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Arnolds acorn soils pvf Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Building the Best Soil Creating Healthy Soils Through Soil Tests, Mulching & Cover Crops Paul & Sandy Arnold NOVEMBER 2013
  • 2. Pleasant Valley Farm Argyle, New York
  • 3. OUR 10 KEY FACTORS TO REACHING OUR GOAL OF PROFITABLE FARMING • INEXPENSIVE START-UP WITH SMART EXPENDITURES • GOOD BUSINESS MANAGEMENT & RECORD KEEPING • LABOR EFFICIENCIES TO MAXIMIZE PROFITS • GOOD SOIL MANAGEMENT & FERTILITY • MULCHING AND WEED CONTROL • PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT • SEASON EXTENSION-ROWCOVERS & FIELDHOUSES • YEAR-ROUND HIGH TUNNEL PRODUCTION • POST-HARVEST HANDLING AND CROP STORAGE • CREATIVE MARKETING
  • 4. PAUL & SANDY FAMILY FARM ENVISIONED BOTH FROM SUBURBIA DRIVE TO BE SELF-EMPLOYED
  • 5. ROBERT • Born in Nov 1992 • Homeschooled K-12 • Age 20 • Now full-time local College-Computers • Helps summers & Sat Markets in Winter • Great with Equipment
  • 6. KIM • Born Dec 1995 • Now 17 • Freshman local College • Homeschooled K-12 • Helps run farm 20 to 60 hours per week+ • Markets every Saturday
  • 7. • 5 Acres Mixed Diverse Vegetables • ½ Acre Large Fruits • ¼ Acre Small Fruits • Perennials & Herbs From Seed • 3-4 Acres Cover Crops • Sell at 3 local weekly farmers’ markets in summer & two Saturday winter markets • Hay fields used by local Beefalo farmer
  • 8. • Diversity of Vegetable Crops • Large Fruit: Apples, Pears, Cherries, Plums • Small Fruit: Blueberries, Grapes, & Strawberries FRUIT & VEGETABLE CROPS
  • 9. SOIL MANAGEMENT AT PLEASANT VALLEY FARM • • • • • • • • • Organic Matter Mulching Soil Tests Fertilizers Compost Cover Crops Tunnel Soils Irrigation Greenhouse Amendments
  • 10. LAND PURCHASED 1988 40 Acres •Continuous Conventional Corn for 30 years •Very low Organic Matter •Lots of fertility in the soil but not registering on tests WHERE WE STARTED
  • 11. • Organic Matter • 100% Weed Control • Moisture Retention • Prevents Soil Erosion • Keep Roots Cooler • Clean Crops • Disease Suppression • Workers and crates clean
  • 12. ORGANIC MATTER WAS KEY! NO WEED SEEDS! • 1950’s Farmall 400 • 1970’s Gehl Flailchopper • Chop Hay Fields or Winter Rye in Spring
  • 13. NEW JOHN DEERE 5325 67 HP
  • 14. 2 Types of SelfUnloading Wagons Increasing soil organic matter was focus at start-up SELF-UNLOADING WAGONS
  • 15. 4-6” Thick Every Fall Gross up $10,000 in first year Organic Matter up to 4%+ Quickly
  • 16. •Don’t move pipes •Saves space •Efficient for time •Reduce weeding SPREAD AROUND ALL LONG-SEASON CROPS
  • 17. Purchased Locally • Custom Grown • Cut before Pollination • No Seed MULCHING WITH STRAW
  • 18. CROPS WE MULCH
  • 19. BRASSICAS LIKE COOL ROOTS • Kale • Broccoli
  • 20. SWISS CHARD--HERBS
  • 21. TOMATOES, SQUASH & PEPPERS
  • 22. Measure Stick String & stakes Planted through the mulch
  • 23. TOMATOES • Hand plant 4” pots • Basket-weave system of staking using ½” rerod
  • 24. CHANDLER VARIETY Mulch either Matted Row or Annual Bed ANNUAL BED STRAWBERRY SYSTEM
  • 25. FEW DISEASES—TURN UNDER IN JULY
  • 26. MULCHING WITH ROUND BALES
  • 27. Neighbors’ Rented Land Good for Hay Production Custom Bales processed for us
  • 28. CUSTOM-BALED STRAW: •Roll out •Lay 3” aluminum irrigation pipe on top of straw STATIONARY IRRIGATION
  • 29. Straw Mulch We have continued to use a lot of hay and straw mulch on our fields to build and maintain organic matter
  • 30. • • • • • • • • Corn based Saved weeding Reduced straw usage Warmed soil Breaks down Conserves water Comes 4’ or 5’ .6 mil OMRI approval CLOSE! NEW SYSTEM 2008 WITH BIO-TELO
  • 31. Mulch Immediately! MULCH,PLANT, AND LEAVE IT TILL HARVEST!
  • 32. 3 MONTHS LATER! EARTHWORMS HAPPY
  • 33. OCT 2010 ANOTHER NEW SYSTEM! Teagle Tomahawk Round Bale Bale Chopper
  • 34. • Custom grown rye straw • Efficient • Puts straw where needed by machine • Saves your back & body BALE CHOPPER
  • 35. EDGE LABOR SAVING & GREAT O.M.! FALL SPREAD ALSO
  • 36. KNOW YOUR SOURCE---NO SEED—TEST!
  • 37. SINGLE ROW • Tomatoes • Cucumbers • Summer Squash • Winter Squash • Melons Organic matter is key to healthy soil, which means healthy plants
  • 38. • 2 people plant, one person drives • Creaper gear essential • Watering in plants beneficial Buckeye with Rainflo wheelsVersatile as does 1 to 4 rows and 6” to 2 ft in row TRANSPLANTING BY WATERWHEEL
  • 39. • Peas & worms! • We now transplant all peas • Onion & Corn Transplants TOO MUCH O.M.?? TRANSPLANTING BY HAND
  • 40. TILLAGE FOR SOIL HEALTH
  • 41. Subsoiler • Deep • Hard Pan • Results of Growth PRIMARY TILLAGE
  • 42. Chisel Plows • Fast • Better for soil • 2 foot • Every year • Different points PRIMARY TILLAGE
  • 43. Kuhn 5 ft Rototiller • One pass-fine seed bed • Quality brand • Commercial SECONDARY TILLAGE
  • 44. Perfecta II Rolling Harrow • Great when don’t need fine seed bed (ex: potatoes, onions, squash) • Good for stale Seed-bedding SECONDARY TILLAGE
  • 45. 8 ft set of Harrowing Disks • Great for large areas SECONDARY TILLAGE
  • 46. Soil Tests • Take Annually to track progress • Pick a lab and stay with them — A&L Labs has great reference book • Take sample same time every year • Be accurate in sampling—Soil probe is a good tool to own SOIL HEALTH
  • 47. Soil Tests • Amend as needed or get custom fertilizers (2 opinions) • Know how to calculate what is needed • Know crop needs (Knott’s Handbook) • Each Lab is individual • Logan-extra micronutrients • Extension-Resource SOIL HEALTH
  • 48. Soil Tests • Micronutrients important • Ask for full soil analysis • Bargain at any price! • No longer 3 major nutrients • Spread evenly to get all nutrients up to proper levels • Side-dressing of Nitrogen is common • pH must be in proper range (6.5+); Adjust with lime or sulfur per recommendations SOIL HEALTH
  • 49. START-UP Low organic matter • Rock Phosphate • Green Sand • Lime • Micronutrients • Get in Balance NUTRIENTS & FERTILITY
  • 50. • Large spreaders • Hand spreading • Spray on fields • Small spreader • Through irrigation APPLYING NUTRIENTS
  • 51. FORD 1710 OFFSET FERTILIZER HOPPERS
  • 52. LIQUID MICRONUTRIENT APPLICATIONS • Even distribution • Tank Mix • Spring or Fall 50 GAL 3 PT HITCH HYDRAULIC SPRAYER W 100’ HOSE
  • 53. ee de d pe ) (# ) L Sq EN u GT F H SU eet pe LF U r Su R B lfu on ed @ r T 5. Su Ne es 5' lfu ed t ( e d pp w i d r N e W pe m) ee P r1 Su de lfu d p 0 0 0 W er r sf pe P Ac Su r Ac re BO lfu re r R (# pe O r N ) Ac on Be tu Te d ( al # Bo st B ) (p ro N e n p So Ne ede m ) d lu e pe bo de So rp dp r1 lu er 00 bo er ZI r p a c Ac 0 S re N F er re C (# be ZN o n ) Te d ( ne # s ) ed t ( Zi nc ed pp ne m ed pe ) Zn r ed Su 10 fp pe 0 er r Zn Ac ac 0 S Su re re F lN (# BE D EL D FI MAIN S MAIN N SECOND BLUEBERRY CENTER N NORTH STRODE N STRODE E STRODE W CENTER S ORCHARD HAY SE N. TUNNEL 100 100 130 115 225 120 275 100 300 225 225 600 144 550 550 715 633 1238 660 1513 550 1650 1238 1238 3300 792 8.0 9.0 8.0 9.0 ## ## ## ## 7.0 0.63 0.61 0.63 0.61 0.58 0.56 0.56 0.48 0.66 27.4 26.6 27.4 26.6 25.3 24.4 24.4 20.9 28.7 0.0 8.0 0.63 27.4 9.0 0.61 26.6 0.0 30.5 29.5 30.5 29.5 28.1 27.1 27.1 23.2 31.9 0.0 30.5 29.5 0.0 0.39 0.37 0.50 0.43 0.80 0.41 0.94 0.29 1.21 0.00 0.87 2.24 0.00 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.80 1.10 0.50 0.50 0.70 0.50 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.05 1.31 1.74 1.74 1.74 1.74 2.18 2.18 1.74 2.18 0.00 0.70 0.04 1.74 0.50 0.03 1.31 0.00 6.5 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 11 11 8.7 11 0.0 8.7 7 0.0 0.08 0.11 0.14 0.13 0.25 0.17 0.38 0.11 0.41 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.00 3.40 4.50 2.80 2.50 4.50 2.40 2.30 4.00 3.20 0.03 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.03 1.31 0.87 1.74 1.74 0.87 1.74 1.74 0.87 1.31 0.00 2.70 0.04 1.74 1.70 0.05 2.18 0.00 3.63 2.42 4.84 4.84 2.42 4.84 4.84 2.42 3.63 0.00 4.84 6.05 0.00 0.05 0.03 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.17 0.03 0.14 0 0.14 0.46 0 MICRONUTRIENT SPREADSHEET AUTO CALCULATIONS
  • 54. No ALFALFA MEAL (Organic) 2.50 0.50 2.20 No ARAGONITE 0.00 0.00 0.00 33% Ca Yes AZOMITE 0.00 0.00 0.00 No BLOOD MEAL 13.00 0.00 0.00 Yes BONE CHAR 1.00 20.00 0.00 No BONE MEAL 6.00 9.00 0.00 Yes BORON (SOLUBOR 20%) 0.00 0.00 0.00 Yes CHEEP CHEEP 4.00 3.00 3.00 Yes CHILEAN NITRATE 16.00 0.00 0.00 No COBALT (33%) 0.00 0.00 0.00 No COPPER (25%) 0.00 0.00 0.00 No CORN GLUTEN 10.00 0.00 0.00 No COTTON SEED MEAL 6.00 2.00 1.00 No EPSOM SALT 0.00 0.00 0.00 10% Mg, 13% S No FEATHER MEAL 13.00 0.00 0.00 Yes GREENSAND 0.00 0.00 1.00 Yes GYPSUM 0.00 0.00 0.00 23% Ca, 19% S Yes HUMATE 0.00 0.00 0.00 No KELP MEAL 0.00 0.00 4.80 No Manganese (27%) 0.00 0.00 0.00 No MOLYBDENUM (39.5%) 0.00 0.00 0.00 No PEANUT MEAL 8.00 1.50 1.80 No Pelletized Ca Lime 7.00 1.00 2.00 Yes PHOSPHATE ROCK 0.00 5.00 0.00 22% Total P2O5 Yes SULFT/PTSH 0.00 0.00 51.00 Yes ELEMENTAL SULFUR 0.00 0.00 0.00 No SULPOMAG 0.00 0.00 22.00 No ZnSO4 (35.5%) 0.00 0.00 0.00 Yes PRO-GRO 5.00 3.00 4.00 Yes PRO-START 2.00 3.00 3.00 No PRO-BOOSTER 10.00 0.00 0.00 • • • • LOTS OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS OUT THERE Know the numbers OMRI-approved & listed Multiple nutrients What’s needed in your soil
  • 55. VALUES PER UNIT OF ELEMENT • ton loose Cheep Cheep 4-3-3 OMRI $590.00 ($59) • ton loose Chilean Nitrate 16-0-0 OMRI $1,488.71 ($93) • ton loose Pro-Booster 10-0-0 No Chilean $1,032.32 ($103) • ton loose Pro-Gro 5-3-4 OMRI $647.26 ($54) • ton loose Sulfate of Potash 0-0-52 OMRI $1,649.20 ($32) • Ton loose Feather Meal Granular 13-0-0 $1300 ($100) • ton loose Peanut Meal 8-2-2 $978.57 ($82) LOOKING AT COMBINATION OF N-P-K
  • 56. VALUES PER UNIT OF ELEMENT IF WE NEED 60# OF NITROGEN PER ACRE: 1. Using Pro-Gro 5-3-4 would need 60/.05=1200#=$388 per acre 2. Using Peanut Meal 8-2-2 would need 60/.08=750#=$367 per acre 3. Using Feather Meal 13-0-0 would need 60/.13=460#= $299 per acre LOOKING AT JUST NITROGEN-FARM SPECIFIC
  • 57. CUSTOM BLEND FERTILIZERS • 20# Solubor (20% B) • 16# Copper Sulfate (25% Copper) • 400# Feather Meal • 200# Humates • 1214# Peanut Meal • 100# Elemental Sulfur (90% S) • 50# Zinc Sulfate (20% ZN) GIVE SPECIFICS-POUNDS/ACRE & CUSTOM MADE BASED ON SOIL TEST
  • 58. CUSTOM BLEND FERTILIZERS • Consider cost at $800 per ton • Spread at rate of 500# per acre to add 60# of N per acre • Covers 4 acres and cost is $200 per acre • One acre on our farm grosses approximately $30-35,000 per acre • GREAT VALUE & Deals with all Nutrients
  • 59. BOOKS FOR CALCULATIONS & GUIDANCE • KNOTTS HANDBOOK • VEGETABLE MANAGEMENT GUIDE • A&L LAB HANDBOOK LOOK TO BE IN HIGH OR OPTIMUM RANGE
  • 60. OUR FERTILIZER • Most fields 30 years 1515-15 • Spray on micronutrients • Pre-dress with BioTelo • Sidedress Nitrogen: Peanut Meal, Soybean Meal, Cottonseed Meal • Use custom blend 7-1-1 with deficient micronutrients • Calculate cost of N per acre • One ton totes
  • 61. • Use custom blends with deficient micronutrients • Many fields so often 2 or 3 recipes • One ton totes
  • 62. COMPOST • Can be good • Can be bad • Critical to be weed-free • Good if need nutrients and organic matter • Use caution for soil mixes • Can be • 1 to 2 year old compost expensive best • Must be • Elaine Ingham & Soil Food properly finished Web—test your compost SOIL HEALTH
  • 63. COMPOST • Know your rates • Use manure spreader designed for compost, like H&S • Adding other types of organic matter are an option, like leaves, straw, hay, or lake weeds SOIL HEALTH
  • 64. ELAINE INGHAM & SOIL FOOD WEB—TEST YOUR COMPOST
  • 65. BENEFITS • • • • • • • • Smother Weeds Check Erosion Hold Nutrients Maintain Organic Matter Source of Pollen for Bees Food for Beneficials Produces straw for mulching Break up hardpan COVER CROPS
  • 66. Less expensive than a Brillion seeder, fast and spreads seed evenly Over-seeder to spread cover crop seeds over a large field or a single bed
  • 67. • Summer • Smothers weeds • Bees love it BUCKWHEAT
  • 68. LOTS OF VARIETIES OF COVER CROPS AVAILABLE Stale seed bed 1st If necessary Sorghum Sudan used in late spring/summer COVER CROP AT HIGH DENSITY
  • 69. •Winter Rye •Winter Rye/Vetch •Seed till Nov 1 •Winter cover Turn under the cover crop prior to maturity if understory weeds are nearing maturity
  • 70. BEST TO SEED MULTIPLE SPECIES TOGETHER
  • 71. • Farmall 400 • Gehl Flailchopper • Chop Hay Fields or Winter Rye in Spring CHOP ONLY WHEN NO WEED SEEDS!
  • 72. Rye has an allelopathic affect on seeds— prevents seeds from germinating Turn under rye 2 to 3 weeks before planting cash crop seeds
  • 73. Turn rye/vetch or rye/clover under successively in the spring to get the most growth and benefit
  • 74. Fall seeded clover as an intercropping makes a great spring cover - Field must be weed-free
  • 75. Full year of clover growth great for 2nd year crops for N supply Mow as necessary CLOVER AFTER CHOPPING OFF THE RYE IN SPRING
  • 76. • Seed by hand • Not onto crop • Seed about Aug 1st • Cultivate 1st INTERCROPPING WINTER RYE AND CLOVER
  • 77. Great for fall crops like Brassicas Heavy rate (Rye 200#+) Water consecutive days overhead till germed
  • 78. CAN OVERSEED STRAW MULCHED AREAS ALSO CLEAN AREA FOR HARVEST
  • 79. GREAT COVER CROP FOR WINTER & NEXT SPRING OATS IN SPRING ON BEDS
  • 80. Hearneseeds.com • Kills soil disease causing organisms and nematodes • Biofumigant • Kodiak • 15#/acre MUSTARDS AS COVER CROPS
  • 81. Hearneseeds.com • Flowering • Chop, turn under & irrigate • Glucosynolates • Add compost • Wait 2 weeks MUSTARDS AS COVER CROPS
  • 82. Hearneseeds.com • IDA GOLD • Suppress Weeds • Deep Roots • Erosion Control • Another Brassica in the rotation?? MUSTARDS AS COVER CROPS
  • 83. HIGH TUNNEL SOIL MANAGEMENT
  • 84. • Organic Fertilizer • Micros • Compost • Soil Test as Soil Media maybe FERTILITY
  • 85. Rotations Important
  • 86. Cow peas COVER CROP -ROTATION
  • 87. PLASTIC OFF
  • 88. FRENCH INTENSIVE METHOD Asian Greens for Braising Mix • Tokyo Bekana • Yukina Savoy • Vitamin Green UTILIZED YEAR-ROUND
  • 89. MANAGE FOR DISEASES
  • 90. COLD TEMPS AFFECT UPTAKE OF NUTRIENTS
  • 91. STARTED WITH DRIP Affordable Kept crops alive Water usage low Time Consuming Not Good Seed Germination Hard to cultivate IRRIGATION-KEY TO FARMING
  • 92. • 100’ x 100’ • Million Gallons • Spread out cost over 3 years • $15,000 total for home farm for 4 acres • Loss of $10,000? Really $30,000 IRRIGATION-PROFITABLE ENDEAVOR
  • 93. Drip Irrigation • Uses less water • Good for permanent crops like blueberries, raspberries, asparagus • Long season crops under black plastic • Requires filter • Produces garbage and continual expense • Hard to keep up in an extreme drought • Great for tunnels Overhead Irrigation • Uses more water • Gets seeds started • Requires filter sometimes • More efficient at getting transplants watered in • More expensive initially • Good for cover crops IRRIGATION
  • 94. Irrigation • Critical when growing produce • In summer heat, need up to 2” per week • PLANTS NEED THE WATER AROUND ROOTS TO ENABLE EXCHANGE OF NUTRIENTS IRRIGATION
  • 95. TOO MUCH RAIN!
  • 96. • Inexpensive • Was $1 per foot • Tool to Manage Risk • Fast Return… Carrot Crop lost FIELD TILING
  • 97. Organic Soil Mix: 4 buckets (5gal) compost 4 buckets (5 gal) horticultural grade peat moss 1 ½ buckets of perlite 4# organic fertilizer 5-3-4 *Test soil mix for pH and salts and nutrients *Test greenhouse water for pH *Work with professionals if issues GREENHOUSE
  • 98. SEEDS GREENHOUSE
  • 99. • Diseases-Root Shield and Root Shield Plus • Actinovate-Fusarium • Biological Stimulants • Humic Acids TRANSPLANT SOLUTIONS Water in GREENHOUSE CARE
  • 100. WATER WHEEL WITH NUTRIENTS IN TANK
  • 101. MYCORRHIZAE • Mycorrhizae.com • Beneficial Fungi • Not for Brassicas • Fertilizer • Humates • Compost Tea • Biologicals WATERWHEEL GREAT FOR DIRECT AMENDMENTS
  • 102. • Know nutrient needs of each crop DIVERSITY & ROTATION
  • 103. Diversity and Rotation for Health of Soil
  • 104. • Rotate families • Break insect & disease cycles • 3-4 Year minimum ROTATION IS KEY
  • 105. GROW HEALTHY FOOD TO FEED THE COMMUNITY YEAR-ROUND!
  • 106. Well-managed soils yields produce with increased nutrients
  • 107. HEALTHY SOILS YIELD QUALITY PLANTS
  • 108. HEALTHY SOILS MEAN LESS DISEASES & INSECTS NOVEMBER 22ND 37 DIFFERENT ITEMS FOR SALE!
  • 109. WHERE WE GET OUR ELECTRICITY & HOT WATER! SOLAR, SOLAR & MORE SOLAR! NETMETERING 10Kw + 19Kw Evacuated Tubes-Hot Water
  • 110. THANKS AND HAVE A GREAT 2013 SEASON! Hawaii 2006 Alaska, Glacier 2011