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    • INDIA: GENERAL INFORMATION THE PRESIDENT The President is the Constitutional Head of the Republic of India. All the executive powers of the Union, including the Supreme Command of the Defence Forces, are vested in the President and all executive actions are taken in his name. PRESIDENTS OF INDIA Name of President Dr. Rajendra Prasad Dr. S. Radhakrishnan Dr. Zakir Hussain V. V. Giri (Acting) M. Hidayatullah (Acting) V. V. Giri Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed B. D. Jatti (Acting) Neelam Sanjiva Reddy Gyani Zail Singh R. Venkataraman Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma K. R. Narayana Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam Ms. Pratibha Patil From 26 January, 1950 13 May, 1962 13 May, 1967 3 May, 1969 20 July, 1969 24 August, 1969 24 August, 1974 11 February, 1977 26 July, 1977 25 July, 1982 25 July, 1987 25 July, 1992 25 July, 1997 25 July, 2002 25 July, 2007 Till 13 May, 1962 13 May, 1967 3 May, 1969 20 July, 1969 24 July, 1969 24 August, 1974 11 February, 1977 25 July, 1977 25 July, 1982 25 July, 1987 25 July, 1992 25 July, 1997 25 July, 2002 25 July, 2007 Till Date VICE-PRESIDENT The Vice-President acts as the ex–officio Chairman of the Council of States (Rajya Sabha). He is elected by an electoral college consisting of the members of both Houses of Parliament in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote. VICE-PRESIDENTS OF INDIA Name of Vice-President Dr. S. Radhakrishnan Dr. Zakir Hussain V.V. Giri Gopal Swarup Pathak B.D. Jatti M. Hidayatullah R. Venkataraman Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma K.R. Narayanan Krishna Kant Bhairon Singh Shekhawat Hamid Ansari From 1952 1962 1967 1969 1974 1979 1984 1987 1992 1997 2002 2007 Till 1962 1967 1969 1974 1979 1984 1987 1992 1997 2002 2007 Till Date PRIME MINISTER The Constitution lays down that there shall be a council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister to aid and advise the President in the exercise of his functions. The Prime Minister is the head of the Cabinet, other Ministers are appointed by the President on his advice. He is the Head of the majority party in the Lok Sabha PRIME MINISTERS OF INDIA Name of Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru Gulzari Lal Nanda (Acting) Lal Bahadur Shastri Gulzari Lal Nanda (Acting) Indira Gandhi Morarji Desai Charan Singh Indira Gandhi Rajiv Gandhi From August 15, 1947 May 27, 1964 June 9, 1964 January 11 1966 January 24, 1966 March 24, 1977 July 28, 1979 January 14, 1980 October 31, 1984 Till May 27, 1964 June 9, 1964 January 11, 1966 January 24, 1966 March 24, 1977 July 28, 1979 January 14, 1980 October 31, 1984 December 2, 1989
    • Vishwanath Pratap Singh Chandra Shekhar P. V. Narasimha Rao Atal Behari Vajpayee H. D. Deve Gowda I. K. Gujral Atal Behari Vajpayee Dr. Manmohan Singh December 2, 1989 November 11, 1990 June 21, 1991 May 16, 1996 June 1, 1996 April 21, 1997 March 19, 1998 May, 22, 2004 November 11, 1990 June 21, 1991 May 16, 1996 June 1, 1996 April 21, 1997 March 19, 1998 May 22, 2004 Till Date LANGUAGES SPECIFIED IN SCHEDULE VIII OF THE CONSTITUTION Assamese, Kashmiri, Sanskrit, Bengali, Malayalam, Sindhi, Gujarati, Marathi, Tamil, Hindi, Oriya, Telugu, Kannada, Punjabi, Urdu, Nepali, Konkani, Manipuri INDIAN GEOGRAPHY Area: 3287263 Square km Length: North to South – 3, 214 km Width: East to West – 2, 933 km Latitudes: 8°4’ N. to 37°6’N Total Coastline: 7516.6 km India is the seventh biggest country in the world (area-wise) (Russia, Canada, Brazil, USA, Australia, and China are the first six biggest countries). IRRIGATION Sources Percentage Canal 40% Well 37.8% Tanks 14.5% Others 7.7% MAJOR INDIAN CROPS Crops Temp (°C) Wheat 15° – 25° Rice 24° – 26° Maize 18° – 21° Jawar 20° – 35° Soyabean 25° – 27° Cotton 20° – 30° Tobacco 20° – 25° Tea 24° – 30° Ground Nut 15° – 25° INDIAN RIVERS Name Satluj Indus Ravi Gangas Yamuna Chambal Beas Betwa Sone Narmada Tapti Mahanadi Shipra Godawari Kaveri Krishna Sabarmati Luni Banas States Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana, Bihar, Tamil Nadu. Gujarat, Maharashtra, Punjab, Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh Water (em) 60 – 90 80 – 200 50 – 60 40 – 60 50 – 120 80 – 150 75 – 80 100 – 200 60 – 130 Length (Km) 1,500 2,880 720 2,071 1,375 965 625 480 780 1,312 724 828 –– 2,465 805 1,400 416 330 270 States where produced Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka,Maharashtara, Tamil Nadu, Bihar Assam, West Bengal, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra Origin Mansarovar lake Mansarovar lake Rohtang Pass Gangotri Yamunotri Janpawa(Madhya Pradesh) Rohtang Pass Vindhya Range (M.P.) Amarkantak Range (M.P.) Amarkantak Range (M.P.) Betul (M.P.) Rampur (M.P.) Indore Nasik (Maharashtra) Brahamgiri (Karnataka) Western Ghat Udaipur Ajmer (Arawali Range) Arawali Range Joint into Chenab River Arabian Sea Chinab River Bay of Bengal Ganga River (Near Allahabad) Yamuna River (Itawa) Satluj River Yamuna River Ganges River (Patna) Bay of Khambhat Bay of Khambhat Bay of Bengal Chambal River Bay of Bengal Bay of Bengal Bay of Bengal Ran of Kachch Ran of Kachch Chambal River
    • Gandak Hooghly Indrawati Brahmaputra Kushi Ram Ganga K K Sindh 425 — 513 2.900 730 602 416 Nepal Navdip (Bengal) Kalahandi (Orissa) Mansarovar lake (Tibet) Gosainthan Chiti Himalaya (Nainital) Dewas (M.P.) Ganga River Bay of Bengal Ganga River Bay of Bengal Ganga River Ganga River (Kannaul) Yamuna River INDIA’S RIVER VALLEY PROJECTS (IRRIGATION / MULTIPURPOSE) Name of Projects Rivers Related States Bhakra – Nangal Satluj Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan Damodar Valley Damodar Bihar, W.Bengal, Madhya Pradesh Hirakud Dam Mahanadi Orissa Chambal Project Chambal Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh Mayurakshi Project Murli West Bengal Nagarjun Project Krishna Andhra Pradesh Beas Project Beas Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh Farakka Project Gangas + Bhagirathi West Bengal Mahe Project Mahe Gujarat Idukki Project Periyar Kerala Matatila Multipurpose Project Betawa Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh Koyna Project Koyna Maharashtra Tehari Dam Bilangera + Bhagirathi Uttar Pradesh Nathapa Jhakhari Project Satluj Himachal Pradesh Coladain Project Satluj Himachal Pradesh Ukai Project Tapti Gujarat Rihand Project Rihand Uttar Pradesh AGRICULTURE 70% Population of India depends upon agriculture. 40% of national income comes from agriculture sector. Three types of crops are cultivated in India. Crop Month Product Rabi October – April Wheat, Barley, Gram, Mustard Kharif July – October Rice, Jowar, Maize, Bajra, Cotton, Jute Jayad March – June Kharbuja, Kakri IMPORTANT INDIAN PEAKS (HEIGHT IN METERS) K-2 : 8611 (Pak-occupied Kashmir); Kanchanjunga : 8586 ; Nanga Parbat : 8126; Gasher Brum : 8068 (Pak-occupied Territory); Broad Peak : 8047 (Pak-occupied Territory); Disteghil Sar : 7885 (Pak-occupied Territory); Masher Brum E : 7821; Nanda Devi : 7817; Masher Brum W : 7806 (Pak occupied Territory); Rakaposhi : 7788 (Pak-occupied Territory); Kamet : 7756; Saser Kangri : 7672; Chaukhamba (Badrinath Peak): 7138; Trisul : 7138. INDIA’S WELL KNOWN SANCTUARIES AND NATIONAL PARKS National Park/Sancturary State Animals Bandhwgarh National Park Madhya Pradesh Sambhar, Tiger, Panther, Cheetah Bandipur National Park Karnataka Elephant, Leopard, Panther, Dear Corbett National Park Uttar Pradesh Elephant, Panther, Nilgai, Dachigam Sanctuary Jammu & Kashmir Leopard, Black Bear, Kashmiri Stag Dalma Sanctuary Bihar Elephant, Leopard, Pig Dudhwa National Park Uttar Pradesh Panther, Leopard, Sambhar, Chital Kewaladev Bird Sanctuary Bharatpur (Rajasthan) Siberian, Crane Gir National Park Gujarat Tiger, Lion, Leopard, Sambhar Kaziranga National Park Assam One – horned Rhinoceros, Buffalo Manas Sanctuary Assam Elephant, Panther, Bear, Sambhar Betala Tiger Project Palamu (Bihar) Elephant, Tiger, Buffalo, Deer Periyar Sanctuary Kerala Elephant, Panther Leopard, Nilgai Ranthambhor Tiger Project Rajasthan Tiger, Deer, Panther, Lion Sundarbans Tiger Reserve West Bengal Leopard, Tiger, Pig, Lion Shivapuri National Park Madhya Pradesh Panther, Chital, Sambhar Sariska Sanctuary Rajasthan Panther, Leopard, Sambhar Kanha – Kisali National Park Madhya Pradesh Tiger, Leopard, Sambhar, Deer Panchmarhi National Park Madhya Pradesh Tiger, Leopard, Buffalo Panther, Leopard, Deer Hazaribagh National Park Bihar
    • FAMOUS LAKES OF INDIA Lake State Wular Jammu & Kashmir Loonar Buldhana (Maharashtra) Chilka Orissa Kaliso Andhra Pradesh Sambhar, Didwana Rajasthan Dal Srinagar Nagin Srinagar RIVERSIDE CITIES OF INDIA City River Calcutta Hoogly Guwahati Brahmaputra Haridwar Gangas Srinagar Jhelum Lucknow Gomti Hyderabad Musi Delhi Yamuna Patna Gangas Panaji Mandwai Surat Tapti City Jabalpur Kanpur Nasik Vizayawara Ajmer Badrinath Ayodhya Kota Ujjain Aurangabad River Narmada Ganges Godavari Krishna Luni Alakhnanda Saryu Chambal Shipra Kaoume IMPORTANT INDIAN INSTITUTES Training Institutions National Defence Academy (Khadakvasla, Pune), Indian Institute of Mass Communication (New Delhi), Indian Institute of Public Administration (New Delhi), Indian Institute of Social Studies (Lucknow), National Police Academy (Hyderabad), Central School of Languages (Mysore), Indian Military Academy (Dehradoon), National School of Drama (New Delhi), Sangeet Natak Academy (New Delhi) Research Institutions Survey of India (Dehradoon), Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (Mumbai), National Physical Laboratory (New Delhi), Indian Institute of Petroleum (Dehradun), Central Drug Research Institute (Lucknow), Central Leather Research Institute (Chennai), Central Road Research Institute (New Delhi), Central Building Research Institute (Roorkee), Central Mining Research Station (Dhanbad), Archaeo Logical Survey of India (Calcutta), Birbal Sahni Institute for Palaeobotany (Lucknow) Defence Academies National Defence Academy (Khadakvasla, Pune), National Defence College (New Delhi), Indian Military Academy (Deharadoon), Defence Services Staff College (Tamil Nadu), Air Force Flying College (Jodhpur), Indian Naval Academy (Cochin), Air Force School, (Jalahali, Bangalore), Air Force Administrative College, (Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu), College of Military Enginerring, (Kirkee, Maharashtra), Air Defence and Guided Missiles School, (Gopalpur, Orissa) Important Industrial Institutions Bharat Electronics Ltd. (Jalahalli, Karnataka), Diesel Locomotive Works (Varanasi), Heavy Enginerring Corporation Ltd. (Ranchi, Jharkhand), Hindustan Aeronautic Ltd. (Bangalore), Hindustan Organic Chemical Ltd. (Kolaba, Maharashtra), Hindustan Zine Ltd. (Udaypur, Rajasthan), Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. (Mumbai, Maharashtra), Indian Telephone Industry Ltd. (Bangalore, Karnataka), Pysites and Chemicals Development Ltd. (Shahabad, Bihar), Neyvelli Lignite Corporation Development Ltd. (Neyvelli, Tamil Nadu), Integral Coach Factory (Perambur, Tamil Nadu), Instrumentation Ltd. (Kota, Rajasthan)