2005 Pan American Sports Organization talk on individual pursuit
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2005 Pan American Sports Organization talk on individual pursuit

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Pan American Sports Organization International Coaching Seminar, hosted by USA Cycling on behalf of the United States Olympic Committee, Colorado Springs, CO

Pan American Sports Organization International Coaching Seminar, hosted by USA Cycling on behalf of the United States Olympic Committee, Colorado Springs, CO

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2005 Pan American Sports Organization talk on individual pursuit 2005 Pan American Sports Organization talk on individual pursuit Presentation Transcript

  • The individual pursuit: demands and preparation Andrew R. Coggan, Ph.D.
  • The individual pursuit: a deceptively simple event favoring specialists who possess superior aerobic fitness coupled with a high anaerobic capacity, excellent aerodynamics, and specific technical skills.
  • Aerodynamic drag ec T ni h al c Start Line Anaerobic capacity Aerobic power Fa ct o Pacing Faster or Slower rs Faster i cal log Phy sio Phy si c Inertia/kinetic energy Neuromuscular power tors Fac Rolling resistance/ chain friction tors Fac Faster al The pursuit performance ‘teeter-totter’ View slide
  • Physical factors View slide
  • Aerodynamic drag ec T ni h al c Start Line Anaerobic capacity Aerobic power Fa ct o Pacing Faster or Slower rs Faster i cal log Phy sio Phy si c Inertia/kinetic energy Neuromuscular power tors Fac Rolling resistance/ chain friction tors Fac Faster al The pursuit performance ‘teeter-totter’
  • Mathematical model of the physics of cycling PTOT = (PAT + PKE + PRR + PWB + PPE)/Ec PTOT = (0.5ρVa2Vg(CdA + Fw) + 0.5(mt + I/r2)(Vgf2 - Vgi2)/(tf - ti) + VgCrrmtgCOS(TAN1 (Gr)) + Vg(0.091+0.0087Vg) + VgmtgSIN(TAN-1(Gr)))/Ec Where: PTOT = total power required (W) PAT = power required to overcome total aerodynamic drag (W) PKE = power required to change kinetic energy (W) PRR = power required to overcome rolling resistance (W) PWB = power required to overcome drag of wheel bearings (W) PPE = power required to change potential energy (W) ρ = air density (kg/m3) Va = air velocity (relative to direction of travel) (m/s) Vg = ground velocity (m/s) Cd = coefficient of drag (dependent on wind direction) (unitless) A = frontal area of bike+rider system (m2) FW = wheel rotation factor (expressed as incremental frontal area) (m2) mt= total mass of bike+rider system (kg) I = moment of inertia of wheels (kgm2) r = outside radius of tire (m) Vgf = final ground velocity (m/s) Vgi = initial ground velocity (m/s) tf = final time (s) ti = initial (s) Crr = coefficient of rolling resistance (unitless) g = acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s2) Gr = road gradient (unitless) Ec = efficiency of chain drive system (unitless) (Martin, Milliken, Cobb, McFadden, and Coggan. J Appl Biomech 14:276-291, 1998)
  • Validation of model under steady-state conditions (Martin, Milliken, Cobb, McFadden, and Coggan. J Appl Biomech 14:276-291, 1998)
  • Validation of model under non-steady-state conditions Measured speed Model-predicted speed Measured power (Martin, Gardner, Barras, and Martin, unpublished observations)
  • Nominal characteristics of world class pursuiters used in modeling Male Female • Height = 180 cm • Weight = 75 kg • CdA = 0.209 m2 • Height = 170 cm • Weight = 65 kg • CdA = 0.197 m2 • Pursuit power = 540 W • 4 km time = 4 min 25 s • Pursuit power = 415 W • 3 km time = 3 min 35 s • Weight of bicycle, etc. = 9.0 kg • CRR = 0.002 (i.e., wood track) • Air density = 1.185 g/L
  • Absolute and relative power requirements of world class pursuit performance Aerodynamic drag Kinetic energy Rolling resistance Drivetrain friction 600 2% 5% 7% 500 2% 5% 9% Power (W) 400 300 86% 200 84% 100 0 Male (4 km) Female (3 km)
  • Time savings resulting from 5% changes in: Factor 4 km 3 km Efficiency of chain (Ec) 0.1 s (0.05%) 0.1 s (0.05%) Rolling resistance (CRR) 0.2 s (0.1%) 0.2 s (0.1%) 0.6 s (0.3%) 0.6 s (0.3%) 4.1 s (1.5% ) 3.1 s (1.4% ) Total mass (mt) Aerodynamic drag (CdA)
  • Aerodynamics: the devil is in the details!
  • Field testing using a powermeter to determine aerodynamic drag characteristics (CdA) Westbound 400 Eastbound Power (W) 300 line of best fit 3 Y = 3.67X + 0.1344X 2 R = 0.998 200 CdA = 0.226 +/- 0.004 m 100 2 CRR = 0.0046 +/- 0.0003 0 0 5 10 Speed (m/s) 15
  • Technical factors
  • Aerodynamic drag ec T ni h al c Start Line Anaerobic capacity Aerobic power Fa ct o Pacing Faster or Slower rs Faster i cal log Phy sio Phy si c Inertia/kinetic energy Neuromuscular power tors Fac Rolling resistance/ chain friction tors Fac Faster al The pursuit performance ‘teeter-totter’
  • Time savings resulting from improvements in: Factor 4 km 3 km Starting technique (negligible) (negligible) Path on track (20 cm up from black line) 1.3 s (0.5%) 1.1 s (0.5%) Pacing strategy (potentially large) (potentially large)
  • Effect of pacing on 3 km pursuit performance 2005 World Championships - 3 km pursuit 86 Time (seconds) 84 82 80 78 76 74 72 70 1 2 Kilometer split 3
  • Effect of pacing on 3 km pursuit performance when overall average power is equivalent Qualifying power Final power Qualifying speed Final speed 1000 16 Time = 3:51.4 900 800 Time = 3:53.4 600 500 Average = 411 W 400 10 8 6 300 Average = 408 W 200 4 100 2 0 0 0 30 60 90 120 150 Time (seconds) 180 210 240 Speed (m/s) 12 700 Power (W) 14
  • Coggan’s #1 rule of pursuiting: Don’t go out too hard! Don’t go out too hard! Don’t go out too hard! Don’t go out too hard!
  • Physiological factors
  • Aerodynamic drag ec T ni h al c Start Line Anaerobic capacity Aerobic power Fa ct o Pacing Faster or Slower rs Faster i cal log Phy sio Phy si c Inertia/kinetic energy Neuromuscular power tors Fac Rolling resistance/ chain friction tors Fac Faster al The pursuit performance ‘teeter-totter’
  • The individual pursuit: a predominantly aerobic event 4 km 3 km
  • Energy demands expressed in O2 equivalents
  • Power-VO2 relationship (efficiency) 5 VO2 (L/min) 4 3 Efficiency = 24.1% 2 1 0 0 50 100 150 200 Power (W) 250 300 350 400
  • Time savings resulting from 5% changes in: Factor 4 km 3 km Neuromuscular (anaerobic) power 0.3 s (0.1%) 0.2 s (0.1%) Anaerobic capacity 0.9 s (0.3%) 0.7 s (0.3%) Aerobic power 3.8 s (1.4%) 3.0 s (1.4%)
  • Role of VO2max, anaerobic capacity (MAOD) and aerodynamic drag characteristics (C dA) in determining 3 km pursuit performance Rider A Rider A 900 VO2max = 4.47 L/min 800 Total 700 Efficiency = 24.1% Est. MAOD = 3.36 L Ave. power = 397 W 600 Power (W) Rider B CdA = 0.214 m2 500 3 km time = 3:47.3 400 20% 300 200 80% Maximal aerobic 100 0 0 30 60 90 120 150 Time (seconds) 180 210 240
  • Role of VO2max, anaerobic capacity (MAOD) and aerodynamic drag characteristics (C dA) in determining 3 km pursuit performance Rider A Rider A 900 Total 700 Est. MAOD = 3.36 L 600 Power (W) 3 km time = 3:47.3 400 20% 300 200 Total 700 CdA = 0.214 m2 500 VO2max = 4.20 L/min 800 G.E. = 24.1% Ave. power = 397 W 600 Power (W) 900 VO2max = 4.47 L/min 800 Rider B Rider B CdA = 0.236 m2 500 3 km time = 3:49.7 400 28% 200 Maximal aerobic 100 Est. MAOD = 5.27 L Ave. power = 411 W 300 80% Efficiency = 23.9% 72% 100 0 Maximal aerobic 0 0 30 60 90 120 150 Time (seconds) 180 210 240 0 30 60 90 120 150 Time (seconds) 180 210 240
  • Preparation
  • Expected physiological adaptations as a function of training intensity Level → 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Active recovery Endurance Tempo or fartlek Lactate threshold VO2max Anaerobic capacity Neuromuscular power <55% 56-75% 76-90% 91-105% 106-120% 121-150% >151% ↑ Muscle enzymes ++ +++ ++++ ++ + ↑ Lactate threshold ++ +++ ++++ ++ + ↑ Capillaries + ++ +++ ++++ + ↑ Plasma volume + ++ +++ ++++ + ↑ Stroke volume & maximal cardiac output + ++ +++ ++++ + ↑ VO2max + ++ +++ ++++ + + +++ + + +++ Power ( % of maximal steady state) ↑ Anaerobic capacity (MAOD) ↑ Neuromuscular power
  • Proposed relationship between training intensity and overall aerobic training effect 100 L2 L1 L4 L3 L5 L6 90 Arbitrary units 80 Physiological strain Overall training effect (increase in aerobic fitness) 70 60 Max. volume 50 40 30 20 10 0 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Exercise intensity (% of maximal steady state power) 140 150
  • Training volume (hours/month) Pursuit-specific VO2max focus R&R training (road racing season) LT focus (off-season “build”) 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Month te m be r us t Se p Au g ly Ju ne Ju ay M Ap ril ar ch M y br ua r ar y Fe em Ja nu be r r D ec No v em be er 0 O ct ob Training volume (h/mo) 100
  • Typical week during LT focus Day Training Monday 1 h 30 min recovery ride Tuesday 2 h w/ 2 x 20 min @ TT effort Wednesday 2 h 30 min group ride at moderate intensity Thursday 2 h w/ 2 x 20 min @ TT effort Friday 1 h 30 min recovery ride Saturday 4 h hard group ride Sunday 3 h 15 min group ride at moderate intensity
  • Typical week during VO2max focus Day Training Monday 1 h 15 min recovery ride Tuesday 1 h 30 min w/ 6 x 5 min at 90+% of VO2max Wednesday 2 h at moderate intensity Thursday 1 h 30 min w/ 6 x 5 min at 90+% of VO2max Friday 1 h 15 h recovery ride Saturday Race or tempo ride Sunday Race or hard group ride
  • Typical week during pursuit-specific training Day Training Monday 1 h 30 min w/ 4 x 500 m flying and 10 standing starts Tuesday AM: 1 h 30 min w/ 4 x 4 km flying in team pursuit formation PM: 1 h 45 min recovery ride (road) Wednesday AM: 1 h w/ 1 x 333.3 m standing plus 3 x 1 km standing PM: 2 h recovery ride (road) Thursday AM: 1 h 30 min w/ 4 x 4 km flying in team pursuit formation PM: 30 min recovery ride (rollers) Friday AM: 2 h recovery ride (road) PM: 1 h 45 min track racing session (keirin heat, keirn final, prime race, points race) Saturday 1 h 30 min w/ 3 x 1 km flying and 4 x 500 m flying Sunday Off
  • Use of powermeter data to manage training and plan peak performance Chronic training load Training stess balance 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 200 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 Date 15 9/ 18 8/ 21 7/ 23 6/ 26 5/ 28 4/ 3 3/ 31 3 2/ 3/ 6 1/ 12 /9 1 11 /1 4 0 10 /1 CTL or ATL (TSS/d) 180 TSB (TSS/d) Acute training load
  • A happy ending!