communication Business Case from Budget and Benefits Case quot;Definequot; Solution Benefits Detailed Implementation Event Objectives Milestones
  133. 133. trol Performance e guarantee performance? Implementation Plan Check Lists How will this Data be When will it be What is the Out of Shown Regularly Reviewed? Control Plan? Documented Documented Forms Training Materials Changed Changed Audience When? Who is responsible Benefits to Other Non-Financial Cost to Implement Customers Benefits Roles and Dates/Time/Room/M Respnsibilities Resource Planning aterials
  134. 134. Control Performance revised 4/8 How do we guarantee performance? Documentation Related to this New Process Review Documentation and Change to reflect New Process Doc. Number Title Creation date Last Revised Related Specifications Policies Procedures Work Instructions Forms Websites Training Materials Key Terms Term Definition
  135. 135. rmance performance? ted to this New s Approvers URL Audit Results Changes needed Definition
  136. 136. Control Performance revised 4/14 How do we guarantee performance? Poka-Yoke Mistake Proofing Example: You leave your Gas Cap with your keys on top of your hood to avoid forgetting to put it back on. Review 2Be Process. Where can possible Errors be made Where does Error Occur that if undectected, will cause a defect that your custom that will cause a Defect? What can be done to order the process so that the Error is Self Evident before it What can be done to quot;hardcodequot; the Process so that the Error will not be passe What can be done using a Checklist to identify the Error before it is pass on? What Does Digitization Add to Six Sigma ?…. E-Training - Ability to Train & Test Thousands of people in Mont E-Processes – Digitized Improvement Actions Stay in Control E-Tools – e-Surveys, Simulators, and Modeling Tools Improve phases of Six Sigma Projects E-Tracking - Ability to Monitor All Vital Xs and the improvement E-Visibility - Ability to Monitor All Business Ys and The Sectors the Results (good and bad)

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