What's New in Astronomy

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Presentation by Alan Cordova on June 21, 2011. All photos copyright the respective publishers (see final slide for references). For educational use only.

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  • Prospect of habitableextrasolar planet first mentioned by Giordano Bruno in sixteenth century; still unconfirmed
  • What's New in Astronomy

    1. 1. What’s New in Astronomy?<br />Alan Cordova<br />Summer Solstice 2011<br />See final slide for image sources.<br />
    2. 2.
    3. 3. 1. Solar Cycle 24 Generates Low Activity<br />
    4. 4. As Sun enters peak activity, fewer sunspots observed<br /><ul><li>Potentially fewer coronal mass ejections
    5. 5. Prior ‘minimum’ corresponded with cooler climate (‘Little Ice Age’ in 1600s)</li></li></ul><li>What is a sunspot?<br />Magnetic loop along which charged particles flow – think of iron filings on a table.<br />
    6. 6. Coronal Mass Ejection<br /><ul><li>Creates ‘space weather’/‘solar storms’
    7. 7. Damages satellites
    8. 8. Interrupts terrestrial communications & power infrastructure</li></li></ul><li>“Jet Streams” moving matter to poles weaker<br />
    9. 9. 2. Extrasolar Planets<br />Astronomers recently discovered 10 Jupiter-sized planets not orbiting other stars – could be as many as as twice as many planets as stars in the galaxy<br />
    10. 10. Planet count up to 534<br />
    11. 11. Possible discovery of planet in star’s ‘habitable zone’<br />
    12. 12. How are ‘exoplanets’ discovered?<br />
    13. 13. Transit Method<br />
    14. 14. Pulsar Timing<br />Used to discover the first extrasolar planet<br />
    15. 15. Doppler Spectroscopy<br />Planet’s gravity creates ‘wobble’ – affects star’s travel (and its light)<br />
    16. 16. Direct Imaging<br />
    17. 17.
    18. 18. How it works<br />
    19. 19. 3. Proving General Theory of Relativity<br />‘Einstein’s Cross’ observed<br />
    20. 20. Gravity Probe B: Can the effect of the Earth be measured?<br />
    21. 21. How it works<br />
    22. 22. Extreme Relativity<br />
    23. 23. 4. Holographic Principle<br />Universe comprised of both matter & energy – interchangeable [e=mc2]<br />Limited amount of ‘information’ that can be transmitted from any one location – a coin can be either heads or tails, but not both<br />Quantum mechanics – you can divide matter and energy only to a particular point<br />
    24. 24. Examples of ‘Information Entropy’<br />
    25. 25. What do you see here?<br />
    26. 26. Application to Astronomy<br />Just as a hologram is a two-dimensional projection that appears to have three dimensions, the universe may be a three-dimensional projection.<br />Recent experiments have shown ‘noise’ in measurements of gravity consistent with the holographic principle.<br />
    27. 27. New Discoveries Every Week!<br />
    28. 28. Slide 2: http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap110617.html<br />Slide 3: http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap110610.html<br />Slide 4: http://cdn.ihatethemedia.com/wp-content/uploads/sunspot-earth-e1308192224865.jpg<br />Slide 5: http://www.windows2universe.org/sun/images/sunspot_horseshoe_magnet_sm.jpg<br />Slide 6: http://www.newscientist.com/data/images/ns/cms/dn11456/dn11456-1_600.jpg<br />Slide 7: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-vSRTHifjBCg/TfpgTaPp0oI/AAAAAAAADOY/6NZRevkMyks/s1600/NN_Sep11_Jetstream_556px.jpg<br />Slide 8: http://www.wired.com/images_blogs/wiredscience/2011/05/exoplanet-extrasolar-planet-lonely-jupiter-nasa-jpl.jpg<br />Slide 9: https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/File:Planet_Discovery_Neighbourhood_in_Milky_Way_Galaxy.jpeg<br />Slide 10: http://www.universetoday.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/gliese-581-chart1.jpg<br />Slide 11: http://www.windows2universe.org/the_universe/images/exoplanet_sm.jpg<br />Slide 12: https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/File:Planetary_transit.svg & https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/File:Kepler_6b.png<br />Slide 13: https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/File:Ssc2006-10c.jpg<br />Slide 14: https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/File:Dopspec-inline.gif & https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/File:Doppspec-above.gif & https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/File:Doppler_Shift_vs_Time.jpg<br />Slide 15: https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/File:The_Star_AB_Pictoris_and_its_Companion_-_Phot-14d-05-normal.jpg<br />Slide 16: http://planetquest.jpl.nasa.gov/images/microlensing3-400.jpg<br />Slide 17: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v439/n7075/images/439400a-f2.2.jpg<br />Slide 18: http://www.dailygalaxy.com/.a/6a00d8341bf7f753ef0133f596ff17970b-800wi<br />Slide 19: http://blogs.discovery.com/.a/6a00d8341bf67c53ef0154321e7762970c-500wi<br />Slide 20: http://cdn.physorg.com/newman/gfx/news/2007/aps_startracker.jpg<br />Slide 21: http://library.kiwix.org:4201/I/300px_Black_Hole_Milkyway.jpg<br />Slide 23: http://www.best-audio-converters.com/img/content/rip-dvd-to-avi.jpg& http://www.telepresenceoptions.com/images/hologram_starwars.jpg<br />Slide 24: http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/image/0712/teapotsirds_winfree_big.gif<br />Slide 26: http://skywatcherz.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/phb.jpg<br />Sources<br />

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