Training for New & Aspiring Career Counselors Amy Mazur, Ed. M., NCC, MCDP Career Development Specialist firstname.lastname@example.orgTell me, what is it you plan to do with your one wild and precious life? -Mary Oliver
Training for New & Aspiring Career Counselors Take a Breath – What happens?A Metaphor – What we will do today – What you will do with clients
Training for New & Aspiring Career Counselors Outline – Introduction – Career Development Overview – Principles and Processes – Theory and Ethical Guidelines – Helping Relationship: 5 Step Process – Career Information & Resources – Wrap up
Training for New & Aspiring Career Counselors Welcome – Name – Title and Work Functions – Experience with Career Counseling – Expectations of the Day
Training for New & Aspiring Career Counselors- Maintaining Boundaries- Evaluating Realistic Options- Motivating Clients- Understanding Possibility- Engendering Hope
Training for New & Aspiring Career Counselors What is Work? What Is Working? What is Career? What is Career Counseling?
What is Work? Job Right Livelihood Occupation Calling Career Mission Vocation Life’s Work
Job vs. Careerhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lA2W_oa3lSE&v
What is Working?The Psychology of Workingby David Blustein, 2006
What is a Career Counselor?http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gV5O
Who is a Career Counselor?http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2LCggmsCXk
Definition of Career Counseling The process of assisting individuals in the development of a life-career with focus on the definition of the worker role and how that role interacts with other life roles. NCDA in Swanson & Fouad
Career Development Model SelfAction Options Match
Training for New & Aspiring Career Counselors Self (Reflection) – Includes: Interest Roles Skills Values Personal Style Aptitudes Priorities Environments
Training for New & Aspiring Career Counselors Options (Exploration) – Includes: Research on occupations, industries and labor market Job shadowing Volunteer or part-time work Informational interviews Written materials, the internet
Training for New & Aspiring Career Counselors Match (Decision-Making) – Includes: Identifyingand evaluating possibilities Exploring alternatives Choosing options – long and short-term Goal Setting
Training for New & Aspiring Career Counselors Action (Strategy) – Includes: Buildingin support, accountability and rewards Networking Resumes, Cover Letters, Interviews Negotiating Employment
Training for New & Aspiring Career Counselors Considering Context – Gender – Family – Racial/Ethnic – Dominant Culture Rosie Bingham, 2007
Training for New & Aspiring Career Counselors What is a Counseling Theory? Aconceptual framework Describes complex human development May explain, generalize and summarize what we do in counseling Helps client make constructive changes Outcome: Success and Satisfaction
Training for New & Aspiring Career Counselors Why Use a Theory? To make sense of experience To bridge gaps To summarize information To explain information To make predictions To point out relationships To formulate goals To stimulate research
Training for New & Aspiring Career Counselors Five Central Tenets Most career theories assume:1. Individualism and autonomy2. A certain level of affluence3. Opportunities are available to all individuals who work hard4. Work is central in people’s lives5. Linearity in the career counseling process -Neville, Gysbers, Heppner, and Johnson (1998), working from a multicultural perspective
Training for New & Aspiring Career Counselors Examples of Career Development Theory Structural-Interactive (Trait & Factor) Life-Span (Developmental) Social Learning/Social Cognitive Parental Influence Constructivist Culturally and Contextually Diverse
Training for New & Aspiring Career Counselors Trait & Factor Theory (1909) Parsons Vocation depends on: Accurate knowledge of yourself Thorough knowledge of job specifications Ability to make a proper match between the two
Training for New & Aspiring Career Counselors Person Environment Fit (1960) Holland Job satisfaction is the result of congruence between personality and work environment Realistic Investigative Artistic Social Enterprising Conventional
Training for New & Aspiring Career Counselors Developmental Theory (1957) Super - Career Maturity is manifested in the successful accomplishment of age and stage developmental tasks throughout the lifespan. - Growth, Exploration, Establishment, Maintenance, Disengagement - Stages & Tasks
Training for New & Aspiring Career Counselors Social Learning Theory (1976) Krumboltz Certain behaviors are modeled, rewarded and reinforced. – Positive and Negative Learning experiences (interaction with the environment) provide information moving us toward or away from occupational options.
Training for New & Aspiring Career Counselors SocialCognitive Career Theory (SCCT) (1980’s) Betz One’s belief in one’s capabilities to successfully engage in a specific area of behavior (performance accomplishments, vicarious learning, emotional arousal, and social persuasion & encouragement) Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectation
Training for New & Aspiring Career Counselors Parental Influence Theory – Individuals can predict occupational selection based on the psychological needs that develop from the interaction between children and their parents. – Child-rearing practices and family systems can significantly influence career choice and decision making.
Training for New & Aspiring Career Counselors Constructivist Theory Career Construction Theory…surveys how individuals construct their careers by using life themes to integrate self-organization of personality and the self-extension of career adaptability into a self-defining whole that animates work, directs occupational choice and shapes vocational adjustment. -Savickas
Training for New & Aspiring Career Counselors Constructivist Theory Shift from: Information to Experience Psychometric self to Storied self Objective to Subjective Career as carrier of personal meaning Client & Counselor as Co-Collaborators Builds on development framework: Takes context and development into account
Training for New & Aspiring Career Counselors Multicultural Considerations Work is a cultural negotiation. Cognitive appraisals of individuals’ environment (e.g., opportunities, supports, and barriers) and of themselves (self-referent beliefs) direct their academic and career choice behavior. Cultural identity may be indicator of how cultured experiences may be appraised/interpreted that shape how individuals approach or evaluate vocational choices and outcomes.
Training for New & Aspiring Career Counselors Multicultural Considerations (cont’d) Occupational landscape is uneven. Bias and preference privilege members of some groups over others in the job market. Perceptions of vocational opportunity may contribute to uneven representation of groups in career fields.
Training for New & Aspiring Career CounselorsRelational Cultural Theory A Healthy Psychological Self Staying in connection with one’s self, with others & with the world. – Gilligan, 1991 Increasing proficiency in connecting to others. – Jean Baker Miller, 1976
5 Good Things Sense of Zest/Well-Being Empowered Action Increased Knowledge of Self & Other Increased Sense of Worth Desire for More Connection
Relational Cultural Practice in Career Decision-Making Awareness of relational perspective as central Assessing client’s relational world Exploring a range of relationships - connections & disconnections Assessing client’s relational self & voice - resonant spaces Using relational resources & minimizing negative influences Validating & assisting with disconnections around career issues Enhancing relational connection between client & counselor
Training for New & Aspiring Career Counselors Ethics – Integrity is telling myself the truth. And honesty is telling the truth to other people. Spencer Johnson – Live so that when your children think of fairness and integrity, they think of you. H. Jackson Brown, Jr.
Training for New & Aspiring Career Counselors Ethics (www.ncda.org) American Counseling Association 1959 - First formal ethics document reviewed 1961 - Document reviewed by membership Career Counselors - NCDA One of 17 divisions of ACA Ethics Guidelines based on ACA document
Training for New & Aspiring Career Counselors Ethics The Counseling Relationship Confidentiality Professional Responsibility Relationship with Other Professionals Evaluation, Assessment and Interpretation Teaching, Training and Supervision Research and Publication Resolving Ethical Issues
The Helping Relationship Five Steps Relationship Building Assessment Goal Setting Intervention Termination and follow-up
The Helping Relationship Relationship Building – Listen with Authenticity – Slow Down, Do not anticipate – Start with blank slate, Do not assume – Understand contexts – Focus on Process, not Outcome – Trust Yourself, Use Intuition
The Helping Relationship Assessment: Traditional Identifying Skills Clarifying Values Exploring Interests Assessing Abilities
The Helping Relationship Assessment: Non - Traditional – Hear the Story – Consider Contexts – Witness and Reflect – Interests, Values & Skills – non-traditional approaches – Relational Map, Vocational Genogram, Developmental Work History, Peak Experiences
The Helping Relationship Goal Setting S specific M measurable A achievable R realistic T timely Career Planning & Development Questions
The Helping Relationship Intervention Assessing Readiness Role Playing Information Giving Challenging Assumptions Identifying Road Blocks
The Helping Relationship Termination and Follow-up Review Articulate future plans Follow-up Use of Technology