Part 2: Season Extension with High Tunnels with Paul & Sandy Arnold
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Part 2: Season Extension with High Tunnels with Paul & Sandy Arnold

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Part 2: Season Extension with High Tunnels with Paul & Sandy Arnold Part 2: Season Extension with High Tunnels with Paul & Sandy Arnold Presentation Transcript

  • Season Extension with High Tunnels November 2013 Paul & Sandy Arnold
  • GETTING OLD?? NEED LESS MAINTENANCE!
  • HIGH TUNNELS
  • STONE & WITH A TRANSIT PRECISIONDRAINAGE TILE
  • TUNNEL ONE 30’ X 144’
  • HAVE SITE WORK DONE EARLY HIRE THE PROFESSIONALS!
  • POLYCARBONATE KNEE WALL
  • 2” THICK 12” DEEP SET AT GROUND LEVEL INSULATION BOARD
  • RIMOL GREENHOUSES BUILT FOR SNOW 2008 TUNNEL #2 34’X144’ NO WOOD!
  • POLYCARBONATE & SLIDER DOORS
  • POWER & PROPANE & 2 WATER SOURCES
  • TRICKS TO PUTTING 150’ OF PLASTIC ON?? Single Layer No Motors
  • VENTING IMPORTANT!
  • APRIL 2012 NRCS GRANT PAID LABOR TUNNEL #3 34’X144’ ROTATION
  • SUN DRIVEN SYSTEM—NO HEAT
  • • Soil Tests • A&L Labs • Compost SOIL PREPARATION
  • • Organic Fertilizer • Micros • CNG FERTILITY
  • • Chisel Plow • Rototill • Plant ROTOTILLING
  • SPRING PRODUCTION
  • LETTUCE • GH SEEDED FEB 15+ • SPEEDLING VS WINSTRIP • TRANSPLANT IN MARCH into TUNNEL
  • LETTUCE • FULL SIZE HEADS New Red Fire, Green Star, Carmona, Nancy and Romaine • MINI HEADS-Many from Johnnys • HARVEST IN MAY • Mini Heads make the salad mix or are $1
  • • • • • • • • SQUASH BEANS CUCUMBERS TOMATOES BASIL ONIONS BROCCOLI CROPS FOR SUMMER
  • EARLY IS THE KEY FOR HIGHEST RETURN BE FIRST TO MARKET LOW MAINTENANCE
  • COVER CROP -ROTATION
  • PLASTIC OFF
  • WINTER PRODUCTION IN HIGH TUNNELS
  • CROPS WE GROW • • • • • • • • • • Kale CROPS Swiss chard VARIETIES Spinach SEEDING DATES Asian Greens SPACING Lettuce Mix PERCENT Arugula USE • Broccoli DECEMBER TO MAY DECEMBER TO MAY
  • VARIETIES • Kale: Red Russian, White Russian, Winterbor • Swiss chard: Bright Lights • Spinach: TRIALS • Lettuce Mix: Five Star, Mustards • Arugula: Astro, Regular Asian Greens: Tokyo Bekana, Yukina Savoy, Vitamin Green, Tatsoi, Red Choi, Black Summer, DECEMBER TOJoi Choi Mei Qing Choi, MAY
  • GREENHOUSE SEEDING DATES
  • SEED STRIPS, SPEEDLING, WINSTRIPS Must be on special list to get imported Winstrips from Korea-ask! SEEDING TRAYS
  • KALE & SWISS CHARD SEEDED JULY 15TH
  • • Asian Greens- Sept 1st to Oct 15th • Spinach- Sept 20th to Oct 1st GREENHOUSE SEEDING DATES
  • TRANSPLANT UP • TRANSPLANTS ALLOW SUMMER PRODUCE TO CONTINUE PRODUCING IN TUNNELS • CAN POT UP IF NECESSARY DEPENDING ON VALUE OF TUNNEL CROPS LIKE TOMATOES HAVE READY TO PLANT IN TUNNEL ABOUT OCTOBER 15TH
  • PREPARE TUNNEL MID-LATE OCTOBER • 6 BEDS IN 30’ WIDE TUNNEL • 7 BEDS IN 34’ WIDE TUNNEL • ROTOTILL AND FORM BEDS BY HAND WITH A SHOVEL…TAKES APPROX 5 HOURS • BEDS ABOUT 3.5 FT WIDE • LAY BIOTELLO BY HAND TO SAVE SPACE ROCK DOWN BIOTELLO---ADD STRAW TO PATHS
  • PLANT TRANSPLANTS • 5 Rows per bed • 3 Rows of Kale or Swiss Chard with 2 rows of Asian Greens inbetween TEAGLE TOMAHAWK FOR MULCH MUST PLANT BY NOVEMBER 1ST
  • FRENCH INTENSIVE METHOD Asian Greens for Braising Mix • Tokyo Bekana • Yukina Savoy • Vitamin Green Swiss Chard and Asian Greens
  • FRENCH INTENSIVE METHOD • Asian Greens also named “Large leaf mesclun mix”! • Start harvesting December/Jan uary…love cold • Kale & Swiss Chard dormant till late Feb unless warm! Kale and Asian Greens
  • 8 x 12 for • Kale • Swiss chard • Asian Greens • Happy Rich Broccoli 4 X14 for • Broccoli Raab SPACING
  • • SpinachFrom Transplants with 3-4 seeds per cell: 5”x8” • SpinachDirect Seeded 8” between rows SPACING
  • DIRECT SEEDING DATES OCTOBER 1st OPTIMUM FOR US (some years!) • FIVE STAR LETTUCE • MUSTARDS-Reds, Greens • SPINACH • ASIAN GREENSMizuna, Tatsoi, etc WINDOW OF OPPORTUNITY SEPTEMBER 20TH TO OCT 10TH
  • FIND YOUR DATE! THE WINTER HARVEST HANDBOOK BY ELIOT COLEMAN Time of seedings are critical…Successive seedings gives consistency Weather is a changing factor
  • SPACING  Lettuce, Asian Greens & Mustards for Salad Mix  Arugula • 2 ½ inches • Separate varieties • Earthway Seeder or Jang
  • ARUGULA • Successive seedings • Oct 1st to Nov 15th Astro & • Regular
  • JANUARY SEEDINGS • Broccoli Raab • Happy Rich • Beira Kale • Asian Greens • Salad Mix Greens IN THE GREENHOUSE
  • Seeded in January, transplanted into the tunnel in February, will produce in spring/summer BROCCOLI RAAB
  • • GH Seeded in early January, transplanted to tunnel in March • Produces all year till October+ HAPPY RICH BROCCOLI
  • • GH Seeded in early January, transplanted to tunnel in March • Produces all year till October+ BEIRA KALE
  • GH Seeded in early January, transplanted to tunnel in March Produces for April & May ASIAN GREENS
  • GH Seeded in early January, transplanted to tunnel in March Produces for April & May Includes lettuce, mustards & greens SALAD MIX GREENS
  • GO PLAY TILL HARVEST! Well.. • Rowcovers left off as much as possible to get sunlight • Keep humidity down • Scout often for diseases • Monitor and set traps for rodents • Sluggo for slugs • Water
  • PERCENT USE & VALUE Map for efficiency Value per square foot high: Usually about $4-$5
  • Winter Weeding WINTER MAINTENANCE
  • WEEDING Our Favorite: Dutch Push Hoe Walking pace Incorporate fertilizer WINTER MAINTENANCE
  • WATERING OVERHEAD • Good for seed starting • Use nozzles that empty water out so don’t freeze • Out of way WINTER MAINTENANCE
  • DRIP TAPE WATERING • Great for BioTelo beds • Can use on all beds year-round • Don’t get row covers wet WINTER MAINTENANCE
  • HAND WATERING • • • • In winter—only about once per month Even watering Seed starting & Transplant watering in Row covers can be left in place WINTER MAINTENANCE
  • Fusarium & Mildews • Root Shield • RSSI • Actinovate DISEASES
  • • Venting most important! • Temperature fluctuations • +/- 20 degrees • HAF fans helpful-6 per tunnel Cladosporium leaf spot WINTER DISEASES
  • LETTUCE ALL WINTER  DISEASE RESISTANCE  NOW SEED SEPARATELY  HAPPY CUSTOMERS
  • GREW IN 2012 LEFT TO RIGHT: • ANNAPOLIS • DEFENDER • BLACKHAWK • SULU • GARRISON OTHERS: • ANTAGO • FIRECRACKER
  • • • • • • FIRECRACKER-1R-6GR-5D BLACKHAWK-2R-7GR-5D ANNAPOLIS-3R-5GR-4D ANTAGO-4R-3GR-3D GARRISON-5R-4GR-7D • DEFENDER-1G-2GR-2D • SULU-2G-1GR-1D R=RED COLOR GR=GROWTH 1=BEST G=GREEN COLOR D=DISEASE 7=WORST RATINGS OF LETTUCE FOR SALAD MIX
  • • • • • • • • • • • • Blade Spock Bolsachica Refugio Gaviota Sulu Trials : Bixby Dane Aerostar Gem NEW TRIALS ALWAYS!
  • • New 2012 • Trialed Winter 2012-13 • Seeded 9/30 • Not ready until March • Very cold tolerant • No disease issues SALANOVA LETTUCE
  • • Fantastic efficiency for harvest • Cut 8 pounds in 5 minutes SALANOVA LETTUCE
  • • Makes a great quality mix • Same length leaves • Can recut • Slower to grow SALANOVA LETTUCE
  • • Trials for 20132014 • Weekly seedings starting Aug 15 • 8 Varieties • First seeding almost ready • Record dates for cuts and recuts SALANOVA LETTUCE
  • • Venting criticalno moisture! • Fans help • Keep row cover dry • Actinovate • Regalia • Cease • Double Nickel • LOTS OF TRIALS! Downy Mildew in Lettuce and Greens WINTER DISEASES
  • Aphids Ladybugs: • Buy Early • Spread weekly WINTER INSECTS
  • Aphids Aphidoletes • Predaceous midge Safer Soap WINTER INSECTS
  • Mites • Ragged edges on leaves/ Irregular leaves • Microscopic • Predatory MitesIPM Labs • Aza-direct WINTER INSECTS
  • Monitor to catch early! SPINACH CROWN MITE
  • VENTS OPEN 24/7 TO KEEP HUMIDITY DOWN
  • WEATHER STATION SOLAR TEMP HUMIDITY WIND RAIN
  • WEATHER STATION Wireless 3 Stations Computer Davis Vantage Pro II
  • WEATHER STATION Scientific Sales, Inc.– Repeater—Harvest time
  • DATA LOGGERS 44 temperature data loggers with multiple parameters: Soil temp 1” down, outside temp, rafter temp, plant height, 1’ up, 6’ up
  • 44 DATA LOGGERS JANUARY TO APRIL 2009 HOURLY TEMP RECORDINGS 3 DIFFERENT FARMS
  • •2 Unheated High Tunnels •2 Ground-Heated High Tunnels •1 Heated Low Tunnel & 1 Unheated Low Tunnel
  • LOTS OF DATA!! Rowcovers varied; Tent heights varied (0, 18”, 2’ to 3’)
  • 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2/1/2009 0:00 -10 2/2/2009 0:00 2/3/2009 0:00 2/4/2009 0:00 2/5/2009 0:00 2/6/2009 0:00 2/7/2009 0:00 2/8/2009 0:00 2/9/2009 0:00 -20 H1_no BP_18"hoop_ground (7) Outside (13) H1_BP_18"hoop_ground (20) 32ºF Soil temps: Biotello plastic and No Biotello plastic under 18” hooped Swiss Chard; Outside temp Not much difference at night, but daytime advantage to warm the soil…more growth
  • Down right cold night 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2/1/2009 0:00 -10 2/2/2009 0:00 2/3/2009 0:00 2/4/2009 0:00 2/5/2009 0:00 2/6/2009 0:00 2/7/2009 0:00 2/8/2009 0:00 2/9/2009 0:00 -20 H2_2rc__no hoop_plant height_spinach (18) H2_18" hoop_plant height (19) H2_3' tent_plant height (16) 32ºF 45ºF Outside (13) COLD NIGHT: Plant Height (2”): No hoops; 18” Hoops; 2-3’ Hooped area; Outside 5-10 degree increase in temp the closer rowcover is to the ground; laying right on crop best for night; Daytime peak temp all about the same
  • Chilly nights 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 3/6/2009 0:00 -10 3/7/2009 0:00 3/8/2009 0:00 3/9/2009 0:00 3/10/2009 0:00 -20 H2_2rc__no hoop_plant height_spinach (18) H2_18" hoop_plant height (19) H2_3' tent_plant height (16) 32ºF 45ºF Outside (13) 3/11/2009 0:00 3/12/2009 0:00
  • Down right cold night 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2/1/2009 0:00 -10 2/2/2009 0:00 2/3/2009 0:00 2/4/2009 0:00 2/5/2009 0:00 2/6/2009 0:00 2/7/2009 0:00 2/8/2009 0:00 2/9/2009 0:00 -20 HeatHa_plant height (33) H2_18" hoop_plant height (19) H2_3' tent_plant height (16) 32ºF Plant Height (2”) and outside temp Heated tunnel; 18” hoops; 2-3’ tent COLD NIGHT: 5 to 7 degree benefit from heat at night and 2 to 5 degrees in the daytime. WORTH THE COST OF PROPANE or OIL? Stockpile? Production yields???? 45ºF Outside (13)
  • • Tools • Specialty Knives WINTER HARVESTING
  • • Buckhorn crates • Window of opportunity for harvest WINTER HARVESTING
  • • Keep area clean and neat—no debris • Clean up bed after cutting • Many re-cuts WINTER HARVESTING
  • WINTER HARVESTING
  • ONE OF OUR FAVORITE THINGS! GOLF CARTS • We now have 3 • Easy to drive • Inexpensive • Great for kids
  • PROTECTION ROWCOVER • 1, 2, 3 • Height • Hoops
  • Winter Washing Station for Energy Savings & Efficiency •STAINLESS STEEL •FLOOR MATS •WARM WATER
  • YIELD DATA
  • DECEMBER TO APRIL •Kale •Swiss chard •Spinach •Asian Greens •Lettuce Mix •Arugula •Turnips •Herbs Increased weekly sales by $450 in 08-09
  • SPINACH FIRST WINTER 2007 Plastic on in January 11 Rows of Spinach Gross over $10,000 Just one crop! 2009-10 Gross $16,000 and $150,000 per acre 2010-11 Winter 9 Variety Trial
  • SPINACH 2011-12 ANOTHER VARIETY TRIAL WITH 24+ VARIETIES • PRODUCTION BY WEIGHT PER FOOT • COLOR • HARVEST TIME • VT Veg & Berry Website Results
  • AMERICA BAHAMAS CORVAIR CROCODILE DONKEY EMILIA EMU ERSTE ERNTE GIANT WINTER LAZIO LOMBARDIA MENORCA TYEE QUEEN RACCOON RED KITTEN REFLECT REGIMENT SAMISH SEVEN GRN SPACE SPARGO ST HELENS TARPY 24 VARIETIES FOR 2011-12 WINTER TRIALS
  • NOT A SIMPLE LIST!! • SOME EARLY • SOME LATE • UPRIGHT • FLAT • SPACING • DIRECT SEED • TRANSPLANT SUMMARY
  • AMERICA BAHAMAS CORVAIR CROCODILE DONKEY EMILIA EMU ERSTE ERNTE GIANT WINTER LAZIO LOMBARDIA MENORCA 7 5 9 9 7-8 7 5 2 3 8 5-7 8 QUEEN 7 RACCOON 6-8 RED KITTEN 8 REFLECT 4-5 REGIMENT 7-8 SAMISH 8 SEVEN GREEN 7 SPACE 5-8 SPARGO 8 ST HELENS 7 TARPY 6 TYEE 7 COLOR RATED JAN 1ST 1 TO 10 (10 BEST)
  • FEB 16 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 SPACE LOMBARDIA LOMBARDIA REGIMENT ST HELENS REFLECT LOMBARDIA GIANT WINTER SAMISH DONKEY EMU ST HELENS GIANT WINTER LOMBARDIA EMILIA ERSTE ERNTE REGIMENT CORVAIR 7 GRN RACCOON GIANT WINTER TYEE MAR 8 11 SPACE 11 LOMBARDIA 11 REGIMENT 11 LOMBARDIA 11 ST HELENS 11 SAMISH 11 DONKEY 12 EMU 12 GIANT WINTER 12 REFLECT 12 SPACE 12 BAHAMAS 12 TARPY 13 ST HELENS 13 7 GRN 13 LOMBARDIA 13 14 15 16 16 OPERATING FRM MAR 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 8 8 9 10 10 10 10 10 YIELDS CAN VARY!! EMILIA SAMISH LOMBARDIA LOMBARDIA RACCOON QUEEN SPARGO RED KITTEN TYEE LOMBARDIA GIANT WINTER CORVAIR ERSTE ERNTE REGIMENT ST HELENS GIANT WINTER CORVAIR SPACE CORVAIR EMU TYEE
  • Winter Tunnels increased Sales W $1200 per week ‘09-10
  • SWISS CHARD: 800 square feet yielded $4998 for one winter season
  • •Perfecting the systems •More per square foot •Yielded $1630 per week •Markets building every year 2010-11
  • •Every year different •Weather variables •Diversity Important 2011-12
  • •Asian Greens 11/12 to 5/19 $4,116 •Arugula 11/19 to 4/28 $4,039 •Spinach 11/25 to 4/3 $12,858 •Swiss Chard 12/17 to 6/20 $7,440 •Salad Mix 1/1 to 6/1 $18,484 •Kale 1/28 to 5/12 $3,291 TOTAL: $50,228 Gross 2 Tunnels-6 Crops! TOTALS 2011-12
  • Averaged approximately 120 pounds of greens weekly out of the three tunnels TOTALS 2012-13
  • ALWAYS NEW THINGS TO TRIAL! TURNIPS ONIONS-FORUM & BRIDGER
  • SEASON EXTENSION INCREASES PROFITS IN THE SPRING…..
  • AS WELL AS IN THE WINTER!!
  • SUMMARY • LARGE INVESTMENT • FAST PAYBACK • COST $20,000 to $30,000 • LESS THAN TWO YEAR PAYBACK FOR EACH • PRODUCTION HIGH—LABOR LOW • MUST BE GOOD MARKETER • IMPROVING EVERY YEAR
  • HOW WE GET OUR ELECTRICITY…. SOLAR, SOLAR & MORE SOLAR! 2007-10kW 2012-19kW NETMETERED
  • Zion National Park EXCITING FAMILY ADVENTURES ARE IMPORTANT TO US! TAKE TIME TO ENJOY LIFE, FAMILY & FRIENDS! Bryce Canyon National Park WE LOVE FARMING FOR THE LIFESTYLE IT GIVES & THE GREAT QUALITY OF LIFE!
  • THANKS AND HAVE A GREAT 2014 SEASON! Hawaii 2006 Alaska, Glacier 2011