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Adventures In Exercise



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    Adventures in Exercise:Solutions to Teach Children the Art of Exercise
    Angela Corcoran MS, CSCS, RCEP
  • 2. Background
    Recent data from the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Medical Association indicate that rates of childhood (pre-pubertal) overweight and obesity are dramatically on the rise reaching at or above 30 percent in 30 states. In fact on August 17, 2009 the U.S. Surgeon General Richard Carmona, MD called it “the greatest threat to public health today killing more Americans than AIDS, all cancers and all accidents combined.”
    F as in Fat Report: How Obesity Policies are failing in America 2009. Released July 2009. Trust for America’s Health (TFAH) and The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF)
    American Medical Association. Obesity Report. Monday August 17, 2009.
  • 3. Background
    Data from NHANES I (1971–1974) to NHANES 2003–2006 show increases in overweight among all age groups:
    Among preschool-aged children, aged 2–5 years, the prevalence of overweight increased from 5.0% to 12.4%.
    Among school-aged children, aged 6–11 years, the prevalence of overweight increased from 4.0% to 17.0%.
    Among school-aged adolescents, aged 12–19 years, the prevalence of overweight increased from 6.1% to 17.6%.
  • 4. Background
    The major cause of overweight and obesity is poor nutrition and physical inactivity.
  • 5. Background
    Research has shown that as weight increases to reach the levels referred to as "overweight" and "obesity,“ the risks for the following conditions also increases:
    • Coronary heart disease
    • 6. Type 2 diabetes
    • 7. Cancers (endometrial, breast, and colon)
    • 8. Hypertension (high blood pressure)
    • 9. Dyslipidemia (for example, high total cholesterol or high levels of triglycerides)
    • 10. Stroke
    • 11. Liver and Gallbladder disease
    • 12. Sleep apnea and respiratory problems
    • 13. Osteoarthritis (a degeneration of cartilage and its underlying bone within a joint)
    • 14. Gynecological problems (abnormal menses, infertility)
  • 15. Background
    Research has also shown that these weight increases coupled with physical inactivity may potentially contribute to:
    • Chronic Low Grade Inflamation
    • 16. Poor development of the pre-front cortex of the brain
  • 17. Background
    Executive function is developed in elementary school age children and has been affected by physical inactivity.
    Inhibition of Executive function is related to impaired reading and vocabulary learning.
    Self Regulating Behavior: goal setting and choosing one behavior that will have greater reward later instead of immediate gratification.
    Castelli et al. 2007,California Department of Education, 2005
  • 18. Background
    There is a clear association between physical inactivity and achievement in school.
    Aerobic fitness predicted better achievement in 3rd and 5th graders.
    In 2004, a large study in California Public Schools demonstrated a strong positive relationship between scores on Fitnessgram tests and performance on state-wide achievement test.
    Castelli et al. 2007,California Department of Education, 2005
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 24. Domains of Human Development
  • 25. The Motor Domain
  • 26. Motor development is the study of the changes in Human motor behavior over the lifespan, the processes that underlie these changes, and the factors that affect them.
  • 27. The Physical Domain
  • 28. The Physical Domain
    Classifies bodily change like, height, weight, increases or decreases in body fat, cardiovascular endurance, joint motion etc..
    Human Motor Development. A Lifespan Approach. Seventh Edition. V. Gregory Payne and Larry D. Isaacs ©2008 McGraw-Hill Companies inc.
  • 29. The Cognitive Domain
    Human Intellectual Development -Jean Piaget
  • 30. The Cognitive Domain
    The French writer Antoine de St. Exupéry author of Le Petite Prince explains these differences quite well:
  • 31. The Cognitive Domain
    “And after some work with a colored pencil I succeeded in making my first drawing. My Drawing Number One. It looked like this:
  • 32. The Cognitive Domain
  • 33. The Cognitive Domain
    I showed my masterpiece to the grown-ups, and asked them whether the drawing frightened them.
    But they answered: “Frighten? Why should anyone be frightened by a hat?”
  • 34. The Cognitive Domain
    My drawing was not the picture of a hat.
  • 35. The Cognitive Domain
    It was the picture of a boa constrictor digesting an elephant. But since the grown-ups were not able to understand it, I made another drawing: I drew the inside of the boa constrictor, so that the grown-ups could see it clearly. They always needed to have things explained.
  • 36. Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
  • 37. Adaptation
    Adaptation refers to the adjustment to the demands of the environment and the intellectualization of that adjustment through two complimentary acts, assimilation and accommodation.
  • 38. Assimilation
    Assimilation is a process by which children attempt to interpret new experiences based on their present interpretation of the world.
  • 39. Accommodation
    During Accommodation the individual attempts to adjust existing thought structures to account for, or accommodate new experiences.
    Developmental Psychology: Childhood and Adolescence. by David R. Shaffer, Katherine Kipp
  • 40. Assimilation
  • 41. Accommodation
  • 42. Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
  • 43. The Affective or Social Domain
    Socialization is one of the most dominant facilitators of movement acquisitions throughout the lifespan. Because this process of learning society’s expected roles, behaviors, rule and regulations greatly influences an individuals decisions concerning movement participation, it is a major force in human motor development.
  • 44. The Affective or Social Domain
    Do environmental influences alter motor abilities acquisition? A comparison among children from day-care centers and private schools.
    Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2003 Jun;61(2A):170-5. Epub 2003 Jun 9
    de Barros KM, Fragoso AG, de Oliveira AL, Cabral Filho JE, de Castro RM.
    Conclusion: The results showed that the biologically healthy children development can suffer negative influence of the environmental risk factors. In this research these factors were: the father absence, improper toys use to the correct age, the place were the child was kept in the early childhood, the lack of pedagogical guidance and extra-parental socialization and low familiar socioeconomic status.
  • 45. Review physiological differences
  • 46. The Exercise Session
    Healthy children age 2 and older should participate in at least 60 minutes or more of enjoyable, moderate-intensity physical activities every day that are developmentally appropriate and varied.
  • 47. The Exercise Session
    Children with known or suspected disease should increase that time. If children don't have a full 60 minute activity break each day, try to provide at least 4, 15-minute periods or 6, 10-minute periods in which they can engage in vigorous activities appropriate to their age, gender and stage of physical and emotional development
  • 48. The Exercise Session
    Because of the intermittent nature of the exercise with the faster recovery rates, the planned exercise time should exceed prescribed time minutes so that the actual active time can total of 60 minutes.
  • 49. The Exercise Session
    Heart rates will be higher as will respiratory rates, so be prepared with water and give breaks. Give a lot of feedback and reduce feedback more gradually. Use pretend play, and have fun!
  • 50. Age Grouping
    2-4 years of age
    4-7 years of age
    7-11 years of age
  • 51. Time Management
    2-4 years: 6 sections of 10 minutes of physical activity daily
    4-7 years: 4 sections of 15 minutes of physical activity daily
    7-11 years: 2 sections of 30 minutes of physical activity daily
    Each 60 minute exercise time should incorporate a 30-minute minimum moderate intensity bout of cardiovascular exercise.
    2-3 times per week 30-minutes of the 60-minute training session should include light resistance training.
  • 52. Training Modality
    2-4 years: Utilize symbolic representation of objects but slowly as simple motor play will be the major existing skill in this stage. Children will need a lot of verbal and tactile cueing and feedback. Be aware that verbal skills are not fully intact so tactile cueing may be necessary to communicate activity goal.
  • 53. Training Modality
    4-7 years: Symbolic representation of objects is fully in place. Create elaborate situational activities that encourage creative play. Children will need a lot of verbal and tactile cueing and feedback. Verbal skills are more fully intact. Reduce feedback gradually in this phase.
  • 54. Program Frame Work
  • 55. Program Frame Work
  • 56. Exercise Guides
  • 57. Exercise Guides
  • 58. Exercise Guides
  • 59. Video
    This video footage demonstrates segments of two exercise sessions.
    Which exercise session is more effective?
    Why is this exercise session more effective?
  • 60. Implementation
    Exercise should be accessible to all children. Here are some examples of exercise sessions in various environments.
  • 61. Implementation
    Rainy Day Workouts for Children: Small living room.
    Ice Cream Ball
    Twister board
  • 62. Implementation
    Open Field Exercise for Children.
    Open field
    Sheet of fabric /cape
  • 63. Implementation
    Play Ground Exercise for Children.
  • 64. Parental and Community Involvement
    No program will be effective without the involvement of parents/care provider. It would be wise to understand the environmental contributors to the family physical activity, the family nutrition as well as the family’s willingness to support and participate in the exercise program you will provide for the child.
  • 65. About the Presenter
    Angela Corcoran MS
     Angela Corcoran is the Founder and Principle Educator of Corcoran Fitness and the Institute of Preventive Care, an organization whose mission it is to provide the most up to date evidence-driven exercise education to Fitness Professionals and Healthcare Providers. Taking her work to the next level, Corcoran participates in community outreach and provides natural links between Health, Fitness and Wellness providers and at risk communities throughout the nation.She is currently the Director of Education for the Focus Personal Training Institute and served as Chief Administrative Officer and Head of Education for the American Academy of Personal Training. It is through her leadership, management and knowledge base that FPTI and AAPT became productive, state licensed vocational institutions in the state of New York. While maintaining a small personal training client base and holding a teaching fellow position for the Cybex Institute, Corcoran serves a as board member for the School Settlement Association and as a main committee member for the Institute of Credentialing ExcellenceAngela earned her BA in Exercise Science from Rutgers University and graduated with Honors from Brooklyn College with a Masters in Exercise Science and Rehabilitation. Upon completing her studies, Angela served as a Regional Fitness Manager for Equinox and as an Exercise Physiologist for New York Methodist Hospital. She returned to academics as a professor of Applied Physiology at Queens College teaching both undergraduate and graduate level courses. She is in process of her Doctorate in Applied Physiology.Her personal mission is to advocate for a high standard of practice among Health, Fitness and Wellness providers in the area of exercise prescription in order to make exercise an integral part of the health care continuum.