1.
Organic Apple Production
Julia Reekie
Atlantic Food and Horticulture Centre
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
Kentville, Nova Scotia
ACORN Conference
November 20, 2013
3.
Weeds in Apple Orchards
Cleavers
Pigweed
Lambsquarters
Chickweed
Plantain
Wild carrot
Ragweed
4.
Apple Insect Pests
Oyster shell scale
Codling moth & fruit damage
European apple sawfly
& fruit damage
European red mite
Rosy apple aphids
San Jose scale
White apple leafhopper
Apple maggot
5.
Apple Diseases and Disorders
Apple scab
Fireblight
Apple re-plant disease
Powdery mildew
Bitter pit
Water core
Sooty blotch
Cedar-apple rust
6.
Organic Pest Management Projects
• Innovative herbicide and fungicide replacement strategies for organic
apple production
In collaboration with Gordon Braun and the Nova Scotia Fruit Growers’
Association
• Incorporation of GF-120 Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait into orchard
integrated pest management (IPM) for apple maggot
In collaboration with the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural
Affairs and the Pest Management Centre of AAFC
• Field testing of efficacy of an aqueous extract of Quassia amara for
control of European apple sawfly (Hoplocampa testudinea (Klug))
In collaboration with Trifolio-M and David Maxwell of Broomholm Orchards
9.
What is GF-120?
• Spinosad bait is produced by the
fermentation of the soil
actinomycete Saccharopolyspora
spinosa
• Spinosad is a mixture of the two
most active metabolites (spinosyns A
and D)
• In June 2009, GF-120 is registered for
use to control apple maggots in both
conventional and organic apple
productions
10.
GF-120 Trials
•
•
•
•
The goal is to achieve the correct rate, timing
and method of application of GF-120 so as
to give adequate apple maggot control
2 regions: Ontario (2 trials) and Nova Scotia
(4 trials)
In each organic orchard: four replications of
4 treatments and a control with no
treatment
3 rates of GF-120: 1x, 1.5x and 2x label rate
Compare treatment to a industrial standard‘Surround’
Trials were successful and demonstrated
effective control leading to GF-120 label
expansion in June 2009
11.
Spraying Strategies
• ‘McIntosh’ and ‘Cortland’ research orchards in Nova Scotia
• 4 replications of 3 treatments: perimeter spray, spray alternate rows
and spray all rows
• Control with no treatment (to indicate pest pressure)
• Label rate of GF-120: 1.5 L/ha
Sheffield Farm - GF120 Trial - 2008
Trees identified with: black text = Control; blue = perimeter; green = every row; red = alt row
C = Cortland; M = McIntosh
WEST
NORTH
Tree
Blk 4
Blk 3
40
M
Blk 2
M
M
Blk 1
C
C
M
39
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
38
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
38
37
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
37
36
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
36
35
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
35
34
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
34
33
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
33
32
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
32
31
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
31
30
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
30
29
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
29
28
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
28
27
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
27
26
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
26
25
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
25
24
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
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C
M
M
24
23
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
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C
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C
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C
M
M
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22
C
C
M
M
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C
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C
M
M
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C
M
M
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C
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M
22
21
C
C
M
M
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C
M
M
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C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
21
19
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
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C
M
M
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C
M
M
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C
M
M
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18
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
18
17
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
17
16
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
16
15
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
15
14
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
14
13
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
13
12
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
12
11
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
11
10
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
10
9
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
9
8
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
8
7
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
7
6
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
6
5
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
5
4
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
4
3
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
3
2
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
2
1
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
C
C
M
M
1
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
ROW
M
40
39
12.
Applying GF-120
GF-120 has to be applied as soon
as adult flies emerge
• Rate=1.5 L/ha
• Dilution 1:4 (GF-120: water)
• Large droplet size (4-6 mm in
diameter)
• Uniform coverage is not critical
• Repeat application 7 - 10 days
• Re-apply after a rain event
15.
Assessment
• At harvest, 6-10 trees from each
experimental plot were sampled and
from each tree, 20 apples were
randomly collected
• For each orchard, 20 apples from 16
control trees were randomly collected
• Fruits were incubated at room
temperature for 2 weeks before the
assessment of apple maggot damage
• Every fruit was cut into quarters and
examined for apple maggot injury
16.
Boates Conventional Orchard – Woodville, NS
•Ten applications starting on July
8 and ending August 27
Orchard = 6.5 Acres
•Alternate row spraying
# of apples
examined
% damage
Control
162
24
Gravenstein
465
0.2
McIntosh
600
0
C
C
C
C
175’ C
C
C
C
17.
Apple maggot flies capture – Block 84
Apple Maggot Flies Cumulative Total
500
Male
Female
400
300
200
100
0
Jy 7
Jy 21
Aug 4
Aug 18
Sep 1
Sep 15
18.
Block 84 – Kentville
•‘Surround’ was applied to protect apples from
apple maggot attacks
•3 treatments: surround terminated on Aug. 15,
Aug. 30 and Sept. 15
R4
# of apples
examined
% damage
Control
150
85.0
Aug 15
581
8.0
Aug 30
595
8.0
Sep 15
593
0.2
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
R3
R2
R1
19.
European Apple Sawfly (Hoplocampa Testudinea)
•Adults are 6 to 8 mm in length
The’Saw’
•Head is yellow with yellow
antennae and black eyes
•Wings are covered with tiny
black hairs
•Body is brown
•Upper surface is almost black
and shiny; lower surface lighter
and orange to yellow
•Female sawfly has a saw-like
ovipositor
20.
European apple sawfly (Hoplocampa testudinea)
pupae
5th larval instar
21.
Organic Thinning?!
• 6-year old, 10 feet tall
Novamac tree on M7
• 455 apples damaged by
EAS (June 22, 2010)
• 250 apples remained on
the tree
• 200 apples reached
maturity (September 22,
2010)
23.
Monitoring
•Emergence is
monitored using nonUV reflective, sticky
white traps
•Traps are hung at a
height of 1.5 m. in trees
•Check traps often
24.
Emergence
•Cumulative captures
showed that 50 % of the
total capture occurred
between May 16 and 22,
600
European Apple Sawfly (EAS)
•A total of 551 EAS, 310
males and 241 females
were caught in four
traps in Block 112 in
Kentville
551 EAS
(100 % capture)
500
413 EAS
(75% of total capture)
400
300
200
138 EAS
(25% of total capture)
100
in a matter of 6 days
May 16
(25% EAS)
May 22
(75% EAS)
0
May-13
May-18
May-23
Date
May-28
Jun-02
26.
Quassia
• Active ingredients: quassinoids, including
quassin and isoquassin (picrasmin); alkaloids
• Various trees or shrubs (Quassia amara,
Picrasma excelsa, Picrasma quassioides) of the
family Simaroubaceae having wood and bark
with an intense bitter taste.
27.
Toxicity of Quassia
• Approved as a food additive
(for humans)
• No toxicity to other mammals
• Non-toxic to fish (runoff less of
a concern)
• Non-toxic to beneficial insects
• Non-toxic to pollinators (!)
28.
Experiments Designed To Test
Does it work?
Investigate the efficacy of a single spray of Quassia
Extract MD (TriFolio M GmbH) in the control of European
apple sawfly damage in apple cultivars with varying
phenology
How much do we need?
Determine the lowest effective concentration of Quassia
Extract MD to control EAS in ‘Liberty’ apples
When do we need to apply it?
Compare EAS damage in ‘Liberty’ apples receiving early
versus delayed sprays under field conditions
29.
Does It Work?
• Broomholm Orchards, Middle LaHave
– 23 different cultivars paired, (treated & control)
• Single spray
– 2 weeks after first trap capture, at 6 g Quassin/m.tree height/ha
– At this point, trees ranged from full bloom to petal-fall
30.
0
S Hern
P Gris
Linda
G Heart
Gideon
W Pride
King
W S Law
R Russet
Mantet
Lady
J Seed
Foxw
Boskoop
A Kern
P Louise
R Pippin
H M Jersey
40
S Six
Bramley
A Rein
N Spy
B Thorn
% EAS Damage
Results
Over all damage in treated trees 2.7%
Over all damage in controls 13%
But significant variation between cultivars
Control
Quassia
30
20
10
31.
How Much Do We Need?
control, and one each of
spray at 3, 6, and 9 g
Quassin/ha
40
% EAS Damage
• Block 112 at AFHRC in
Kentville
• ‘Liberty’ trees
• Randomized complete
block design with 9 groups
of 4 trees each
• One tree in each group as
30
20
10
0
0 g/ha
3 g/ha
6 g/ha
9 g/ha
32.
When Do We Need To Apply It?
% Damage
• Second group of trees in
Block 112
• One half sprayed on May
27, second half delayed
until June 1
20
10
0
May 27
June 1
Quassia (6 g/ha)
33.
In Summary
• Quassia is effective – and gratifyingly
selective and non-toxic
• A spray concentration of 6 g quassin/ha
appears adequate, unless pest pressure
is heavy, then 9 g quassin/ha is more
desirable
• Preliminary data suggest that spray
timing is not critical, as long as the agent
is on the fruit when first instar larva
emerges
34.
Acknowledgement
•Nova Scotia Fruit Growers’ Association
•Pest Management Centre, AAFC
•Dow AgroSciences, Canada
•Trifolio-M, Germany
•Boates Farm Ltd.
•Broomholm Orchards
•Eric Specht, Emily Chase and Ashley Smith
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