Organic Apple Production
Julia Reekie
Atlantic Food and Horticulture Centre
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
Kentville, No...
Organic ‘Honeycrisp’ Orchard

2007

2008

2008

2008

2008

Young
Orchard
Weeds in Apple Orchards

Cleavers
Pigweed
Lambsquarters
Chickweed

Plantain

Wild carrot

Ragweed
Apple Insect Pests

Oyster shell scale

Codling moth & fruit damage

European apple sawfly
& fruit damage

European red mi...
Apple Diseases and Disorders

Apple scab
Fireblight

Apple re-plant disease
Powdery mildew

Bitter pit

Water core

Sooty ...
Organic Pest Management Projects
• Innovative herbicide and fungicide replacement strategies for organic
apple production
...
Orchard Floor Management
Harvest
What is GF-120?

• Spinosad bait is produced by the
fermentation of the soil
actinomycete Saccharopolyspora
spinosa
• Spin...
GF-120 Trials
•
•
•
•

The goal is to achieve the correct rate, timing
and method of application of GF-120 so as
to give a...
Spraying Strategies
• ‘McIntosh’ and ‘Cortland’ research orchards in Nova Scotia
• 4 replications of 3 treatments: perimet...
Applying GF-120
GF-120 has to be applied as soon
as adult flies emerge
• Rate=1.5 L/ha
• Dilution 1:4 (GF-120: water)
• La...
Simplified Spraying Device
Spray Application
Assessment
• At harvest, 6-10 trees from each
experimental plot were sampled and
from each tree, 20 apples were
randomly c...
Boates Conventional Orchard – Woodville, NS
•Ten applications starting on July
8 and ending August 27

Orchard = 6.5 Acres...
Apple maggot flies capture – Block 84

Apple Maggot Flies Cumulative Total

500
Male
Female

400

300

200

100

0
Jy 7

J...
Block 84 – Kentville
•‘Surround’ was applied to protect apples from
apple maggot attacks
•3 treatments: surround terminate...
European Apple Sawfly (Hoplocampa Testudinea)
•Adults are 6 to 8 mm in length
The’Saw’

•Head is yellow with yellow
antenn...
European apple sawfly (Hoplocampa testudinea)

pupae

5th larval instar
Organic Thinning?!
• 6-year old, 10 feet tall
Novamac tree on M7
• 455 apples damaged by
EAS (June 22, 2010)
• 250 apples ...
Broomholm Orchards – LaHave, Lunenburg Co.
Ananas reinette
Monitoring
•Emergence is
monitored using nonUV reflective, sticky
white traps
•Traps are hung at a
height of 1.5 m. in tre...
Emergence

•Cumulative captures
showed that 50 % of the
total capture occurred
between May 16 and 22,

600

European Apple...
Primary and Secondary Damage
Quassia
• Active ingredients: quassinoids, including
quassin and isoquassin (picrasmin); alkaloids
• Various trees or shru...
Toxicity of Quassia
• Approved as a food additive
(for humans)
• No toxicity to other mammals
• Non-toxic to fish (runoff ...
Experiments Designed To Test
Does it work?
Investigate the efficacy of a single spray of Quassia
Extract MD (TriFolio M Gm...
Does It Work?
• Broomholm Orchards, Middle LaHave
– 23 different cultivars paired, (treated & control)
• Single spray
– 2 ...
0
S Hern

P Gris

Linda

G Heart

Gideon

W Pride

King

W S Law

R Russet

Mantet

Lady

J Seed

Foxw

Boskoop

A Kern

P...
How Much Do We Need?

control, and one each of
spray at 3, 6, and 9 g
Quassin/ha

40

% EAS Damage

• Block 112 at AFHRC i...
When Do We Need To Apply It?

% Damage

• Second group of trees in
Block 112
• One half sprayed on May
27, second half del...
In Summary
• Quassia is effective – and gratifyingly
selective and non-toxic
• A spray concentration of 6 g quassin/ha
app...
Acknowledgement
•Nova Scotia Fruit Growers’ Association
•Pest Management Centre, AAFC
•Dow AgroSciences, Canada
•Trifolio-...
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Reekie Powerpoint

  1. 1. Organic Apple Production Julia Reekie Atlantic Food and Horticulture Centre Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Kentville, Nova Scotia ACORN Conference November 20, 2013
  2. 2. Organic ‘Honeycrisp’ Orchard 2007 2008 2008 2008 2008 Young Orchard
  3. 3. Weeds in Apple Orchards Cleavers Pigweed Lambsquarters Chickweed Plantain Wild carrot Ragweed
  4. 4. Apple Insect Pests Oyster shell scale Codling moth & fruit damage European apple sawfly & fruit damage European red mite Rosy apple aphids San Jose scale White apple leafhopper Apple maggot
  5. 5. Apple Diseases and Disorders Apple scab Fireblight Apple re-plant disease Powdery mildew Bitter pit Water core Sooty blotch Cedar-apple rust
  6. 6. Organic Pest Management Projects • Innovative herbicide and fungicide replacement strategies for organic apple production In collaboration with Gordon Braun and the Nova Scotia Fruit Growers’ Association • Incorporation of GF-120 Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait into orchard integrated pest management (IPM) for apple maggot In collaboration with the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs and the Pest Management Centre of AAFC • Field testing of efficacy of an aqueous extract of Quassia amara for control of European apple sawfly (Hoplocampa testudinea (Klug)) In collaboration with Trifolio-M and David Maxwell of Broomholm Orchards
  7. 7. Orchard Floor Management
  8. 8. Harvest
  9. 9. What is GF-120? • Spinosad bait is produced by the fermentation of the soil actinomycete Saccharopolyspora spinosa • Spinosad is a mixture of the two most active metabolites (spinosyns A and D) • In June 2009, GF-120 is registered for use to control apple maggots in both conventional and organic apple productions
  10. 10. GF-120 Trials • • • • The goal is to achieve the correct rate, timing and method of application of GF-120 so as to give adequate apple maggot control 2 regions: Ontario (2 trials) and Nova Scotia (4 trials) In each organic orchard: four replications of 4 treatments and a control with no treatment 3 rates of GF-120: 1x, 1.5x and 2x label rate Compare treatment to a industrial standard‘Surround’ Trials were successful and demonstrated effective control leading to GF-120 label expansion in June 2009
  11. 11. Spraying Strategies • ‘McIntosh’ and ‘Cortland’ research orchards in Nova Scotia • 4 replications of 3 treatments: perimeter spray, spray alternate rows and spray all rows • Control with no treatment (to indicate pest pressure) • Label rate of GF-120: 1.5 L/ha Sheffield Farm - GF120 Trial - 2008 Trees identified with: black text = Control; blue = perimeter; green = every row; red = alt row C = Cortland; M = McIntosh WEST NORTH Tree Blk 4 Blk 3 40 M Blk 2 M M Blk 1 C C M 39 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M 38 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 38 37 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 37 36 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 36 35 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 35 34 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 34 33 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 33 32 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 32 31 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 31 30 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 30 29 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 29 28 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 28 27 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 27 26 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 26 25 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 25 24 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 24 23 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 23 22 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 22 21 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 21 19 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 19 18 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 18 17 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 17 16 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 16 15 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 15 14 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 14 13 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 13 12 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 12 11 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 11 10 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 10 9 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 9 8 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 8 7 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 7 6 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 6 5 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 5 4 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 4 3 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 3 2 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 2 1 C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M C C M M 1 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ROW M 40 39
  12. 12. Applying GF-120 GF-120 has to be applied as soon as adult flies emerge • Rate=1.5 L/ha • Dilution 1:4 (GF-120: water) • Large droplet size (4-6 mm in diameter) • Uniform coverage is not critical • Repeat application 7 - 10 days • Re-apply after a rain event
  13. 13. Simplified Spraying Device
  14. 14. Spray Application
  15. 15. Assessment • At harvest, 6-10 trees from each experimental plot were sampled and from each tree, 20 apples were randomly collected • For each orchard, 20 apples from 16 control trees were randomly collected • Fruits were incubated at room temperature for 2 weeks before the assessment of apple maggot damage • Every fruit was cut into quarters and examined for apple maggot injury
  16. 16. Boates Conventional Orchard – Woodville, NS •Ten applications starting on July 8 and ending August 27 Orchard = 6.5 Acres •Alternate row spraying # of apples examined % damage Control 162 24 Gravenstein 465 0.2 McIntosh 600 0 C C C C 175’ C C C C
  17. 17. Apple maggot flies capture – Block 84 Apple Maggot Flies Cumulative Total 500 Male Female 400 300 200 100 0 Jy 7 Jy 21 Aug 4 Aug 18 Sep 1 Sep 15
  18. 18. Block 84 – Kentville •‘Surround’ was applied to protect apples from apple maggot attacks •3 treatments: surround terminated on Aug. 15, Aug. 30 and Sept. 15 R4 # of apples examined % damage Control 150 85.0 Aug 15 581 8.0 Aug 30 595 8.0 Sep 15 593 0.2 C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C R3 R2 R1
  19. 19. European Apple Sawfly (Hoplocampa Testudinea) •Adults are 6 to 8 mm in length The’Saw’ •Head is yellow with yellow antennae and black eyes •Wings are covered with tiny black hairs •Body is brown •Upper surface is almost black and shiny; lower surface lighter and orange to yellow •Female sawfly has a saw-like ovipositor
  20. 20. European apple sawfly (Hoplocampa testudinea) pupae 5th larval instar
  21. 21. Organic Thinning?! • 6-year old, 10 feet tall Novamac tree on M7 • 455 apples damaged by EAS (June 22, 2010) • 250 apples remained on the tree • 200 apples reached maturity (September 22, 2010)
  22. 22. Broomholm Orchards – LaHave, Lunenburg Co. Ananas reinette
  23. 23. Monitoring •Emergence is monitored using nonUV reflective, sticky white traps •Traps are hung at a height of 1.5 m. in trees •Check traps often
  24. 24. Emergence •Cumulative captures showed that 50 % of the total capture occurred between May 16 and 22, 600 European Apple Sawfly (EAS) •A total of 551 EAS, 310 males and 241 females were caught in four traps in Block 112 in Kentville 551 EAS (100 % capture) 500 413 EAS (75% of total capture) 400 300 200 138 EAS (25% of total capture) 100 in a matter of 6 days May 16 (25% EAS) May 22 (75% EAS) 0 May-13 May-18 May-23 Date May-28 Jun-02
  25. 25. Primary and Secondary Damage
  26. 26. Quassia • Active ingredients: quassinoids, including quassin and isoquassin (picrasmin); alkaloids • Various trees or shrubs (Quassia amara, Picrasma excelsa, Picrasma quassioides) of the family Simaroubaceae having wood and bark with an intense bitter taste.
  27. 27. Toxicity of Quassia • Approved as a food additive (for humans) • No toxicity to other mammals • Non-toxic to fish (runoff less of a concern) • Non-toxic to beneficial insects • Non-toxic to pollinators (!)
  28. 28. Experiments Designed To Test Does it work? Investigate the efficacy of a single spray of Quassia Extract MD (TriFolio M GmbH) in the control of European apple sawfly damage in apple cultivars with varying phenology How much do we need? Determine the lowest effective concentration of Quassia Extract MD to control EAS in ‘Liberty’ apples When do we need to apply it? Compare EAS damage in ‘Liberty’ apples receiving early versus delayed sprays under field conditions
  29. 29. Does It Work? • Broomholm Orchards, Middle LaHave – 23 different cultivars paired, (treated & control) • Single spray – 2 weeks after first trap capture, at 6 g Quassin/m.tree height/ha – At this point, trees ranged from full bloom to petal-fall
  30. 30. 0 S Hern P Gris Linda G Heart Gideon W Pride King W S Law R Russet Mantet Lady J Seed Foxw Boskoop A Kern P Louise R Pippin H M Jersey 40 S Six Bramley A Rein N Spy B Thorn % EAS Damage Results Over all damage in treated trees 2.7% Over all damage in controls 13% But significant variation between cultivars Control Quassia 30 20 10
  31. 31. How Much Do We Need? control, and one each of spray at 3, 6, and 9 g Quassin/ha 40 % EAS Damage • Block 112 at AFHRC in Kentville • ‘Liberty’ trees • Randomized complete block design with 9 groups of 4 trees each • One tree in each group as 30 20 10 0 0 g/ha 3 g/ha 6 g/ha 9 g/ha
  32. 32. When Do We Need To Apply It? % Damage • Second group of trees in Block 112 • One half sprayed on May 27, second half delayed until June 1 20 10 0 May 27 June 1 Quassia (6 g/ha)
  33. 33. In Summary • Quassia is effective – and gratifyingly selective and non-toxic • A spray concentration of 6 g quassin/ha appears adequate, unless pest pressure is heavy, then 9 g quassin/ha is more desirable • Preliminary data suggest that spray timing is not critical, as long as the agent is on the fruit when first instar larva emerges
  34. 34. Acknowledgement •Nova Scotia Fruit Growers’ Association •Pest Management Centre, AAFC •Dow AgroSciences, Canada •Trifolio-M, Germany •Boates Farm Ltd. •Broomholm Orchards •Eric Specht, Emily Chase and Ashley Smith
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