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    A lejandro cardona A lejandro cardona Presentation Transcript

    • OVEREXPRESSION OF REPETITIVE DNA
      SEQUENCES DISCOVERED IN COMMON
      TUMOR CELLS AND SINGLE CELL STUDIES
      IDENTIFY COACTIVATOR ROLE IN FAT CELL
      MATURATION
       
      ALEJANDRO CARDONA PALACIO
      MEDICINE STUDENT
    • Introduction
      DNA sequences
      -- called satellite repeats -- is very active in cancer but not in normal tissue.  
      Pancreatic cancer cells were correctly identified on the basis of the expression of satellite RNA.
      PPAR gamma is known to regulate the production of adipocytes or fat cells. It regulates transcription -- making an RNA copy of DNA. 
      Some drugs used to treat type 2 diabetes increase the activity of PPAR gamma and this increased abdominal fat and, more recently, cardiovascular complications.
    • Overexpression of Repetitive DNA Sequences Discovered in Common Tumor Cells
      (ScienceDaily. February 28,2011)
    • Analyzed samples
      Mouse model of pancreatic cancer
      Greatly increased satellite expression was also found in mouse colon and lung tumors
      Find that satellite DNA was expressed at levels more than 100 times what would be expected in normal tissues.
      With powerful overexpression of two satellites called HSATII and ALR in the majority of cancers studied
      Analysis of human tumor samples produced similar results
      tumors of the pancreas, lung, prostate
    • Pancreatic cancer cells
      Were correctly identified based on satellite RNA expression, which was appreciably higher than in nonmalignant cells.
      If confirmed in large prospective clinical trials.
      Satellite RNA expression may provide a new and highly specific biomarker relevant to multiple types of epithelial cancers.
    • Daniel Haber, says………
      "What is most remarkable is how such a dramatic abnormality was only revealed because of new powerful sequencing technologies that allow us to study a type of RNA that was previously discarded”
      “Our hope is that this abnormality will serve as an important
      biomarker in cancer diagnosis and that it will also shed light on
      common mechanisms by which cancer develops."
    • STUDENT OBSERVATION: NEWS Nº 1
      Using powerful new DNA analysis techniques to achieve more satellite significant progress in this field in order to understand and analyze the molecular form different types of cancer and thus provide a possible development of a cure for this disease.
      Digital gene expression analysis system called single molecule next-generation sequencing
      New insightsintotheformation, growth of malignantcellsresponsibleforthisdisease.
    • PPAR gamma
      Are a group of nuclear receptor proteins that function as transcription factors regulating the expression of genes.
      PPARs play essential roles in the regulation of cellular differentiation, development and metabolism (carbohydrate, lipid, protein) and tumorigenesisof higher organisms.
      Steroid receptor coactivator
      Hartig said reduced levels of SRC-2 and 3 resulted in more
      cells with low levels of lipid and increased PPAR gamma.
    • PPAR gamma (peroxisomeproliferator activated receptor gamma)
      Can vary widely, but the fat cells (adipocytes)
      Can maintain stable levels of master switches known as steroid receptor coactivators (SRC)-2 and -3.
    • PPAR gamma …
      ….is known to regulate the production of adipocytes or fat cells
      … regulates transcription -- making an RNA copy of DNA, which is the first step in gene expression.
      … and linear connection between PPAR gamma transcriptional regulator and lipids in a cell.
    • PPAR gamma
    • STUDENT OBSERVATION: NEWS Nº 2
      ForExample in the central nervoussystem
      Itshould further investigate the importance of PPAR gamma in the treatment of diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and the central nervous system and from this to an approach to future scientific discoveries around the field.
      Have evidence that these receptors (PPAR) are involved in neuronal differentiation and protection and are potential pharmacological targets in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
    • MEDICAL UTILITY
      DNA sequences
      Role in chromosome structure
      First News
      DNA sequences -- called satellite repeats -- have been studied for their role in chromosome structure, to take an active role in cancer, The search for greater expression of satellite in low-grade tumors showed that overexpression begins early in tumor development, which has implications for early detection.By analysis showed that pancreatic cancer cells were correctly identified on the basis of the expression of satellite RNA, which was significantly higher than in nonmalignant cells.
      IdentifyCancer
      Pancreas
      Lungs
      Epithelial
    • Cancer cells
      FOR EXAMPLE….
      Were correctly identified
      on the basis of the expression of satellite RNA
      Malignant cancer is a tumor in which an aggregation of individual cells begin to grow in a rapid, uncontrolled and abnormal manner and it is now understood that cancer is caused by the mutations of a gene which confer increased abnormal growth potential to cells.
    • PPAR gamma is known to regulate the production of adipocytes or fat cells. It regulates transcription -- making an RNA copy of DNA, which is the first step in gene expression --
      MEDICAL UTILITY
      Second News
      PPAR gamma is known to regulate the production of adipocytes or fat cells. It regulates transcription -- making an RNA copy of DNA, which is the first step in gene expression and is important because some drugs used to treat type 2 diabetes increase the activity of PPAR gamma. These include the thiazolidines such as Actos and Avandia, which increase the levels of genes associated with sensitivity to insulin. However, because PPAR gamma stimulates fat cell production, these drugs can also lead to increased abdominal fat and, more recently, cardiovascular complications.
       
      Some drugs used to treat type 2 diabetes increase the activity of PPAR gamma. These include the thiazolidines such as Actos and Avandia, which increase the levels of genes associated with sensitivity to insulin.
      PPAR gamma stimulates fat cell production, these drugs can also lead to increased abdominal fat and, more recently, cardiovascular complications.
    • has been implicated in the pathology of numerous diseases including obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis and cancer.
      PPAR-gamma
      dyslipidaemia
      PPAR-gamma agonists have been used in the treatment of
      hyperglycemia.
      PPAR-gamma decreases the inflammatory response of many cardiovascular cells, particularly endothelial cells.
      PPAR-gamma activates the PON1 gene, increasing synthesis and release of paraoxonase from the liver, reducing atherosclerosis.
    • BIBLIOGRAPHY
      Science. “Overexpression of Repetitive DNA SequencesDiscovered in Common Tumor Cells”. ScienceDaily. January 13, 2011.
      BaylorCollege of Medicine.“Single CellStudiesIdentifyCoactivator Role in FatCellMaturation”. ScienceDaily. January 11, 2011.
      JoaquinLuco´s Center ForCellRegulation and Pathology. Peroxisomeproliferator-activated receptor. [Consulta: 23January 2010]. < Available at http://fondap-crcp.cl/investigacion.php?id=20>.