Now in its third edition, the Outlook sets out the ACMA's annual assessment of existing and future demand for spectrum and its work plan for managing spectrum on behalf of Australians from 2011 to
Now in its third edition, the Outlook sets out the ACMA's annual assessment of existing and future demand for spectrum and its work plan for managing spectrum on behalf of Australians from 2011 to 2015.
3. Five-year spectrum outlook2011–2015The ACMA’s spectrum demandanalysis and indicative workprograms for the next five yearsMARCH 2011
4. ForewordWelcome to the 2011 edition of the Australian Communications and Media Authority’sFive-year spectrum outlook. The Outlook is our near to medium-term plan for the futurespectrum management work that we intend doing for the benefit of all Australians.This Outlook cycle includes some important new work including planning for smartinfrastructure and mobile broadband, and detailed assessment of related spectrumrequirements. The ACMA is acting now to plan for these new technologies because oftheir potential to significantly enhance the lives of Australians.I am also pleased to present, through the Outlook, a summary of the key spectrum workthat the ACMA completed in 2010. This comprised both forward planning for spectrumallocations for a range of communications services, as well as work to support criticalgovernment communications policy. The reviews of the 2.5 GHz, 3.6 GHz and 400 MHzbands deserve special mention. All three reviews entered implementation phases in late2010. Our crucial work in 2010 also included activity to support the government with thedigital switchover and to realise the digital dividend.As the Outlook shows, the varied spectrum work undertaken in the past year is clearevidence of the ACMA’s ongoing commitment to creating and supporting efficient,effective and appropriate regulation for spectrum management.The demand analysis provided in this Outlook is built on a range of information gatheredby the ACMA throughout the year, including its consultation on proposed approaches tospecific spectrum issues, our Spectrum Tune-ups and the annual RadCommsconference.I commend the Outlook to you as an important part of the ACMA’s ongoing engagementwith industry and government users of spectrum about their needs and our assessment oftechnological developments in the fast-moving communications environment. Yourcomments are most welcome as they really do help to inform the ACMA’s importantspectrum management work.Chris ChapmanChairman
5. AcknowledgementsIn developing this edition of the Outlook, the ACMA gratefully acknowledges the inputprovided by the following individuals, organisations, government agencies and their staff: Alan Hughes NSW Independent Transport Safety AsiaSpace and Reliability Regulator Asciano Ltd (Pacific National) NSW Police AUSTAR Entertainment Pty Ltd Northern Territory Police, Fire and Australasian Railway Association Emergency Services Australian Rail Track Corporation Optus Australian Broadcasting Corporation Ovum Pty Ltd Australian Crime Commission Project Outcomes Pty Ltd Australian Maritime Safety Authority Queensland Rail Network Australian Mobile Qualcomm Telecommunications Association RailCorp NSW Australian National University Reach Networks Australia Pty Ltd Australian Radio Communications RF Industries Pty Ltd Industry Association Security Services Spectrum Australian Telecommunications Committee of Western Australia Users Group Limited Sky Station Australia Australian Wireless Audio Group Stratos Global Bureau of Meteorology Tait Radio Communications Commercial Radio Australia Telstra Corporation Limited Commonwealth Scientific and Unwired Australia Industrial Research Organisation Victoria Police Community Broadcasting Association Victorian Government Radio of Australia Spectrum Task Force Consultel IT&T Pty Ltd Vodafone Hutchison Australia Corruption and Crime Commission of WiMAX Forum Western Australia Department of Defence Department of Emergency Services (Queensland Government) Energy Networks Australia Ericsson Australia Pty Ltd Free TV Australia Foxtel Management Pty Ltd Geoscience Australia GHD Pty Ltd Gibson Quai-AAS Pty Ltd Global VSAT Forum Google Australia Grant and Jenny Spong Horizon Broadband Communications Department of Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and local government agencies (including Airservices Australia, Civil Aviation Safety Authority and Office of Transport Security) Inmarsat Intel Intelsat Asia Carrier Service Law Enforcement Security Radio Spectrum Committee Motorola Australia Pty Ltd National Coordinating Committee for Government Radiocommunications NSW Government
6. Foreword1. Introduction1.1 Purpose1.2 Methodology1.2.1 Evidence-based approach1.3 Scope and structure1.4 Consultation1.4.1 Publication of submissions1.4.2 Release of information in submissions1.4.3 Information-sharing2. Spectrum management decision-making framework2.1 The international spectrum planning framework2.2 Legislation for Australian spectrum management2.3 The Australian Radiofrequency Spectrum Plan2.4 Planning instruments made by the ACMA2.4.1 Band plans2.4.2 Radiocommunications Assignment and Licensing Instructions2.4.3 Spectrum embargoes2.4.4 Radiocommunications standards2.5 Principles for spectrum management2.6 Total welfare standard2.7 Decision-making process3. Spectrum demand drivers3.1 Technological developments3.2 Changing use of mobile services3.3 International developments3.4 Technical and other characteristics of services4. Significant spectrum projects4.1 Projects commenced or progressed during 20104.1.1 Review of the 400 MHz band4.1.2 Support for government for digital switchover4.1.3 Digital restack4.1.4 Allocation of the digital divided4.1.5 Review outcomes for the 2.5 GHz band4.1.6 Expiring spectrum licences4.2 New projects4.2.1 Review of the 900 MHz band4.2.2 Service planning for smart infrastructure4.2.3 Earth station siting
7. 4.2.4 Service planning for mobile broadband4.2.5 Use of opportunity cost pricing5. Future spectrum needs5.1 Aeronautical mobile5.1.1 Current spectrum use5.1.2 2011–20155.1.3 The ACMA’s proposed approaches5.1.4 Beyond 20155.2 Broadcasting5.2.1 Current spectrum use5.2.2 2011–20155.2.3 The ACMA’s proposed approaches5.2.4 Beyond 20155.3 Fixed5.3.1 Current spectrum use5.3.2 2011–20155.3.3 The ACMA’s proposed approaches5.3.4 Beyond 20155.4 Land mobile5.4.1 Current spectrum use5.4.2 2011–20155.4.3 The ACMA’s proposed approaches5.4.4 Beyond 20155.5 Maritime5.5.1 Current spectrum use5.5.2 2011–20155.5.3 The ACMA’s proposed approaches5.5.4 Beyond 20155.6 Radiodetermination5.6.1 Current spectrum use5.6.2 2011–20155.6.3 The ACMA’s proposed approaches5.6.4 Beyond 20155.7 Satellite5.7.1 Current spectrum use5.7.2 2011–20155.7.3 The ACMA’s proposed approaches5.7.4 Beyond 20155.8 Science services5.8.1 Current spectrum use5.8.2 2011–20155.8.3 The ACMA’s proposed approaches5.8.4 Beyond 2015
8. 5.9 Wireless access services5.9.1 Current spectrum use5.9.2 2011–20155.9.3 The ACMA’s proposed approaches5.9.4 Beyond 20155.10 Emerging technologies5.10.1 Dynamic spectrum access technologies5.10.2 Ultra wideband5.10.3 Smart infrastructure5.10.4 High altitude technologies5.10.5 Home network5.10.6 Future television broadcasting standards6. Indicative work programs6.1 Developing the work programs6.2 How the work programs relate to each other6.3 Setting work programs in a dynamic policy environment6.4 Consultation for spectrum management changesAppendix A: Table of frequency bandsAppendix B: Acronyms and abbreviations
9. 1. IntroductionThe Australian Communications and Media Authority (the ACMA) is an independentstatutory authority within the Australian Governments communications portfolio thatreports to the Minister for Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy. TheACMA manages the radiofrequency spectrum in accordance with theRadiocommunications Act 1992 (the Act).The ACMA aims to support the efficient, effective and appropriate operation of theAustralian spectrum management regulatory regime. The Five-year spectrum outlook2011–2015 (the Outlook) is an important tool that assists the ACMA to realise thisgoal. It was initially launched by the ACMA in 2009 to provide greater insight andtransparency for industry and government spectrum users about the pressures onspectrum and the direction of the ACMA’s spectrum management work in the short,medium and long term. Since that time, the ACMA has been open to ongoingfeedback and this third edition incorporates views provided by spectrum users aboutthe ACMA’s Outlook for 2010–2014. The Outlook is part of the ACMA’s overallconsultation framework for spectrum planning and decision-making, together withtargeted consultation on specific spectrum issues through its annual RadCommsconference, Spectrum Tune-ups and discussion papers. Through these mechanisms,the ACMA is working actively to discuss emerging pressures for change to spectrumaccess arrangements with stakeholders. This partnership approach is critical inmanaging the scarce radiofrequency resource.The challenge in managing the radiofrequency spectrum stems from its scarcity,coupled with the continual evolution and increasing sophistication of wirelesstechnologies and the rapidly growing and competing demand for spectrum fromdifferent users and services. Part of the ACMA’s task is to balance the needs ofexisting spectrum users with facilitation of spectrum access for new technologies.The Outlook demonstrates that the ACMA’s spectrum management work is informedby a wide range of evidence, which is continually refreshed and includes informationprovided by spectrum users about their spectrum needs.1.1 PurposeThis Outlook provides demand analysis and work plans to illustrate the direction of theACMA’s spectrum management work in the short, medium and long term. Its purposeis to provide an avenue for meaningful discussions with stakeholders about emergingpressures for radiofrequency spectrum. It is a ‘living’ document and is always open tocomment and feedback from stakeholders.The content of this Outlook, particularly the indicative work programs, will be updatedannually in response to changing priorities and demands. This Outlook is not intendedto be a substitute for separate and targeted industry consultation on specific spectrummanagement issues. For this reason, any observations on proposed approaches orsolutions to emerging problems may only represent the ACMA’s preliminary thinking.The indicative work programs provided in this Outlook do not reflect all the work theACMA undertakes concerning radiocommunications issues. Items in the workprograms predominantly relate to issues that may have a significant impact onspectrum demand or spectrum management over the next five years. The ACMAengages in a range of other work relating to radiocommunications, such as changes tothe licensing and allocation frameworks, to reflect incremental changes to the servicesavailable within the current bands.
10. Indicative work priorities are flexible and may change between editions of the Outlook.New issues can arise at any time, which may require urgent attention from the ACMAand may take precedence over work specified in the Outlook.Comments on this Outlook will assist the ACMA in making decisions about thepossible future planning, licensing, pricing and allocation arrangements for theradiofrequency spectrum. However, nothing in this Outlook should be taken to bind theACMA or the government to any particular course of action in the future.1.2 MethodologyAn important phase in the development of the first Outlook, and continued in this 2011edition, was the estimation of spectrum requirements for radiocommunicationsservices in Australia over the next five, 10 and 15 years. To assist in this work, theACMA engaged several consultants in 2007 to research and gather information oncurrent and future predicted spectrum requirements. The consultants researchedAustralian and overseas demand studies and undertook an analysis of Australiantrends. Stakeholders also provided the consultants with valuable information abouttheir estimated future spectrum requirements. The information from theseconsultancies, along with the ACMA’s own detailed examination of domestic andinternational trends in spectrum use, formed the basis for identification of the likelyfuture pressure points on spectrum. The ACMA then formed its initial thoughts on howspectrum demands might be addressed.While there is an inherent degree of uncertainty in predicting spectrum requirementsover the next five years, consideration in advance of the likely pressure points onspectrum is valuable for two reasons. Firstly, it should ensure the ACMA’s workpriorities are closely linked to actual emerging demand pressures. Secondly, it shouldprovide a greater degree of industry certainty about the ACMA’s priorities and promotedialogue with spectrum users about these priorities. Annual updates keep the plancurrent and also reflect the reality that predictions are uncertain.1.2.1 Evidence-based approachIn considering whether issues should be included in the Outlook, the ACMA takes acomprehensive approach that is based on the best available evidence. As anevidence-informed communications regulator, the ACMA has an extensive researchand reporting program aimed at understanding and identifying the current andpotential uses of radiofrequency spectrum. The ACMA’s ongoing research programcontinually examines the communications and media markets, exploring changes intechnology, market development and community perceptions. Figure 1.1 depicts howthe ACMA uses this evidence to inform its work plans for spectrum management.
11. Figure 1.1 How evidence informs the Five-year Spectrum Outlook
12. 1.3 Scope and structureThis Outlook considers the range of the radiofrequency spectrum from about 500 kHzto 80 GHz, although the spectrum between 400 MHz and 6 GHz is generally wheremost of the competing demand exists.Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the Outlook, outlining the purpose and scope ofthe document, the methodology by which it was created and updated, and details onthe consultation process for parties interested in making submissions.Chapter 2 contains an overview of the ACMA’s spectrum management decision-making framework. It outlines the legislative basis for spectrum management inAustralia, the principles that articulate the ACMA’s approach to managing andplanning the spectrum, and the information-gathering and work-planning processesthat the ACMA uses to manage the spectrum.Chapter 3 identifies the principal underlying drivers of spectrum demand, whichinclude international developments, technological change and use of new services.Chapter 4 outlines some of the key spectrum management projects that the ACMAwill undertake over the next five years. This includes work that will be undertaken toreview the tools used to manage the spectrum and wide-ranging projects that mayaffect a number of bands and a wide group of stakeholders, such as: considering government spectrum use and the availability of spectrum to the broader community the management of expiring spectrum licences upcoming spectrum auctions in the 2.5 GHz and 700 MHz bands.Chapter 5 contains an analysis and estimation of spectrum requirements of thefollowing radiocommunications services over the next five years: Aeronautical—includes the aeronautical mobile service, but excludes the aeronautical mobile-satellite service and the aeronautical radionavigation service. Broadcasting—includes all terrestrial television and radio broadcasting services. Fixed—includes all fixed point-to-point (P-P) systems, except for fixed wireless access systems that are included under the wireless access services sub-section (see below). Land mobile—includes ‘traditional’ government and non-government land mobile services. Maritime—includes the maritime mobile service, but excludes the maritime mobile- satellite service and the maritime radionavigation service. Radiodetermination—includes the radiolocation, radionavigation and radionavigation-satellite services. Satellite—includes the fixed-satellite, mobile-satellite and broadcasting-satellite services. Space sciences—includes the radio astronomy service, earth exploration-satellite service, space research service, space operations service, meteorological aids service and meteorological-satellite service. Wireless access—includes fixed wireless access (FWA), broadband wireless access (BWA), radio local area networks and mobile telephony services. Mobile television is also included, as the method of delivery of this emerging application is more closely linked to BWA than any other service. Emerging technologies—includes analysis of dynamic spectrum access technologies, such as software-defined radio and cognitive radio systems. Ultra
13. wideband (UWB), smart infrastructure and high-altitude technologies. Home networks and future television broadcast standards, including recent trials of 3D television broadcasts.For each service, there is also a brief discussion about the spectrum requirements thatmay arise beyond 2015.Chapter 6 contains the ACMA’s indicative spectrum management work programs forthe next five years. The first work program contains the ACMA’s spectrummanagement projects and tasks categorised into relevant frequency bands or portionsof the spectrum. It is based on the assessment of future spectrum requirementsundertaken in Chapter 5 and includes current spectrum management projects. Thesecond work program, the Outlook program, lists emerging spectrum issues that theACMA is monitoring which may require active work in the next five years. A final tablesets out planned work on a band-by-band basis.Appendix A lists frequency bands and frequency ranges for easy reference.Appendix B is a detailed list of the acronyms and abbreviations contained in thisOutlook.Appendix C is the frequency audit table, which describes allocations and licensing ofradiofrequency spectrum in Australia. It is provided in a separate document to theOutlook and can be located on the ACMA’s wesbite. It is current as at 1 December2010 and is provided for information only. The table also includes a number of bandsformerly associated with the Australian footnote AUS62, as found in the AustralianRadiofrequency Spectrum Plan for the 43.5–47 GHz band, which identifies bands thatmay be used in the future for the purposes of defence. In the frequency audit table,these bands are now identified by the footnote F2.1.4 ConsultationThe ACMA released the Five-year spectrum outlook 2010–2014 on 31 March 2010and invited the radiocommunications community to consider and make submissions tothe 2011–2015 edition. Submissions closed on 31 August 2010. The 17 submissionsreceived by the ACMA have assisted in identifying stakeholders’ priorities and viewson future projects outlined in this Outlook. Submissions received during theconsultation period for this edition of the Outlook, which will conclude in the secondhalf of 2011, will be incorporated into the 2012 edition. Written comments or queriesabout this edition of the Outlook may be forwarded at any time to:ManagerSpectrum Outlook and Review SectionInfrastructure Regulation BranchAustralian Communications and Media AuthorityPO Box 78Belconnen ACT 2616Fax: (02) 6219 5353Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Publication of submissionsIn general, the ACMA publishes all submissions it receives. However, the ACMA willnot publish submissions that it considers contain defamatory or irrelevant material. TheACMA prefers to receive submissions that are not claimed to be confidential. However,the ACMA accepts that a submitter may sometimes wish to provide information inconfidence. In these circumstances, submitters are asked to identify the material overwhich confidentiality is claimed and provide a written explanation for confidentiality
14. claims. The ACMA will not automatically accept all claims of confidentiality. The ACMAwill consider each claim for confidentiality on a case-by-case basis. If the ACMAaccepts a confidentiality claim, it will not publish the confidential information unlessrequired to do so by law.1.4.2 Release of information in submissionsSubmissions provided to the ACMA may be required to be released under theFreedom of Information Act 1982. The ACMA may also be required to releasesubmissions for other reasons including for the purpose of parliamentary processes orwhere otherwise required by law, for example, a court subpoena. While the ACMAseeks to consult, and where required by law will consult, with submitters of confidentialinformation before that information is provided to another body or agency, the ACMAcannot guarantee that confidential information will not be released through these orother legal means.1.4.3 Information-sharingUnder the Australian Communications and Media Authority Act 2005, the ACMA maydisclose certain information to the minister, the Department of Broadband,Communications and the Digital Economy, including authorised officials, RoyalCommissions, the Telecommunications Industry Ombudsman, certain Commonwealthauthorities such as the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission andAustralian Securities and Investments Commission and the authority of a foreigncountry responsible for regulating matters relating to communications or media.The ACMA is working to enhance the effectiveness of its stakeholder consultationprocesses, which are an important source of evidence for its regulatory developmentactivities. To assist stakeholders in formulating submissions to its formal, writtenconsultation processes, it has developed the following guide: Effective consultation: Aguide to making a submission. This guide provides information about the ACMA’sformal, written, public consultation processes and practical guidance on how to make asubmission.
15. 2. Spectrum managementdecision-making frameworkThis Chapter contains an overview of the ACMA’s spectrum management decision-makingframework. It outlines the legislative basis for spectrum management in Australia, the principles thatarticulate the ACMA’s approach to managing and planning the spectrum and the information-gathering and work-planning processes that the ACMA uses to manage the spectrum.2.1 The international spectrum planning frameworkIn most countries, including Australia, spectrum planning starts at the internationallevel through participation in the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). TheITU is the leading United Nations agency for information and communicationstechnology issues and is the global focal point for governments and the private sectorfor the development and regulation of networks and services. ITU radiofrequencyspectrum planning decisions may need to be incorporated by the ACMA intoAustralian spectrum arrangements.The Radiocommunication Sector of the ITU (ITU-R) exists to ensure rational,equitable, efficient and economical use of the radiofrequency spectrum by allradiocommunications services (including those using satellite orbits) and to carry outstudies and approve recommendations on radiocommunications matters. The ITU-Ralso maintains the international Radio Regulations, which set out the allocations ofbands to various types of services. There are currently six ITU-R study groups andseveral working parties under each of these study groups assigned to considerspecific technical issues as well as develop and maintain ITU-R recommendations andreports.Australia is a signatory to the ITU Convention, which is a treaty-level legal instrumentthat obliges Australia to comply with the Radio Regulations. In essence, Australianradiocommunications services must not cause interference to the services of othercountries where those services operate in accordance with the Radio Regulations.Conversely, Australian services are entitled to protection against interference fromother countries.In addition to the ITU, there are numerous organisations that seek to achieveregionally harmonised views on various spectrum planning issues, including thoserelevant to the ITU-R. Examples of these organisations include: the Asia-Pacific Telecommunity (APT), the Asia-Pacific representative body in the ITU the Inter-American Telecommunication Commission (CITEL) the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT).In 2012, the World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC) will be held by the ITU-Rin Geneva, Switzerland. The ACMA is assisting the Australian Government to developpositions about proposed resolutions for this international conference. WRC-12outcomes may include spectrum allocation decisions that the ACMA will be required toimplement nationally, including through possible updates to the AustralianRadiofrequency Spectrum Plan. Harmonised regional APT common proposals onWRC agenda items can significantly influence deliberations at WRCs. In each sectionof Chapter 5, WRC-12 agenda items that may influence the ACMA’s spectrum
16. management decision-making have been cited. Necessary implementation activity bythe ACMA for WRC-12 decisions will not occur until after February 2012.2.2 Legislation for Australian spectrum managementThe ACMA manages the radiofrequency spectrum on behalf of the AustralianGovernment under the Radiocommunications Act 1992.The Act sets out the objectives the ACMA must follow in undertaking this task as wellas the tools that are available to it, including frequency planning, licensing, makingstandards and overseeing compliance with licence conditions to avoid interferencewith other spectrum users.The object of the Act is to provide for management of the radiofrequency spectrum inorder to: maximise, by ensuring the efficient allocation and use of the spectrum, the overall public benefit derived from using the radiofrequency spectrum make adequate provision of the spectrum: for use by agencies involved in the defence or national security of Australia, law enforcement or the provision of emergency services for use by other public or community services provide a responsive and flexible approach to meeting the needs of users of the spectrum encourage the use of efficient radiocommunication technologies so that a wide range of services of an adequate quality can be provided provide an efficient, equitable and transparent system of charging for the use of spectrum, taking account of the value of both commercial and non-commercial use of spectrum support the communications policy objectives of the Australian Government; provide a regulatory environment that maximises opportunities for the Australian communications industry in domestic and international markets promote Australia’s interests concerning international agreements, treaties and conventions relating to radiocommunications or the radiofrequency spectrum.The ACMA’s functions are also defined by the Australian Communications and MediaAuthority Act 2005.2.3 The Australian Radiofrequency Spectrum PlanThe Australian Radiofrequency Spectrum Plan (ARSP), a legislative instrumentadministered by the ACMA, is the highest-level spectrum planning document inAustralia. It divides the Australian radiofrequency spectrum into a number of frequencybands and specifies the general purpose for which each band may be used. Thisprocess is referred to as the allocation of frequency bands to radiocommunicationservices. As well as specifying the first level of spectrum allocation, a degree ofinterference avoidance is built into the service allocation relationships and associatedregulations.The ARSP is drawn from, and kept current with, Article 5 of the ITU RadioRegulations, which is revised every few years at the WRC. It is designed to: provide a basis for management of the radiofrequency spectrum in Australia inform and educate radiocommunication users and the public about the various types of services that can be operated in each frequency band, and the conditions attached to their operation
17. reflect Australias obligations as a member of the ITU provide details of international frequency allocations agreed by the ITU for the three world regions.2.4 Planning instruments made by the ACMA2.4.1 Band plansBand plans provide detailed instructions on the use of specific parts of the spectrum.There are two types of band plans: frequency band plans, which are legislative instruments made under section 32(3) of the Act and which must not be inconsistent with the ARSP administrative band plans, which are non-statutory.Frequency band plans specify the purposes for which bands may be used and theseare summarised in Table 2.1.Table 2.1 Frequency band plans Frequency band First made VHF Mid Band Frequency Band Plan (70–87.5 MHz) 1991 VHF High Band Frequency Band Plan (148–174 MHz) 1991 900 MHz Band Plan (820–960 MHz) 1992 1.5 GHz Band Plan (1427–1535 MHz) 1996 1.9 GHz Band Plan (1880–1900 MHz) 1996 Mobile-Satellite Service (2 GHz) Frequency Band Plan 2002 2002 2.1 GHz Band Frequency Band Plan 2002 2002 1900–1920 and 2010–2025 MHz Bands Frequency Band Plan 2004Administrative band plans serve a similar purpose to frequency band plans, butwithout the latters statutory obligations. They provide a policy basis for band usage. Atpresent, the only administrative band plan in force is for the 400 MHz band (403–420MHz and 450–520 MHz).2.4.2 Radiocommunications Assignment and Licensing InstructionsRadiocommunications Assignment and Licensing Instructions (RALIs) are policyinstruments that provide detailed guidance on specific spectrum access arrangements,such as permitted frequency channelisation and antenna performance characteristics.RALIs are subject to periodic review and are amended as the ACMA considersnecessary. At present, there are 16 RALIs containing intra-service and inter-servicefrequency assignment requirements.12.4.3 Spectrum embargoesThe ACMA places spectrum embargoes on identified parts of the radiofrequencyspectrum from time to time to provide notice of its intention to restrict the allocation ofnew licences in a band, pending its replanning. Embargoes also alert industry to thestart of a planning process and 127are used in conjunction with other administrative1 See www.acma.gov.au/scripts/nc.dll?WEB/STANDARD/1001/pc=PC_2708.
18. and planning tools. An embargo includes details of the frequency band, date of effect,coverage area, timeframe, instructions and reasons for the embargo.The ACMA applies embargoes at the start of planning or replanning to ensure that thestatus of a band remains stable for the duration of the process. Replanning usuallyresults in a change in use or a change in the combination of uses of a band.Embargoes are also necessary to minimise the dislocation of affected services thatmay otherwise occur and to allow for future developments in a band. The ACMAplaces a notice about the creation of a new embargo and a link to its contents on itswebsite.The ACMA considers applications for frequency assignments in embargoed bands ona case-by-case basis. Exceptions may be made to an embargo where there issufficient justification. RALI MS03: Spectrum Embargoes provides the administrativepolicy basis for spectrum embargoes and contains a list of all current and withdrawnembargoes. At present, there are 30 active embargoes.22.4.4 Radiocommunications standardsThe ACMA develops radiocommunications standards to ensure compatibility or to limitemissions from transmitters. To do this, the ACMA requires manufacturers andimporters of radiocommunications products and their authorised agents to comply withits supplier-based labelling scheme. The scheme aims to ensure thatradiocommunications products meet relevant ACMA mandatory standards beforethese products are placed on the Australian market.After consideration of the voluntary industry standards, the ACMA makes mandatorystandards under section 162 of the Act. The ACMA’s mandatory standards adopt theappropriate voluntary industry standard often with variations that are listed in themandatory standard. The scheme has separate levels of compliance and is based ona declaration process. The manufacturer, importer or authorised agent (supplier) mustalso affix a compliance label to their product and hold documents supporting claims ofcompliance with the standards.2.5 Principles for spectrum managementAs an industry regulator, the ACMA is required to make decisions in accordance withthe public interest objectives set out in legislation. While the Act requires the ACMA tomaximise the overall public benefit derived from the use of spectrum, it does notprescribe the test that the ACMA should apply to measure this public benefit.In 2009, the ACMA released its Principles for spectrum management to clarify theapproach it will take when exercising regulatory discretion within the scope of the Actto make decisions about spectrum management. The principles provide scope for theACMA to manage spectrum through a balanced application of both regulatory andmarket mechanisms. The principles have been informed by best practice regulationguidance provided by the Department of Finance and Deregulation’s Office of BestPractice Regulation. In summary, the principles are as follows:1. Allocate spectrum to the highest value use or uses.2. Enable and encourage spectrum to move to its highest value use of uses.3. Use the least cost and least restrictive approach to achieving policy objectives.4. To the extent possible, promote both certainty and flexibility.5. Balance the cost of interference and the benefits of greater spectrum utilisation.2 See www.acma.gov.au/webwr/radcomm/frequency_planning/spectrum_embargoes/rali_ms03.doc.
19. 2.6 Total welfare standardIn 2007, the ACMA adopted a total welfare standard for use when: the policy and legislative framework provides the ACMA with discretion about the tests it might apply a regulatory intervention might have a significant economic impact on consumers, producers or other stakeholders.In these circumstances, the impact on total welfare is one important factor that theACMA will take into account.The ACMA recognises that the assessment of costs and benefits using a total welfarestandard will often need to take into account both quantitative and qualitative factors.When the TWS is applied, all significant benefits and costs are taken into account andgiven the same weight, irrespective of the identity of the recipient.2.7 Decision-making processThe ACMA makes a range of decisions and develops instruments to manage theradiofrequency spectrum. Decisions made by the Authority produce spectrummanagement outcomes in the form of allocations, pricing, licensing frameworks andlicence conditions. The diagram at Figure 2.1 illustrates the basis for and processbehind these decisions. As indicated by the arrows encircling this diagram, spectrummanagement outcomes affect the environment and the demand for and supply ofspectrum and so in this sense the process is iterative.Figure 2.1 The ACMA’s spectrum management decision-making framework
20. 3. Spectrum demand driversThis chapter identifies the principal underlying drivers of spectrum demand—technologicaldevelopments, changing use of mobile services, international developments and technical andother characteristics of services.As technology advances and new and innovative uses emerge, the demand foraccess to radiofrequency spectrum increases. This demand results in requests foraccess to spectrum or to increased amounts of spectrum or congestion relief in highlyused bands. It is characterised by a diverse range of uses as well as competing claimsfor parts of the spectrum in a rapidly evolving environment. Effective, efficient andappropriate spectrum management is underpinned by the ACMA’s awareness ofspectrum demand.Because spectrum management decisions are complex and involve manyinterdependencies, the starting point for the ACMA in making such decisions is currentspectrum use. For example, decisions about services to be used in a given band arelikely to have an impact on existing users of this or other bands.The context within which the ACMA manages spectrum is rapidly evolving: presentinga challenge for providing regulatory certainty in spectrum planning arrangements whileenabling the development and launch of new and innovative spectrum uses. TheACMA leverages off its understanding of this dynamic environment to make efficient,effective and transparent decisions about spectrum management to provide regulatorycertainty and flexibility. The second part of this chapter outlines developments that theACMA considers contribute to spectrum demand changes.In general terms, demand for spectrum in Australia is driven by technologydevelopments, increased use of mobile devices, international developments and thetechnical characteristics of a given spectrum use.3.1 Technological developmentsThe pace of change in technology and services is accelerating, producing continuingscientific innovation. While there is increasing demand to provide spectrum for anexpanding range of technologies and applications, there is also potential for greaterspectral efficiency. Greater spectral efficiency can be achieved through digitalisationand improvements in technology. It can also be achieved through increased use ofinterference mitigation techniques to facilitate spectrum re-use and through the use oftechnologies that enable more efficient spectrum sharing (see Chapter 5.10).Convergence in the communications environment: Very broadly speaking,convergence refers to the blurring of borders of previously distinct communicationsservices due to rapid technological and market developments. Traditional distinctionsbetween telecommunications, broadcasting and radiocommunications are becomingincreasingly invalid, as new technologies and services on the market cut across allsectors. These developments are illustrated by the growth of devices which arewireless and bandwidth dependent. The phenomenon is also a reflection of changingconsumer demands, as markets evolve to satisfy the need for anywhere, anytimeavailability and the convenience of accessing multiple services with one technologicalplatform.Mobility: The delivery of services by radio has several attractions in comparison toother delivery methods nominally providing anywhere, anytime access for nomadic
21. and mobile voice and broadband services. These favourable characteristics ofwireless access services (WAS) may be expected to fuel demand for these servicesand may be a particularly strong driver in metropolitan areas, despite the generallyadequate provision of wireline solutions. Other factors, such as the considerablegrowth in laptop ownership and the increasing requirement for mobility both in theworkforce and socially, may also drive the demand for spectrum for WAS.Sensing and monitoring: Small-scale applications are generally used to automatetime-consuming and resource-intensive processes, such as remote monitoring ofweather information. These applications include condition and environmental sensingand radiofrequency identification (RFID) systems.3 Larger-scale applications are morefocussed on providing additional functionality, such as sensing and imaging formeteorological, space research and military purposes. These applications are oftencharacterised by large bandwidth requirements.Automation of daily activities: Automation involves communications betweenelectronic devices with very limited, if any, human intervention. Automatedtemperature control, remote control of household appliances and automobilemonitoring systems are some examples of such ubiquitous, automatically networkedand interconnected devices.Remote control: Closely related to the automation of processes is the remote controlof devices and instruments that in many cases reduce the use of human resourcesand can remove human presence from dangerous situations and inhospitableenvironments. One of the most significant examples of this is the unmanned aerialvehicle (UAV). Smaller- scale applications, such as garage door openers and radio-controlled toys, have also become part of everyday life.Navigation and traffic control: Smaller-scale applications include civilian globalpositioning systems (GPS) and navigation and automotive radars for intelligent cruisecontrol systems.4 Larger-scale applications for navigation and surveillance of aircraftand ships include ground-based, airborne and shipborne radars, automatic dependentsurveillance broadcast (ADSB) and GPS augmentation systems, including capabilityfor landing guidance.Networking: The removal of wires from buildings facilitates network maintenance andprovides flexible network arrangements. The most common example of this is the useof Wi-Fi in the 2.4 GHz and 5.8 GHz bands. Future, ubiquitous use is expected toemploy ultra wideband (UWB) technology. Networking also plays a major part in theautomation of processes using sensing and control (see above).3.2 Changing use of mobile servicesGrowing data exchange and increased affordability of mobile broadband:Revenue from data traffic is starting to outpace revenue generated by voice traffic.Transmission and reception of data relies on a higher amount of bandwidth thantraditional voice applications. For example, a major growth area in data traffic is insocial networking sites, which accounts for 32 per cent of smartphone activity.53 RFID systems have a variety of applications. A typical used is in the tracking of stock in retail supplychains. By attaching tags to boxes and/or pallets of stock (or even individual items), and linking the tagreaders to a central computer database, stock can be easily followed as it travels from manufacturer towarehouse to retailer by scanning the item and updating the database each time it is moved to a newlocation. RFID tags are most visible in use as anti-theft systems installed in supermarkets and shoppingcentres. Global Positioning System, a US satellite positioning system. ‘Smartphone social networking surges’, Adweek, 24 September 2009, available atwww.adweek.com/aw/content_display/news/digital/e3i98ea2e9e6ffb5198605dca8a4e94cb86.
22. Smartphones and smart devices are a major driver in mobile data traffic and generateapproximately ten times the amount of traffic compared to a non-smartphone user.Demand for increased data rates in turn produces demand for increased bandwidthand increased spectrum occupancy. Demand for spectrum is influenced by growingaffordability of mobile broadband, combined with the consumer trend of increased datatransmission and or higher bandwidth applications.Demand for data is also being driven by data cards, USB dongles and machine-to-machine applications (M2M). M2M is still a new revenue stream and is expected togrow rapidly with the availability of embedded devices, such as smart meters, mobileconnected vehicles and healthcare devices.Use of mobile broadband: Excluding mobile handset internet subscribers, the ABSreports that the number of mobile wireless broadband subscribers—accessing awireless broadband service via a dongle or data card—accounted for 36 per cent of allinternet subscribers in Australia at June 2010, compared with 24 per cent at June2009. On the basis of ABS data (Table 3.1), the number of mobile wireless broadbandsubscribers in Australia increased by 22 per cent from December 2009 to June 2010,while the number of fixed-broadband subscribers remained relatively constant over thesame period.Table 3.1 Broadband internet subscribers by technology type by quarter Broadband Dec Jun Dec Jun % change % change % change access 08 09 09 10 from Dec from Jun from Dec technology (‘000) (‘000) (‘000) (‘000) 08 to Jun 09 to Dec 09 to Jun 09 09 10 DSL 4,208 4,171 4,178 4,246 –0.9% 0.2% 1.6% Cable and 916 931 909 n/p 1.6% –2.4% n/p fibre Satellite 80 90 107 113 12.5% 18.9% 5.6% Mobile 1,369 2,024 2,838 3,455 47.8% 40.2% 21.7% wireless* Other 112 117 27 n/p 4.5% –77% n/p Total 6,685 7,333 8,059 8,768 9.7% 9.9% 8.8% broadband Total internet 7,996 8,420 8,951 9,569 5.3% 6.3% 6.9% subscribers*Includes data cards and dongles. Excludes mobile handset internet. Revisions: Dec 09 figures were revised by ABS in June 2010.Note: Fixed wireless not identified separately due to revision of estimates for June 2009 and December 2009.n/p: not published for specified quarter but included in total.Counts of subscribers published prior to release of the June 2010 quarter ABS report may vary from numbers published in the Junereport due to ABS revisions.Source: ABS, 8153.0–Internet Activity, Australia, June 2010.Ubiquity of broadband: Broadband is recognised as a key economic enabler. Forexample, it underpins the development of e-commerce and e-health and can providesignificant improvements in the delivery of education and government services.Broadband demand is also driven by the desire for people to have greater access toentertainment material.In some instances, delivery of fast and reliable broadband relies on the use ofterrestrial wireless technology, making access to broadband a strong driver forspectrum demand. In populated areas, ‘last-mile’ broadband services can be deliveredvia existing telephone line infrastructure or optical fibre to a large number of
23. customers.6 The area of service is limited by the performance of the telephone cable,which typically only allows for delivery up to a few kilometres from the exchange. Inrural and remote areas, lower population density and the costs of establishinginfrastructure, can make wireline last-mile delivery unviable. Terrestrial wirelesstechnology can avoid the high capital costs associated with the installation of fixedwireline and cable and it is potentially faster to deploy. It can serve much larger areasand hence requires far fewer exchanges. It also removes the need to establish specificconnections to each user. Satellites can cover much larger areas and therefore canalso be an important component of the delivery of broadband services.Choice of delivery model: Wireless technology can expand the options available toconsumers and the options available to network service providers seeking to deliverhigh data rate applications to customers. WAS may be attractive to large operators,who typically provide a wide range of services on a national or wide-area basis. It alsogives opportunities to smaller operators providing niche services to compete inlocalised markets. As a result, wireless technology may reduce the cost of servingsome areas and increase competition.Government demand for spectrum: Government accounts for a large portion ofspectrum use in Australia, with the Department of Defence the largest single user(government or non-government) in terms of bandwidth. Like commercial users of thespectrum, government requirements for spectrum are also growing, to both sustainexisting services and develop innovations. As a result, government users influencespectrum demand in general. Importantly, in some cases, government use of thespectrum is substantially different to the broader community, with a strong emphasison supporting remote-sensing applications, such as radar and passive earthobservations.7Under Australian legislative arrangements, there are particular bands, or serviceswithin these bands, which should be designated principally to fulfil public interestobjectives.8 The Radiocommunications Act 1992 requires the ACMA to makeadequate provision for use of the spectrum by government agencies involved in thedefence or national security of Australia, law enforcement or the provision ofemergency services. These agencies have indicated a need for sufficient capacity tomeet peak demand in major emergencies and adequate protection to maintain high-quality service, as well as increasing requirements for both interoperability and datacommunications. Other government organisations that have unique spectrumrequirements include railway authorities, utilities administrators and scientificorganisations.3.3 International developmentsHarmonisation with international standards is particularly important in Australia, giventhat it is a net technology importer, rather than a manufacturer. As such, deploymentsof new technology in other countries and jurisdictions influence spectrum demand inAustralia. The market in Australia for technology services and applications oftenfollows international deployments to take advantage of economies of scale and tofacilitate international roaming.6 The ‘last mile’ is the final link in delivering connectivity from a communications provider (at the localexchange or base station) to the end-user terminal. The term ‘last mile’ can be misleading, as in some caseswireless access can be provided up to 50 km from the base station.7 Passive services involve only the reception of electromagnetic radiation for their operation, as opposed toactive services which also include stations intended to transmit radiocommunication signals.8 Australian Footnotes AUS1 and AUS11 of the Australian Radiofrequency Spectrum Plan. AUS1 and AUS9designate whole bands to be used principally for the purposes of defence, while AUS11 does the same for aparticular service within the noted band.
24. 3.4 Technical and other characteristics of servicesThe radiofrequency spectrum has different properties and characteristics dependingon the particular frequency band used. Certain parts of the spectrum are more suitedto a wider range of services resulting in an uneven distribution of demand.Consequently, the technical characteristics of a particular spectrum use influencesspectrum demand.There are four dimensions relating to the transmission of spectrum—frequency, time,geography and technical characteristics, such as polarisation or digital coding. Mostradiocommunications devices cannot coexist on all these dimensions, which affectsthe number of services that can be provided in a particular band and hence influencesspectrum demand.Frequency dependent propagation characteristics: These characteristics can drivedemand for particular parts of the spectrum. Lower frequencies generally propagatefurther, but higher frequencies allow higher bandwidths and higher data rates. Thepropagation characteristics of high-frequency (HF) spectrum allow over-the-horizoncommunications using ionospheric reflection.9 Very-high frequency (VHF) and ultra-high frequency (UHF) spectrum suit both long-range, line-of-sight (LOS)communications and mobile non-LOS applications by diffracting into valleys and oversome terrain.10,11 Microwave frequencies above 1 GHz suit fixed-LOS applications andsatellite communications. However, rain attenuation can be a problem for frequenciesabove about 10 GHz.Connectivity: Before last-mile delivery, there must be interconnection between theservice provider and local exchanges. In Australia, there are many areas where wiredinfrastructure is not a viable option for these links, due to difficulties with terrain andinfrastructure costs. Consequently, fixed links (mainly P-P) will continue to play animportant role in connectivity. Fixed links also play a vital role in communicationsdelivery for numerous spectrum users, including government networks, emergencyservices, utilities and mining operators. These links are also a back-haul enabler fornetworks including mobile telephony and satellite. As the spectrum requirements ofthese users and services grows, so too do the spectrum requirements for fixed links tosupport and complement them.9 HF is the range 3–30 MHz.10 VHF is the range 30–300 MHz.11 UHF is the frequency range 300–3000 MHz; however, the term is generally only used for frequenciesbelow 1000 MHz.
25. 4. Significant spectrum projectsThis chapter provides an overview of the significant and high-priority spectrum managementprojects that the ACMA completed or progressed during 2010, as well as projects that are to beinitiated or progressed in 2011. The projects detailed in this chapter may affect a number of bandsand are relevant to the way in which the ACMA approaches other spectrum management tasks andprojects, including those set out in Chapter 6.This chapter also outlines the overall progress of the ACMA’s spectrum management work plan andnew projects that have been developed to manage emerging spectrum demand. Figure 4.2summarises significant spectrum projects for 2011–2015, which are ordered by frequency band.4.1 Projects commenced or progressed during 20104.1.1 Review of the 400 MHz bandThe 403–520 MHz band (the 400 MHz band) is one of the most heavily used parts ofthe radiofrequency spectrum. It is used by industry to support a range of transport anddispatch activities and by government to deliver vital services to the public, includingemergency services such as police, fire and ambulance.A review of the 400 MHz band began in April 2008 with the release of the first in aseries of discussion papers Spectrum options: 403–520 MHz—Initial consultation onfuture arrangements for the 400 MHz band. The review is driven by evidence thatcongestion and fragmentation of use is having an adverse impact on the band.Additionally, there is a need to improve spectrum arrangements in this band for futuretechnologies and for government to promote interoperability.In March 2009, the ACMA released a second discussion paper Spectrum proposals:403–520 MHz—Proposals for future arrangements in the 400 MHz band. The paperoutlined the ACMA’s proposals for the future use of the band, including arrangementsto support government harmonisation and improved technical arrangements toaddress congestion in the band.The ACMA completed the review phase of this project in 2010 with the release of afinal discussion paper outlining its in-principle decisions for the future use of the band.The implementation phase will commence in 2011 following the release of the decisionpaper, The way ahead: Timeframes and implementation options for the 400 MHz bandin December 2010. The ACMA announced that it intends to implement the transitionplans put forward in the way ahead paper, with little modification, with the goal ofhaving the new arrangements in the 400 MHz band in place by 31 December 2015(i.e. roughly five years’ time) in high and medium density areas, and by 31 December2018 (i.e. roughly eight years’ time) outside of these areas. The implementation phaseis likely to affect thousands of users in the band and take a number of years tocomplete. The ACMA believes the implementation of the outcomes from the review willresult in delivery of improved efficiency, effectiveness and flexibility and will maximisethe public benefit arising for the use of the 400 MHz band.4.1.2 Support for government for digital switchoverThe Minister for Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy has set atimetable for the switch-off of analog services, which involves a staged process acrossAustralia.12 This commenced with the switch-off of the analog signal in theMildura/Sunraysia area on 30 June 2010 and will conclude late in 2013. As digital12 Further information on the switchover timetable is available at www.digitalready.gov.au.
26. switchover continues throughout Australia, the ‘same coverage’ objective of theconversion schemes will ensure that the vast majority of viewers will continue toreceive terrestrial digital television services after analog transmissions close.134.1.3 Digital restackThe digital dividend refers to the radiofrequency spectrum that will be freed upfollowing the switch from analog to digital-only television. This switch, which isoccurring in countries across the world, will free up significant amounts of spectrumand open up opportunities for alternative uses such as new mobile services, additionalbroadcasting services and wireless broadband services. Existing services may alsobenefit from enhanced services or coverage.The digital dividend spectrum corresponds to UHF television channels 52–69. At mosttransmission sites, each broadcaster currently utilises two television channels, one forits analog signal and a second for its digital signal. Following the closure of analogtelevision services, the channels used to transmit those services will be vacant.However, digital services will remain in channels 52–69.The ACMA is working to maximise the potential for efficiency represented by digitalswitch off through a digital channel restack process. Restacking digital televisionservices by shifting them from the upper end of the UHF television band andconcentrating them in the spectrum below channel 52 will clear a contiguous block ofspectrum suitable for allocation and re-use.4.1.4 Allocation of the digital dividedThe contiguous block of spectrum freed up by the digital switchover and restackprocess will become available for new uses through a spectrum reallocation process.Reallocation comprises two parts:> configuration of the spectrum to determine the product for sale> allocation of the resulting spectrum products.The reallocation is expected to take place through an auction of spectrum licences inlate 2012, before completion of the digital switchover and restack processes.The ACMA released a discussion paper, Spectrum reallocation in the 700 MHz digitaldividend band, on 20 October 2010. The discussion paper set out the expectedprocess for the reallocation and invited submissions from stakeholders on a number ofissues affecting the reallocation process in its discussion paper, such as likely uses ofthe digital dividend, the importance of international harmonisation efforts, licenceconditions and timing issues.14 The public consultation period on the discussion paperclosed on 6 December 2010.The ACMA is also monitoring overseas digital dividend activity in order to develop anefficient and effective allocation process. Some other countries are further advanced indeveloping arrangements for using digital dividend spectrum. For example: The United States (US) auctioned its digital dividend spectrum in March 2008, with a contiguous block of 108 MHz in the 700 MHz band subdivided into blocks.13 Schedule 4 of the Broadcasting Services Act 1992 requires the ACMA to formulate schemes for theconversion, over time, of the transmission of television broadcasting services from analog to digital mode.The ACMA has made two schemes, the Commercial Television Conversion Scheme and the NationalTelevision Conversion Scheme, which commenced on 9 June 1999 and 2 February 2000 respectively. Oneobjective of these schemes is that the transmission of digital services should achieve the ‘same level ofcoverage and potential reception quality’ as is achieved by the transmission of that service in analog mode.14 The discussion paper can be accessed at www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD/pc=PC_312285
27. Germany auctioned its digital dividend (located in the 800 MHz band) in May 2010 together with spectrum blocks in the 800 MHz, 1.8 GHz, 2 GHz and 2.6 GHz bands.15 The United Kingdom (UK) has identified a total of 128 MHz of digital dividend spectrum in two separated blocks. This comprises the common European band of 72 MHz and a further 56 MHz lower in the UHF range. The UK digital dividend spectrum will be auctioned in the first half of 2012, together with the 2.6 GHz band.16Section 5.2 provides more information on issues relevant to broadcasting services.4.1.5 Review outcomes for the 2.5 GHz bandOn 21 October 2010, the ACMA announced that it would proceed with implementationof processes that will see part of the 2.5 GHz band re-planned to enable it to move toa new use, such as WAS, with part of the band being retained by the current licenseesfor ENG. In addition, a range of other bands will be made available for ENG servicesto ensure provision of service delivery equivalent to that currently provided. The newarrangements will see: re-allocation of 15-year spectrum licences in 2 x 70 MHz of paired spectrum in the frequency range 2500–2570 MHz and 2620–2690 MHz, at least in major metropolitan areas conversion of ENG apparatus licences to 15-year spectrum licences in the frequency range 2570–2620 MHz (‘the mid-band gap’ of the 2.5 GHz band) Australia-wide ENG access via apparatus licences to additional parts of the 2.5 GHz band in regional areas of known high use, as well as shared access with WAS in other areas, depending on demand for WAS ENG access to the following ‘alternative bands’: shared use of the bands 2025–2110 MHz and 2200–2300 MHz exclusive use of the band 2010–2025 MHz, at least in capital city areas ENG access to frequency bands 1980–2010 MHz and 2170–2200 MHz bands, with the caveat that mobile-satellite services may be introduced into these bands in the future, and the ACMA investigating the viability of long- term sharing between ENG and mobile-satellite services.The ACMA began considering re-allocation declaration issues in the 2.5 GHz band inNovember 2010. The ACMA expects to make a recommendation about a re-allocationdeclaration to the minister by mid 2011. The ACMA has also commenced consultationon the conversion process, and expects to make a recommendation to the ministerthat a section 36 designation notice is made by mid 2011.The ACMA has also commenced working with incumbent licensees in the identifiedalternative bands with a view to developing licensing, sharing and coordinationarrangements that balance the needs of those licensees with the requirements of ENGoperations.Section 5.9 provides more information on issues surrounding demand for spectrum forWAS.15 The European 2.6 GHz band is known as the 2.5 GHz band in Australia.16 Ed Richards, speech to FT World Telecoms Conference, 16 November 2010,http://media.ofcom.org.uk/2010/11/16/ft-world-telecoms-conference/
28. 4.1.6 Expiring spectrum licencesA significant issue for the government and industry over the next few years will be theexpiry of licences in a number of spectrum-licensed bands. Some of these bands arecurrently being used for the delivery of high-value telephony and broadband services.Table 4.1 provides a summary of the spectrum-licensed frequency bands andbandwidths, the year that the licences expire and the type of service for which theapplicable technical framework is optimised.Table 4.1 Expiry of spectrum licences Frequency band Bandwidth Year of expiry Main/intended use 500 MHz17 2x4 MHz 2012 Land mobile (501–505/511–515 MHz) 800 MHz 2x20 MHz 2013 Mobile telephony 825–845 MHz/810–890 MHz 1800 MHz 2x75 MHz 2013 & 2015 Mobile telephony (1710–1785/1805–1880 MHz) 28 & 31 GHz 850 MHz 2014 LMDS/MMDS (27.5–28.35/31–31.3 GHz) 300 MHz 2.3 GHz 2015 BWA (2302–2400 MHz) 98 MHz 3.4 GHz 2015 FWA (3425–3442.5/3475–3492.5 2x17.5 MHz MHz, 3442.5–3475/3542.5– 2x32.5 MHz 3575 MHz) 27 GHz 2016 LMDS/MMDS (26.5–27.5 GHz) 1 GHz 2 GHz 2017 Mobile telephony (1900–1920 MHz) 20 MHz (1920-1980/2110–2170 MHz) 2x60 MHz 20 & 30 GHz 2021 Defence (20.2–21.2 GHz/ 1 GHz 30–31 GHz)Under the Act, the ACMA has three options for reallocating these licences when theyexpire:1. Allocate new spectrum licences in the bands under section 60 of the Act by an auction, tender, or pre-determined or negotiated price.2. Re-issue licences to the same licensees without undertaking a price-based allocation, if: the licence used to provide a service that is part of a class of services for which the minister determines re-issuing licences to the same licensees would be in the public interest; or it is satisfied that special circumstances exist in which it is in the public interest for the existing licensee to continue to hold the licence.In either case, incumbent licensees will generally incur a spectrum access charge,which the ACMA determines under section 294 of the Act.17 A small number of spectrum licences in the 500 MHz band expired on 31 May 2007. These licences wereoffered to market by price-based allocation for a five-year term to align their expiry with all other 15-yearspectrum licences in the 500 MHz band which are due to expire in 2012.
29. 3. Allocate the spectrum under either apparatus or class licences. This requires the minister to formally revoke the legislative instrument that established the spectrum licences.18To date, the minister has not determined a class of service for which re-issue would bein the public interest, although he has indicated that he may do so.19Irrespective of the method of re-allocating the spectrum, the ACMA will update thetechnical framework to reflect best practice spectrum management practices beforethe licences expire.4.2 New projects4.2.1 Review of the 900 MHz bandThe 900 MHz Band Plan was created in 1992, primarily to facilitate the introduction ofpublic mobile telecommunications competition in the frequency range 820–960 MHz.The Radiocommunications (Low Interference Potential Devices) Class Licence 2000(the LIPD class licence) also authorises the operation of a variety of devices in the915–928 MHz range, including radiofrequency identification (RFID) transmitters.The band currently supports a variety of radiocommunications services, including: public mobile telephony services trunked land mobile services single channel, low capacity and wideband fixed services broadcasting studio-to-transmitter links (STLs) miscellaneous low-power fixed and mobile services radiolocation services.Figure 4.1 shows the distribution of the above assignment types in the 900 MHz BandPlan.18 Either a section 36 designation or a section 153B declaration under the Radiocommunications Act 1992.19 www.minister.dbcde.gov.au/media/speeches/2010/002
30. Figure 4.1 Distribution of assignments in the 900 MHz band plan20 Spectrum Allocations Assignment Numbers 8% 2% 0.3% 0.3% 11% 8% 4% 4% 21% 53% 6% 83% Cellular mobile telephone services Broadcasting studio-to-transmitter links (STLs) Trunked land mobile services Miscellaneous low power fixed and mobile services Single channel, low capacity and wideband fixed Radiolocation services servicesThe ACMA is preparing to review the 900 MHz band to facilitate technologicaldevelopments and improve efficiencies in the band.The legislative nature of the 900 MHz Band Plan means that parliamentary approval isrequired for any amendment or alteration to occur. One of the objectives of theACMA’s review will be to improve regulatory flexibility by reviewing the legislativestatus of the 900 MHz Band Plan.A second objective of the review will be to consider the current service allocations inthe 900 MHz Band Plan. The 857–865 MHz and 933–935 MHz bands were allocatedfor use by CT2 and CT3 digital cordless telephone systems (CTS) and DSRRsystems. However, CT2 and DSRR systems failed to gain acceptance in Australia orinternationally and the CT3 system has been effectively superseded by the Europeandigital enhanced cordless telecommunications (DECT) system. Consequently, thebands 857–865 MHz and 933–935 MHz appear to be poorly utilised.To preserve planning flexibility, the ACMA created spectrum Embargo 34 preventingany further licensing of CTS or fixed links in the 857–859 MHz, 861–865 MHz and933–935 MHz frequency ranges. The ACMA will consider removing the allocation fortechnologies such as DSRR and CTS.The 806-820 MHz band is currently used for television services (known as channel 68and 69). Television services on these channels are to be switched off or relocated as20 Assignments included consist of device registrations under spectrum licences for CMTS, as well asfrequency assignments corresponding to apparatus-licensed land mobile base station transmitters. P-MPtransmitters, sound-outside-broadcast transmitters, point-to-point links and licensed CTS. Class-licensedusage is not included in the graph.
31. part of the digital dividend process being undertaken by the Department of Broadband,Communications and the Digital Economy. However, the Region Three (Asia-Pacific)band plan for the Digital Dividend does not include the 806-820 MHz band as it is notused for television services in other countries. Future options for this spectrum includepairing with parts of the 900 MHz band that are underutilised, to expand services inthe band. For example, this spectrum could be used to expand spectrum-licensedservices used for third generation mobile telephony or land mobile services.Additionally, the ACMA will investigate the possible use of smart infrastructure in someof the underutilised spectrum.The review will also consider changing the existing planning arrangements to supportchangeover from second generation mobile telephony to third or even fourthgeneration mobile communications. Currently three operators provide secondgeneration mobile telephony to customers in the form of GSM under apparatuslicences. Each operator has approximately 8.4 MHz of spectrum in the uplink anddownlink segments. New technologies work on standards of 5 MHz blocks or multiplesthereof. The review will look at reallocating spectrum in blocks of 5 MHz rather thanthe current 8.4 MHz and also consider whether the current licensing arrangement isappropriate.The ACMA is monitoring developments and trends in this band. The ACMA alsoexpects to commence an examination of the 900 MHz band in the first half of 2011.4.2.2 Service planning for smart infrastructureSmart infrastructure is technology based, adaptive infrastructure that combines two-way communication systems with infrastructure such as roads, railways, electricity,gas and water. The system gathers real-time data and uses the information to improveefficiency, report and dynamically fix problems and adapt to meet requirements.Wireless communication is likely to be a major component of the effective and efficientoperation of smart infrastructure systems. It is therefore likely that radiofrequencyspectrum will be required to facilitate smart infrastructure. Some electricity providershave already made arrangements to access spectrum licences in the 2.3 GHz band(held by AUSTAR and Unwired) to support the first smart grid rollouts.While a number of countries have allocated spectrum for a particular sector (forexample, smart electricity grids or intelligent transport systems), the ACMA considersthat a holistic approach to spectrum for smart infrastructure may produce greaterefficiency. The ACMA considers that such a holistic approach has potential toencourage spectrum sharing within and across different infrastructure sectors, whichwill result in greater spectrum efficiency than ad hoc, single-sector solutions.Harmonisation across different sectors can provide greater efficiency by avoiding thesituation where different players in the same industry use different spectrum solutions.This is the case in Victoria where the state government has mandated the rollout ofsmart meters and different providers have chosen different technology platforms—mesh networks in the 900 MHz band and WiMAX network in 2.3 GHz band. Byencouraging harmonised spectrum use across and between infrastructure sectors, thepublic benefits associated with an allocation of spectrum for smart infrastructure, suchas increased economies of scale and operability, may be realised.In early 2011, the ACMA will release a discussion paper to open dialogue with thewider, smart infrastructure community to better determine its technical requirements asa basis for determining spectrum needs and demand for these services.
32. 4.2.3 Earth station sitingDue to competing demands between satellite and terrestrial radiocommunicationsservices, the ACMA has identified spectrum management issues associated with thesiting of some satellite Earth stations. In certain bands, they currently share terrestrialservices in areas of high spectrum demand, such as urban areas.While it is acknowledged that some satellite Earth stations need to operate in urbanareas, in at least some cases there may be satellite dependent services that can besuccessfully provided by Earth stations located in less populated areas wherespectrum demand is low.The ACMA is planning to release a discussion paper in the third quarter of 2011 thatwill review current spectrum management arrangements regarding the deployment ofsatellite Earth stations in shared bands in metropolitan areas. The ACMA recognisesthat it must balance the costs to Earth station operators of locating their station inthese areas with the benefits of making spectrum available for services to thecommunity. Where spectrum demand for terrestrial services is highest, the possibilityof siting of Earth stations in less populated areas may make spectrum available inurban areas (for which it would otherwise be denied).This is a complex issue and will require extensive consultation with stakeholders.Through submissions to the Outlook, the satellite industry has expressed reservationsabout such an approach being implemented, which according to this industry mayresult in substantial costs associated with relocating equipment and infrastructure andestablishing and maintaining backhaul communications, along with logisticalconsiderations.The ACMA is also planning to release a discussion paper on licensing for satelliteEarth stations in the third quarter of 2011, to examine the efficiency and effectivenessof this regime.4.2.4 Service planning for mobile broadbandRecently there has been increased international focus and scrutiny on spectrumrequirements for future mobile broadband services. The Federal CommunicationsCommission (FCC) and Broadband Delivery UK, the body charged with delivering theUnited Kingdom’s broadband strategy, have released papers stating that 500 MHz ofspectrum will be required for mobile broadband.21The ACMA is considering spectrum requirements for future mobile broadband. Itsanalysis will take into account the potential for spectral efficiency that can be achievedby operators.The ACMA plans to release the first in a series of consultation papers in 2011, whichrecognises the increasing demand for mobile broadband services and applications. Itwill consider broadband strategies used by regulators overseas and consider the totalquantum of spectrum required and the frequency bands where this spectrum may beavailable. The ACMA will identify bands that could be considered for use by mobilebroadband services in Australia.Frequency band analysis in this paper will look at the regulatory and technical issuesthat will need to be addressed if the band is to be made available. Such issues mayinclude the need to develop effective sharing arrangements between incumbentservices and new services. Responses to this first paper will allow the ACMA to21 For further information on these strategies, see the FCC’s National Broadband Plan available atwww.broadband.gov/ and the UK’s brochure titled Britain’s Superfast Broadband Future available atwww.bis.gov.uk/news/topstories/2010/Dec/superfast-broadband
33. develop a work plan. Once the work plan is set, the ACMA will consult on eachfrequency band separately, so that issues raised by industry or affected stakeholderscan be considered.4.2.5 Use of opportunity cost pricingIn January 2010, the ACMA announced that it would consider the use of opportunitycost pricing for annual fees for administratively allocated spectrum as one of a suite oftools for managing spectrum.If and when applied, the opportunity cost pricing of administratively allocated spectrumwould supplement traditional tools such as technical frameworks and licensingarrangements. The opportunity cost of part of the radiofrequency spectrum is thehighest-value use that is denied by granting access to one party rather than to thealternative. Opportunity cost pricing contributes to the ACMA’s first two Principles forSpectrum Management.Prices that better reflect the opportunity cost of spectrum are designed to createincentives for spectrum holders to return spectrum when they are using it for a lower-value use or not at all. This spectrum can then be put to more productive use byspectrum holders willing to pay the opportunity cost price. This incentive will enableand encourage spectrum to move to its highest-value use or uses over time.As noted in The way ahead: Timeframes and implementation options for the 400 MHzband, the ACMA reaffirms its commitment to the introduction of opportunity cost pricingfor the 403–520 MHz band.22 For those parts of the band where price increases areexpected, the ACMA understands that stakeholders require sufficient time to buildadditional costs into their budgets. To provide stakeholders with sufficient time, theACMA proposes to implement any price increases incrementally over five years,commencing 2012.To ensure that a comprehensive approach is taken to the application of opportunitycost principles, the ACMA will provide further information about its methodologies andother priority bands throughout 2011.22 The way ahead: Timeframes and implementation options for the 400 MHz band paper can be found atwww.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD/pc=PC_312108..
34. 5. Future spectrum needsThis chapter provides spectrum demand analysis for the next five years for different spectrumservices and outlines the ACMA’s proposed approaches for managing and addressing these issues.For each of the ten services set out in this chapter, there is also a brief discussion about spectrumrequirements that may arise beyond 2015. A brief description of each service and important demandissues is listed below:Aeronautical mobile: The aeronautical mobile service consists of the voice and data communications thatare necessary to ensure the safety and efficiency of aviation, both civil and military. In this report, theaeronautical radionavigation service (ARNS) is included in the radiodetermination service section. During2010, the ACMA completed work to facilitate mobile communications systems on aircraft. The ACMA is nowconsidering a range of issues in the lead up to WRC-12.Broadcasting: Broadcasting involves one-way radiofrequency transmissions intended for direct reception bythe general public. In this Outlook, the broadcasting-satellite service is included in the satellite servicesection and mobile television is included in the WAS section, due to strong technical or commercialsynergies with these other services. The ACMA is currently undertaking a range of work to support digitalswitchover, restack and dividend allocation.Fixed: The fixed service is a radiocommunications service between a fixed transmitter and one or more fixedreceivers—point-to-point (P-P) or point-to-multipoint (P-MP). In this Outlook, the fixed-satellite service isincluded in the satellite service section and FWA is included in the WAS section. During 2011, the ACMA willcontinue work to coordinate fixed services with Earth stations and will commence a review of the 900 MHzband.Land mobile: The land mobile service is a terrestrial service that provides radiocommunications betweenbase stations and land mobile stations, or directly between land mobile stations. The ACMA’s planned workon the 900 MHz band is also relevant to the land mobile service.Maritime: The maritime mobile service consists of the voice and data communications, which is necessaryto ensure the safety and efficiency of maritime activities both civil, military and search and rescue. In thisOutlook, the maritime mobile-satellite service is included in the satellite service section, and the maritimeradionavigation service is included in the radiodetermination service section. The ACMA’s work in this areain the coming Outlook period will focus on WRC-12 preparation and implementation.Radiodetermination: Radiodetermination is the use of the propagation properties of radio waves todetermine the position, velocity or other characteristics of an object, or to obtain information relating to theseparameters. The radiodetermination service includes the radionavigation, radionavigation-satellite,radiolocation and radiolocation-satellite services. Monitoring of increased use of Ultra wideband and EESSpassive sensors continues.Satellite: Satellite communications have enabled applications requiring international communications orlarge coverage areas and are an important component of the telecommunications industry. Satellite systemshave ‘footprints’ (coverage areas) that can cover up to one-third of the Earth so they usually cannot beconsidered solely on a national basis. For this reason, the ITU provides a process for the coordination ofsatellite systems that is outlined in the ITU Radio Regulations. The ACMA is planning to release twodiscussion papers in the third quarter of 2011 in this area, one to review current spectrum managementarrangements regarding the deployment of satellite Earth stations in shared bands in metropolitan areas anda second to examine satellite Earth station licensing.Science services: The science services (also referred to here as space science services) consist of thecommunications components connecting the Earth and space stations that comprise these services in orderto transfer data to the Earth for processing. These services also have communications components.Frequency allocations for these services are made on a global basis due to their use of space and, in some
35. cases, their dependence on naturally occurring emissions. The ACMA’s proposed Mid West Radio QuietZone protection arrangements are a key focus for this subchapter.Wireless access services (WAS): The term ‘wireless access services’ encompasses the variety of waysthat telecommunications carriers, internet service providers or other service providers deliver a radioconnection to an end-user from a core network. Although satellite communications are also wireless, thissection focuses on the requirements for WAS using terrestrial networks. Identifying spectrum requirementsfor mobile broadband will be a key area of work for the ACMA in 2011 for this service.Emerging technologies: The rapid pace of emerging technologies and their adoption will shape and informour lives at all levels. Understanding their current development will assist in ensuring that all Australians reapthe benefits that these technologies can offer to society. The ACMA’s work on emerging technologiesincludes ongoing research and monitoring activity, as well as support for trials.5.1 Aeronautical mobileThe aeronautical mobile service consists of the voice and data communications,which is necessary to ensure the safety and efficiency of aviation, both civil andmilitary. 23 Australian allocations are consistent with harmonised ITU allocations tothe aeronautical service. The International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) isinvolved in the harmonisation of equipment standards and frequency planningcriteria. ICAO’s Asia and Pacific Office is responsible for the development offrequency plans for civil aviation member states in this region. It is also responsiblefor coordinating aeronautical frequency assignments across countries that could beaffected by such assignments. Airservices Australia is accredited by the ACMA toendorse all frequency assignments in aeronautical mobile bands. 245.1.1 Current spectrum useThere are several HF bands allocated to aeronautical mobile. The ‘route’ (R) serviceis associated with air-ground-air communications for the safety and regularity of civilaviation. The ‘off-route’ (OR) service is generally used by military aircraft.The heaviest usage of aeronautical mobile spectrum is in the 117.975–137 MHzVHF aeronautical mobile (R) service (AM(R)S) band, mostly for air traffic control(ATC) using voice communications. Aeronautical HF spectrum is mostly used foraircraft flying in areas where VHF coverage is not available, particularly over thehorizon in oceanic areas. Telemetry allows the remote monitoring of systems, withremote system control enabled by the associated telecommand. The only currentnon-defence application is the aircraft communications addressing and reportingsystem (ACARS), typically operating at about 131 MHz. There are some VHFchannels for coordinated search and rescue (SAR) with sea vessels. The remainingallocations at frequencies above this are for the aeronautical mobile-satellite service.Defence aeronautical telemetry systems operate in the band 4400–5000 MHz. Thisband is designated to be used principally for defence purposes, as well as in otherbands for systems including those aboard UAVs. Other aeronautical mobile systemsinclude the air combat manoeuvring instrumentation (ACMI) and TSPI (time spaceposition information) at 1350–1400 MHz. Airborne telemetry including flighttermination systems (FTS) at 420–430 MHz. Defence also utilises the aeronauticalmobile service in parts of the 230–399.9 MHz band.23 In this report, the aeronautical radionavigation service (ARNS) is included in the radiodeterminationservice section.24 Airservices Australia is a government-owned corporation providing air traffic control management andrelated airside services to the aviation industry.
36. A limited number of wideband aeronautical mobile systems are thought to currentlyoperate in Australia by different users in a number of frequency bands. This includesthe 915–928 MHz, 2.4 GHz and 5.8 GHz class-licensed bands.25 Current widebandaeronautical mobile systems range from amateur and hobby FM (frequencymodulation) video transmitters on radio controlled aircraft to high definition (HD)digital video systems on board helicopters.26Mobile communications systems on aircraftThe ACMA has implemented appropriate radiocommunications licensingarrangements to facilitate mobile communication services on aircraft (MCA).In July 2010, the ACMA established a PMTS Class C apparatus licence typeauthorising the operation of MCA in geographic areas that are not subject tospectrum licensing via the issue apparatus and class licences.27 In spectrum-licensed areas, MCA may only be authorised by agreement with the spectrumlicence holder. This is referred to as a third party authorisation.28The ACMA’s licensing arrangement does not restrict the types of mobilecommunication services that can be offered on aircraft. That is, the licensingarrangement does not exclude any particular service, including voice calls. TheACMA regards the deployment of any particular kind of service as a commercialdecision to be made by service providers and airlines.The use of on-board systems must at all times be in accordance with airline safetyand operational procedures. Calls connecting directly to terrestrial networks are notauthorised under the licensing arrangements. Should alternative, safe methods ofmobile communication on aircraft be proposed for commercial operation in the future(including those that access Australia’s terrestrial networks) the ACMA would moveto consider those methods.5.1.2 2011–2015Issues affecting spectrum demandVHF band congestionCongestion in the VHF aeronautical band has been identified in some parts of theworld. This congestion is expected to increase with the anticipated growth in aircrafttraffic, which is predicted to more than double over the next 15 years. However, theaeronautical industry is working to transform its operating practices and re-engineerits infrastructure to accommodate the additional demands within existing allocations.Changes include the use of more spectrally efficient technologies (such as migrationto digital systems) and reducing channel spacing.29Airservices Australia is implementing a digital ATC radio network to upgrade existingVHF and HF communication systems. This work is expected to accommodate futuregrowth in demand for aeronautical mobile spectrum within the current allocations.Additional allocations made at WRC-07At the World Radiocommunication Conference 2007 (WRC-07) the bands 108–117.975 MHz, 960–1164 MHz and 5091–5150 MHz were allocated to the AM(R)S25 Office of Legislative Drafting and Publishing, Attorney-General’s Department, 2008,Radiocommunications (Low Interference Potential Devices) Class Licence 2000, available at:www.comlaw.gov.au.26 This application uses the 2.5 GHz band used for ENG. For more information, see section 220.127.116.11 For more information go to www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD/pc=PC_312182.28 For more information, www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD/pc=PC_310839#1529 Channel spacing has been reduced from 50 kHz to 25 kHz channels in Australia; 8.33 kHz channels arebeing used in Europe.
37. on a primary basis. Applications operating in these bands are intended to provideinformation related to safety, navigation and traffic management to the cockpit and tofacilitate the reduction of runway incursions. This can be achieved through the use ofdata links transmitting information from systems such as ATC radars, weather radarsand monitoring systems.To avoid interference with the broadcasting service operating at 85–108 MHz (VHF-FM band), the frequency range 108–112 MHz will be a guard band. Use of the guardband will be limited to those systems that support air navigation functions, namelythe broadcast of radionavigation-satellite service (RNSS) signal corrections forground-based GPS augmentation systems. The 112–117.975 MHz band is intendedto provide additional radiocommunications services relating to the safety andregularity of flight.The 960–1164 MHz band is intended for use by air-to-ground LOS applications overlong distances and with moderate throughput. The only AM(R)S system allowed tooperate in the band is the universal access transceiver (UAT), which is used forautomatic dependant surveillance broadcast (ADSB) in Australia. The Department ofDefence (Defence) operates the joint tactical information distribution system (JTIDS)in the 960–1215 MHz band on a ‘no interference, no protection’ basis.30The 5091–5150 MHz band is intended for use by airport surface applicationstransmitting over short distances with high throughput and security applicationsemploying secure and confidential transmissions used in response to interruption ofaircraft operations (such as runway incursions). However, ICAO is also studying thefeasibility of air-ground aviation communications at 5 GHz with a view to easingcongestion in the VHF aeronautical band.Aeronautical mobile telemetryAt WRC-07, additional spectrum allocations were made for aeronautical mobiletelemetry (AMT) for flight test systems in the 4400–4940 MHz and 5091–5150 MHzbands. It is expected that telemetry systems will be used by Defence, especiallyconsidering that the Australian Radiofrequency Spectrum Plan 2009 (the SpectrumPlan) designates the 4400–4940 MHz band to be used principally for defencepurposes. However, when there are similarities in requirements, the ACMA mayconsider options to permit the sharing of this band with other government agenciesfor such uses.Wideband aeronautical mobile systemsApproaches to the ACMA by industry representatives indicate that the use ofwideband aeronautical mobile systems is likely to grow significantly in the future. Theability of airborne platforms to provide data to ground-based terminals is rapidlyincreasing and increased data rates, combined with a proliferation of such systems,will result in increased demand for spectrum. Much of this demand is expected tomanifest itself in mission data downlinks and high data rate payloads such as video,which are likely to require large bandwidths.Planning arrangements for wideband aeronautical mobile systems will be required toaccommodate a wide range of applications and operational requirements. Such arange of requirements may be compatible with spectrum sharing between thedifferent applications. For example, the use of wideband AMT systems is likely to be30 JTIDS is an advanced information distribution system using frequency-hopping, spread spectrumtechnology that provides communications between fixed stations, aircraft, warships and air defenceground units, thereby providing secure integrated communications, navigation and identification capabilityto tactical operations. This means that the system must not cause interference to otherradiocommunications services, and it will not be afforded protection against interference from otherservices.
38. sporadic and occur in geographically isolated areas, while wideband aeronauticalsystems in support of emergency service applications are likely to operate moreregularly and over more populated areas.The operational characteristics of airborne platforms usually make sharing withterrestrial services problematic. There is a range of quality of service requirementsfor these systems, depending on the application. While communications related toair traffic or flight control require a high level of protection, the robustness of otherapplications, such as payload downlinks, is not so critical and can potentially beafforded less protection.Ku-band CDLOne family of data link standards (primarily for military use) is the common data link(CDL).31 CDL is designed to operate over a number of different bands, includingthose 10 GHz bands currently designated for use for defence purposes. However,Ku-band CDLs that have an uplink in the 15.15–15.35 GHz band and a downlink inthe 14.40–14.83 GHz band pose significant spectrum management challenges inAustralia because this spectrum is currently used extensively by terrestrial fixed P-Plinks and by satellite Earth-to-space links.32Defence has had preliminary discussions with the ACMA seeking to establisharrangements in Australia to support Ku-band CDL operations. The ACMAunderstands that Defence’s primary interest in CDL applications is to support anumber of existing and planned systems. The ACMA also understands that there arelegitimate requirements to provide an appropriate degree of support for Ku-bandCDL operations in Australia by other government agencies. Other governmentagencies may seek to acquire systems using CDLs or will have a requirement tocommunicate with Defence systems utilising Ku-band CDLs.Unmanned aerial vehiclesAn unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) can be controlled remotely or fly autonomouslybased on pre-programmed flight plans or more complex dynamic automationsystems. Defence currently uses UAVs, with control communications typicallyoperating in the bands within 230–400 MHz, 2.9–3.4 GHz and 4.4–5 GHz. Thesebands are designated in the ARSP for use principally for defence purposes. Defencestates that these are mission-critical communications that must not suffer harmfulinterference.Spectrum demand for UAVs is expected to increase significantly over the nextdecade. UAV use in civilian applications is a developing market and applicationssuch as weather research, crop monitoring and coastal patrols may be introduced inAustralia in the future. While some demand may be able to be accommodated incurrent spectrum allocations, WRC-12 agenda item 1.3 seeks to identify additional ormodified spectrum allocations for UAVs, taking into consideration the spectrumrequirements and regulatory measures required to support remote flight commandand control and ATC communications relay. As some UAVs will require the use ofsatellites for beyond-LOS communications, as well as terrestrial links for LOSoperations, one area of study is the feasibility of introducing a worldwide AMS(R)Ssystem in the 5000–5150 MHz band. This is in addition to wideband aeronauticalmobile systems used for mission data downlinks, which may also be considered atWRC-12.31 From a spectrum management perspective, the tactical common data link (TCDL) is a very similarsystem.32 Ku-band generally refers to the frequency range 12–18 GHz.
39. Use of higher frequenciesThe increase in data rates (generally leading to larger system bandwidths) is a trendwhich, along with gradual saturation of lower bands, is leading towards the use ofhigher frequencies, particularly for applications that do not require long propagationdistances. An example of this is the AM(R)S allocation added to the 5091–5150 MHzband at WRC-07. Previously, aeronautical mobile allocations were mostly made inVHF spectrum.Australian Air Traffic Management Strategic PlanIn 2007, the Australian Strategic Air Traffic Management Group (ASTRA) publishedthe third edition of the Australian Air Traffic Management Strategic Plan.33 The plansets the path for the future development of ATM in Australia from now to 2025 andbeyond and describes ASTRA’s vision of ATM in the future.Safety considerationsThere are concerns within industry regarding interference to aeronauticalcommunications systems stemming from the susceptibility of digital systems tointerference from in-home cable television systems and power line transmissions,which may pose an obstruction to the migration from analog to digital aeronauticalcommunications. ICAO is continuing to address all regulatory aspects ofaeronautical matters on the WRC-12 agenda. Its aim is to protect aeronauticalspectrum for the radiocommunication and radionavigation systems required forcurrent and future safety-of-flight applications. This approach is similar to ICAO’spublished position for WRC-07 that stressed that safety considerations dictateexclusive frequency bands must be allocated to safety critical aeronautical systemsand that adequate protection against harmful interference must be ensured to permitsafe and efficient operation of aircraft.345.1.3 The ACMA’s proposed approachesWorld Radiocommunications Conference 2012The most significant changes within the 2011–2015 timeframe are expected to relateto the additional allocations made to the aeronautical mobile service at WRC-12. It ispossible that some VHF and L-band systems may be introduced within the next fiveyears to support air navigation functions, long-range communications and globalnavigation satellite system (GNSS) correction broadcasts, along with short-rangesurface applications for the dissemination of systems data at 5 GHz.35Measures to introduce new AM(R)S applications in allocations made at WRC-07Following the primary allocations made to the AM(R)S in the 108–117.975 MHz,960–1164 MHz and 5091–5150 MHz bands, the ACMA will consider the impact ofthe introduction of aeronautical mobile systems on existing services. No compatibilitycriteria currently exist between AM(R)S systems and adjacent band FM radiobroadcasting services in the 87.5–108 MHz band, the aeronautical radionavigationservice (ARNS) in the 960–1164 MHz band, or RNSS in the adjacent 1164–1215MHz band. The VHF-FM broadcasting band is heavily used in Australia, while in the960–1164 MHz band there is significant use of aeronautical radionavigation systems(see section 5.6.1). The ACMA will monitor the deployment and operation of ground-based augmentation systems (GBAS and GRAS—see section 5.6.2) in the 108–117.975 MHz band to ensure that no detriment is caused to the existing services.33 ASTRA is Australia’s whole-of-industry air traffic management planning body. ASTRA includes airlines,airports, regional aviation, pilots, general aviation and various government organisations. The AustralianAir Traffic Management Strategic Plan, is available at www.astra.aero.34 International Civil Aviation Organisation, ICAO Position for the ITU WRC-07 and positions on WRC-12Agenda items, available www.icao.int/anb/panels/acp/35 L-band refers to the frequency range between 1 GHz and 2 GHz.
40. As an interim measure, AM(R)S systems must meet the requirements of thestandards and recommended practices of Annex 10 of the ICAO Convention onInternational Civil Aviation. By adhering to these requirements, ARNS systems arecompatible with broadcasting services. However, as mentioned earlier, with theexception of the UAT, AM(R)S systems may not operate in the 960–1164 MHz banduntil the ITU completes studies on operational and technical measures to allowsharing between the AM(R)S and the co-band ARNS and adjacent band RNSS.Sharing studies are much more advanced for the 5091–5150 MHz band. InAustralia, the only current use of the band is by Globalstar feeder links serving non-geostationary satellites of the MSS. At WRC-07, three provisional resolutions wereproduced—418, 419 and 748— which outline considerations relating to the use ofairport surface applications, AMT and security transmissions, respectively.Resolutions 419 and 748 state that the ITU considers sharing between the relevantaeronautical mobile systems with the fixed-satellite service (FSS) to be feasible,provided that the aeronautical mobile systems operate in accordance withRecommendation ITU-R M.1827. Resolution 418 refers to Recommendation ITU-RM.1828, which provides technical and operational requirements for aircraft stationsand Report ITU-R M.2118, which describes methods to ensure compatibilitybetween aircraft stations used for AMT and the FSS. The annex to Resolution 418outlines sharing criteria, including a power flux density (pfd) limit at the FSS orbit.The introduction of AM(R)S in these bands would typically require consideration andapplication of such ITU sharing studies, criteria and requirements of the Australianoperating environment.Aeronautical mobile telemetryBefore considering any options for shared use of AUS1 bands within 4.4–5 GHz, theACMA would consult with interested parties and Defence.Wideband aeronautical mobile systemsKu-band CDLThe ACMA will continue to work with Defence and other government users, wherenecessary, to identify appropriate whole-of-government approaches to support CDLuse of the 15 GHz band while maintaining the utility of the band for existing andfuture fixed and satellite services. As part of this, the ACMA will explore, withDefence, options for customised Ku-band CDL equipment that maintainsinteroperability with CDL systems of other countries, but is better suited to Australianspectrum management arrangements.UAVsCivilian UAV applications are expected to appear in the medium-term. In the short tomedium term, the ACMA will continue to investigate the demand for suchapplications as they arise and will also follow closely developments related to WRC-12 Agenda item 1.3.Other considerationsThe ACMA is developing its positions in the lead-up to WRC-12 based on ITUstudies and in consultation with industry, Airservices Australia and the Civil AviationSafety Authority (CASA).The implementation of new developments in the aeronautical industry is typicallycharacterised by long timeframes as changes requiring aircraft refit have majoroverhaul lead times (typically five to seven years). In addition, the bands used foraeronautical purposes are determined at an international level, usually afterconsiderations that extend over one or more WRC cycles. As a result, changes toallocations for aeronautical purposes do not occur rapidly. However, given the rolesof Airservices Australia and CASA, the ACMA’s role in spectrum management for
41. the aeronautical service is more limited when compared to the ACMA’s responsibilityregarding other radiocommunications services. Where necessary, the ACMA willwork closely with these government agencies to facilitate spectrum requirements foraeronautical operations, especially considering the safety of life aspect that theseservices entail.WRC-12The following WRC-12 agenda items are relevant to the aeronautical mobile service: Agenda item 1.3—unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) Agenda item 1.4—to facilitate introduction of AM(R)S in the bands 112-117.975 MHz, 960–1164 MHz and 5000–5030 MHz Agenda item 1.7—ITU studies on the spectrum requirements of AMS(R) Agenda item 1.12—sharing studies between the aeronautical mobile service and other co-primary services in the 37–38 GHz band.36The latest information on Australia’s preliminary view on WRC-12 agenda items is onthe ACMA website.5.1.4 Beyond 2015Data intensive ATM networksBeyond 2015, aeronautical mobile communications are expected to continue tomove towards harmonised ATM networks combining ground-to-ground and ground-to-air links, voice and data communications and the integration of data from a widevariety of ground-based sensors.Taking into consideration the general trend towards increasing data communicationsrelative to voice, the addition of data services in the HF aeronautical bands is alsopossible within the next decade. However, a corresponding increase in the spectrumrequired for such purposes is not expected, as it is likely that these services willutilise satellite communications rather than in HF terrestrial transmissions.5.2 BroadcastingThe broadcasting service involves one-way radiofrequency transmissions intendedfor direct reception by the general public.37 Currently, the principal uses of thebroadcasting service in Australia are in the medium frequency (MF) band for AMradio, in the VHF band for FM radio and in both the VHF and UHF bands fortelevision (subscription television services are considered in the satellite section). 385.2.1 Current spectrum useMF-AM radio broadcastingThe MF-AM band (526.5–1606.5 kHz) is used for national, community andcommercial broadcasting services, as well as high power open narrowcasting(HPON) services.39 Coverage for these services can be wide area or local, although36 Fixed service, mobile service, space research service (space-Earth) and fixed-satellite service (space-Earth).37 In this report, the broadcasting-satellite service is included in the satellite service section and mobiletelevision is included in the WAS section, due to strong technical and/or commercial synergies with theseother services.38 MF is the frequency range 300–3000 kHz. AM stands for amplitude modulation.39 National services are those provided by Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), SpecialBroadcasting Service (SBS) and the Parliamentary and News Radio Broadcasting Service.39 Narrowcasting services are broadcasting services whose reception is limited due to programming oflimited appeal or targeted to special interest groups, or limited to certain locations or periods of time(section 18 of the Broadcasting Services Act 1992).
42. at MF frequencies, long- range interference (which worsens with night-time sky wavepropagation) makes international coordination (particularly with New Zealand andIndonesia) necessary for higher-power transmitters. The long-distance propagationmakes MF-AM radio effective in Australia’s remote regions; however, it has pooreraudio quality and is more prone to electrical noise than VHF-FM. The ACMA isaware of some industry views that the MF-AM band is heavily congested.As at September 2010, there were about 267 broadcasting licences and 32 licensedHPON services in the MF-AM band.MF and VHF narrowband area servicesNarrowband area services (NAS) are broadcasting services licensed to operate innon-broadcasting allocations. Most NAS services have been licensed in the MFfrequency range of 1606.5–1705 kHz, immediately above the MF-AM broadcastingband (MF NAS services). Some licences have also been issued in VHF bands, at70 MHz, 77 MHz, 151–152 MHz and 173 MHz. As at September 2010, there wereabout 324 licensed NAS stations, of which approximately 231 are in the MF band.NAS stations are usually used to provide ‘narrowcasting’ programming.Narrowcasting services must have reception limited in some way, for example, bybeing targeted at special interest groups. Such operation is authorised under a classlicence in accordance with the Broadcasting Services Act 1992 (BSA). However, aNAS station licensee who wishes to provide a commercial or communitybroadcasting service must obtain a non-broadcasting services bands (BSB) licenceunder Part 4 (commercial broadcasting) or Part 6 (community broadcasting) of theBSA.In the case of MF NAS licences, the right to provide a commercial broadcastingservice is circumscribed by a ministerial direction and resultant apparatus licencecondition. In effect, an MF NAS licence may only be used to provide a commercialbroadcasting service if the MF NAS licence was issued before 6 November 2002.The commercial broadcasting service must be permitted by a section 40 licenceissued before that date. Furthermore, the commercial broadcasting service musthave commenced before 29 August 2004.40 Although the ACMA does not have a‘use it or lose it’ licence condition for MF NAS licences. Any MF NAS stationproviding a commercial broadcasting service under a section 40 licence, is subject toa licence condition requiring that the licensee will provide services that contribute toan adequate and comprehensive range of services in the licence area. Feedbackfrom consultation with industry suggests that many NAS licences are not currently inuse.HF radio broadcastingAs at September 2010, there was very limited use of HF spectrum for domesticbroadcasting within Australia. The only significant domestic usage is the ABC’s HFInland Service (some channels in the 2 to 5 MHz range), in addition to a fewnarrowcasting services. Only three broadcasters are currently using the HFbroadcasting bands to provide international broadcasting services from Australia.The ACMA has embargoed the assignment of services other than broadcasting inseveral HF bands to encourage the introduction of digitally modulated emissions forbroadcasting services in these bands.4140 The limitation on provision of commercial services (and the grandfathering of existing services) wasimposed by the Australian Communications Authority (MF NAS Transmitter Licence) Direction No. 1 of2003.41 For more information please refer to Embargo 46, contained in RALI MS03: Spectrum Embargoes,available at www.acma.gov.au.
43. VHF-FM radio broadcastingThe VHF-FM band (VHF Band II 87.5–108 MHz) is used for national, commercialand community radio broadcasting services, as well as low power opennarrowcasting (LPON) and HPON services. The VHF-FM band is considered bysome broadcasters and the ACMA to be heavily congested in major cities andnearby regional areas. This view is supported by the difficulty the ACMA hasexperienced in planning additional services in many regional areas. The pricesobtained for VHF-FM commercial radio broadcasting licences in major metropolitanmarkets are evidence of demand for additional FM broadcasting channels.42 Forexample, the 2004 auctions of single FM licences in Melbourne, Brisbane andSydney attracted winning bids of $52 million, $80 million and $106 million,respectively.About 30 per cent of the approximately 2,235 broadcasting licences held in the VHFBand II are used for retransmission services.43 Retransmission services in this bandtypically serve small population centres in rural and remote areas and are fed viasatellite. Despite the large number of retransmission licences, the majority of theAustralian population receives VHF-FM services from a small number of high-powertransmitting sites.In addition to national, commercial and community VHF-FM radio broadcastingservices, the 87.5–108 MHz band contains significant numbers of LPON and HPONservices. Under section 34 of the BSA, three channels (87.6, 87.8 and 88.0 MHz)have been made available to accommodate LPON services until the end of 2013,when the current Determination of Spectrum under the BSA expires. It is expectedthat the ACMA will commence consultation with industry on the future of the LPONplanning and regulatory arrangements in 2011.As at September 2010, approximately 1,996 LPON services have been licensed tooperate on these frequencies, with about another 60 LPON services licensed tooperate on frequencies above 88 MHz. Unlike licences for NAS stations, LPONlicences are subject to ‘use it or lose it’ conditions. There are approximately 216HPON services licensed to operate in the 88–108 MHz range.VHF Band III Digital radio broadcastingVHF Band III (174–230 MHz) spectrum is used in the five metropolitan licence areasof Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney to broadcast terrestrial digitalradio services, sharing spectrum with digital and analog television services.The official digital radio start-up day for these areas was 1 July 2009 and from thatdate digital radio services have been provided using the upgraded version of theDigital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) standard, called DAB+.No date is yet prescribed for the extension of digital radio into regional areas. Whilespectrum within VHF television channel 9A was available, with certain caveats, ineach of the five metropolitan licence areas, additional spectrum within VHF Band III42 Australian Broadcasting Authority, 25 September 2003, ABA – NR60/2003—Analog commercial radiosector. The ABA stated that from this date, it did not propose to allocate any further analog commercialradio licences within five years of the last allocation in the ongoing round at that time. The last allocationwas made for Melbourne in August 2004 (see ‘$52 million bid for new Melbourne commercial radiolicence’, ABA Update, August 2004, Australian Broadcasting Authority, p. 7).43 Including commercial, community (both permanent and temporary community broadcast licences),national and retransmission services. Under section 212 of the BSA, in addition to the retransmission ofcommercial broadcasting (within the licence area), national broadcasting and National Indigenous TV Ltdprogramming content, commercial broadcasters are permitted to retransmit their program content outsidetheir licence area with special written permission from the ACMA.
44. is not currently available in most regional areas.44 Nevertheless, scientific trials ofDAB+ digital radio are being conducted in both Canberra and Darwin using availableBand III spectrum on an interim basis. Ministerial direction requires the ACMA tomake provision for 14 MHz in each metropolitan licence located between 174-230MHz for television broadcasting services to allow for regional DAB+ rollouts. 45Furthermore, in November 2010 the Department of Broadband, Communicationsand the Digital Economy commenced a review of digital radio technologiesconducted in accordance with section 215A of the Broadcasting Services Act 1992.Comments on the Department’s discussion paper, Technologies for transmission ofdigital radio services in regional licence areas, closed on 24 December.VHF/UHF television broadcastingIn Australia, analog and digital television broadcasting services are provided in VHFand UHF bands using 7 MHz-wide channels. Details of current usage are listedbelow: VHF Band I (45–52 MHz and 56–70 MHz): VHF channels 0, 1 and 2 for analog television. VHF Band II (85–92 MHz and 94–108 MHz): VHF channels 3, 4 and 5 for analog television (in a limited number of geographic areas; these channels are shared with extensive deployments of VHF-FM radio broadcasting services). Television channel 5A (137–144 MHz) for analog television. VHF Band III (174–230 MHz): VHF channels 6–9, 9A and 10–12 for analog and digital television services. UHF Bands IV and V (520–820 MHz): UHF channels 28–69 for analog and digital television services.46As at September 2010, approximately 4,766 transmitters were licensed, comprisedof about 3,522 analog and 1,244 digital transmitters. These figures aredemonstrative of the move from analog to digital television. Compared with thefigures presented in the previous edition of the Outlook, the number of analogtransmitters has reduced by four per cent (78 transmitters) and the number of digitaltransmitters has increased by three per cent (174 transmitters). In the case of analogtelevision, the majority of television transmitter licences are for retransmission;however, the majority of Australia’s population rely on 250 analog and 244 digitaltransmitters at 52 high-power ‘main station’ transmitting sites for delivery of theirtelevision services.47Australia is currently transitioning from analog to digital television. In most areas,television services are delivered through simultaneous transmission of both analogand digital services (known as ‘simulcasting’). However, the switchover to a digital-only service has taken place in a small number of licence areas in Victoria, SouthAustralia and New South Wales. Digital television, unlike analog television, permitsinterference-free adjacent channel transmissions in the same location. For this andother reasons, digital television is far more spectrally efficient than analog television.Digital television allows broadcasters to transmit multiple content streams (known as44 The availability of spectrum for digital radio was addressed in the Australian Communications andMedia Authority (Realising the Digital Dividend) Direction 2010, issued by the Minister in July 2010 anddiscussed in more detail below.45 9 July 2010, Australian Communications and Media Authority (Realising the Digital Dividend) Direction2010, paragraph 5 (d)46 The ACMA’s policy is, where practical, to avoid allocating digital services on channels 68 and 69.47 For the purpose of this Outlook, ‘major’ transmitting sites are defined as sites with one or more digitalservices with either VHF or UHF effective radiated power above 10 kW. Data correct October 2010.These numbers will change as new digital transmitters commence (particular in SA & WA) and as analogtransmitters cease at switchover.
45. multi channelling: for example, additional streams of standard definition (SD) or highdefinition (HD) audiovisual content, or audio only content or data) within a single 7MHz channel with the use of a multiplexer.Figure 5.1 shows the proportions of allocated spectrum and licences in thebroadcasting services bands (BSB) for the AM and FM radio and VHF and UHFtelevision services in Australia.Figure 5.1 Distribution of allocated spectrum48 and broadcasting licences in the BSB Allocated spectrum (MHz) Broadcasting Licences (approximate) 1.08 20 290 930 49 2400 56 3160 300 70 380 140 MF-AM band VHF band III VHF-FM band UHF bands IV and V VHF TV bands below 174 MHz Digital TVServices ancillary to terrestrial television broadcastingBefore television programming content is broadcast to the general public, variousother radiocommunications services are utilised to relay this content. See section5.3.1 for details of fixed services used by broadcasters (for example, electronic newsgathering, television outside broadcast, studio-to-transmitter links and point-to-pointfixed links) and section 5.7 for details of satellite broadcasting and satellite links thatare used to support terrestrial broadcasting services.5.2.2 2011–2015Issues affecting spectrum demandA feature of both television and radio spectrum demand within the BSB is theimportance of regulation in determining spectrum requirements. The development oftelevision and radio services in the BSB is both constrained and driven by legallyimposed requirements on the broadcasting sector. For example, the statutoryscheme introduced in 2007 facilitated the introduction of digital radio, but in licenceareas where digital radio has commenced, there is a six-year moratorium on newdigital commercial radio licences. The highly regulated environment makes ‘demand’48 In the graph of allocated spectrum, it should be noted that AM radio broadcasting services operate at amuch lower frequency than television services, and that the bandwidth of a single MF-AM transmission is0.3 per cent that of a single television channel. Similarly, the bandwidth of a VHF-FM transmission is onlyabout 3 per cent that of a single television channel.
46. per se an unreliable guide to future spectrum requirements. Put another way, futurerequirements for broadcasting spectrum are likely to depend critically on governmentdecisions about the future development of the sector.A second distinctive feature of planning for the BSB is that the minister, rather thanthe ACMA, is responsible for decisions to vary the BSB. This means that the ACMAdoes not have authority to make planning decisions that involve reviewing theboundaries of the BSB. The ACMA’s observations about planning and demandissues affecting the BSB need to be read in the light of these distinctive features ofbroadcasting planning.For example, future spectrum availability for television will be influenced by thegovernment decision on the digital dividend, announced in June 2010. The minister’sannouncement identified the size (126 MHz) and the frequency location (694-820MHz) of the digital dividend. In July 2010, the minister made the AustralianCommunications and Media Authority (Realising the Digital Dividend) Direction 2010directing the ACMA on issues relating to the restacking digital television services toclear the digital dividend spectrum.49 This direction also addresses the availability ofspectrum for DAB+ digital radio.Analog radio broadcastingAnalog radio is broadcast in the MF-AM and VHF-FM bands. Both bands areextensively used and in most areas, there will only be limited opportunities for theintroduction of additional services.The switch-off of analog television services will create some limited opportunities foradditional FM radio services, or improved coverage of existing services, in areascurrently served by analog television services operating in VHF Band II (channels 3,4 and 5).Analog radio is expected to continue well beyond the timeframe considered in thisreport. The explanatory memorandum to the Broadcasting Legislation Amendment(Digital Radio) Act 2007 notes that for the near future, digital radio is to beconsidered a supplementary technology to analog radio and not a replacementtechnology.50Digital radio broadcastingThe BSA includes a prohibition on the issue of new commercial digital radio licencesfor six years after the digital radio start-up day in a licence area. Therefore, inAdelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney no new commercial digital radiolicences will be issued until at least July 2015.The BSA provides for the start-up of digital radio services in regional licence areas,but does not specify a date.51 The minister has the power to determine the start-upday for regional licence areas, but has not yet determined that date. Digital radioservices will not commence in regional licence areas before a date specified by theminister.A review of digital radio technologies suitable for regional licence areas will beconsidered in the government review noted above.52 The outcomes of this review will49 www.comlaw.gov.au/ComLaw/Legislation/LegislativeInstrument1.nsf/all/search/9B140195C1D72187CA25775E001827AA.50 Broadcasting Legislation Amendment (Digital Radio) Bill 2007, Explanatory Memorandum, published 2April 2007.51 Under subsection 8AC(8) of the Broadcasting Services Act 1992 all areas other than the fivemetropolitan licence areas are defined as ‘regional licence areas’.52 www.dbcde.gov.au/radio/digital_radio/review_of_digital_radio_technologies_for_regional_australia.
47. inform the nature, timing and spectrum requirements of any expansion into regionallicence areas. A second review, scheduled for completion by 1 January 2014, willconsider the state of development and implementation of digital radio technologies.There are spectrum availability challenges associated with digital radio rolloutoptions and the ACMA will need to work closely with government in the developmentof options for regional licence areas.However, based on currently planned and operating digital television channelarrangements and the identification by the minister of 14 MHz of Band III TV fordigital radio (noted above) it is likely that some significant compromises would needto be made in most regional licence areas if DAB+ is to be accommodated in VHFBand III spectrum in regional areas.DAB+ involves multiplex transmitters that combine a large number of differentprogram streams. Such multiplexing is best suited to wide coverage services whereseveral licensees share a common licence area allowing them to use the samemultiplex transmitter. In some situations, DAB+ may not be an optimum technical orcommercial method for providing digital radio services, notably:1. For broadcasters in small licence or coverage areas within which only one or two services are licensed to operate (examples include local coverage community broadcasters in metropolitan or regional areas).2. In small regional markets where there may only be a few broadcasting services in total.For this reason, there is a need to continue investigation of alternative technologiesunder the department’s current review of digital radio services in regional licenceareas. At this stage, the most relevant alternatives for local coverage communityservices and for covering less densely populated areas are Digital Radio Mondiale(DRM), now known as DRM30, which operates below 30 MHz, and DRM+, whichoperates in VHF Bands I and II.53In September 2006, the ACMA placed embargo 44 on new assignments in nine HFbands to support domestic broadcasting services using DRM technology.54 Anotherpossibility may be the introduction of DRM services in the MF band but, asmentioned earlier, given the current high utilisation of the MF band, the opportunitiesfor doing this would appear to be limited unless a major replanning of that band wasto be undertaken.The ACMA has also issued licences for trial systems in the L-band (1452–1492MHz), as well as trial systems for DRM in the MF and MF-NAS bands and at 26MHz, to help the ACMA and industry assess the performance of digital radiosystems. The ACMA is aware of some interest in the use of DRM using MF NASlicences in the 26 MHz band for domestic HF broadcasting.TelevisionThe Australian Government performed a legislative review on various aspects of thetelevision broadcasting regulatory framework. All of the necessary reviews wereundertaken and discussion papers were released for public comment.55 Limitedchanges were made as a result of submissions received (mostly from industry), but53 The DRM+ system is a development of the DRM system that is designed to operate in frequency bandsbetween 30 and 108 MHz. Trials of this system commenced in Germany in November 2007.54 Embargo 44, contained in RALI MS03: Spectrum Embargoes; available at: www.acma.gov.au.55 Reports on the results of the consultation process were completed for all of the reviews, except thereview of the duration of the analog/digital television simulcast period.
48. the information gathered was considered in the formulation of government mediareforms. Some of the main outcomes of this work are outlined below.Simulcasting of analog and digital television services are expected to be maintainedin current VHF and UHF television spectrum until the switchover to digital-onlytelevision. In October 2008, the minister announced a detailed digital switchovertimetable, indicating that analog services would be switched off at different timesaround Australia, depending on the geographical area. Under the timetable, regionalareas will switch over first, which started from 2010, while remote areas and statemetropolitan areas will be the last to switch over, in 2013.56Table 5.1 Digital television timetable 2011–2013 State/ Switchover area Window Victoria Gippsland 5 May 2011 North Central Victoria 5 May 2011 South West Victoria 5 May 2011 Goulburn Valley/Upper Murray 5 May 2011 Queensland Wide Bay 1 Jul–31 Dec 2011 Capricornia 1 Jul–31 Dec 2011 Qld Central Coast & Whitsundays 1 Jul–31 Dec 2011 Darling Downs 1 Jul–31 Dec 2011 North Queensland 1 Jul–31 Dec 2011 Far North Queensland 1 Jul–31 Dec 2011 NSW Griffith/Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area 1 Jan–30 Jun 2012 South West Slopes/Eastern Riverina 1 Jan–30 Jun 2012 Illawarra & the South Coast 1 Jan–30 Jun 2012 Central Tablelands & Central Western Slopes 1 Jan–30 Jun 2012 ACT & Southern Tablelands 1 Jan–30 Jun 2012 North West Slopes & Plains 1 Jul–31 Dec 2012 Richmond/Tweed 1 Jul–31 Dec 2012 Northern Rivers 1 Jul–31 Dec 2012 Hunter 1 Jul–31 Dec 2012 All states Metropolitan 1 Jan–30 Jun 2013 Remote Central & Easter Australia 1 Jul–31 Dec 2013 Regional & Remote Western Australia 1 Jul–31 Dec 2013The digital switchover process is ensuring that all viewers who received analog free-to-air television before switchover will be able to receive digital free-to-air television.Until digital switchover is completed, there will be very limited opportunities tointroduce new services (beyond those planned for digital television services). Prior to56 The Mildura/Sunraysia district (in Victoria) was the first area to switch over, on 30 June 2010. This wasfollowed by regional areas in SA and Broken Hill on 15 December 2010. For more information, see‘Conroy sets Digital TV switchover timetable’, Ministerial media release, 19 October 2008,www.minister.dbcde.gov.au/media/media_releases/2008/077.
49. digital switchover completion, the only remaining vacant television spectrum inAustralia was the spectrum that was to be packaged as Channel A and Channel B.These channels were planned alongside the five digital networks and werepreviously intended to complement the existing five analog networks by allowingprovision of ‘datacasting’ and/or narrowcasting service or, in the case of Channel B,mobile TV. However, the frequencies were never allocated for these purposes, otherthan on a temporary trial basis in Sydney. The frequencies differ depending on thegeographical location but are generally located in UHF television Bands IV or V (thatis, 520–820 MHz). The long-term future of these channels has been affected by theminister’s July 2010 direction to the ACMA on ‘Realising the Digital Dividend’. Thedirection makes it clear that the ACMA should make provision for only six digitalchannels in each area Australia-wide. As restack implementation commences, thesecond of the two unassigned channels will gradually cease to be available untilthere is only one (sixth) additional channel Australia-wide.These channels may, however, be used for short-term trials prior to switchover,subject to the commencement of restacking in adjacent areas. In accordance withthe minister’s announcement of 4 November 2009 (the ‘Digital Pathway forCommunity Television’), in Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney one ofthe unassigned channels, Channel A, will be licensed for digital community televisionuntil switchover in 2013.5.2.3 The ACMA’s proposed approachesRadio broadcastingGiven the current high usage levels in both the MF-AM and VHF-FM bands, there islimited opportunity to introduce new analog radio services. The ACMA will monitortechnical developments and usage levels but no dramatic changes in analog radioare foreseen in the 2011–2015 timeframe.The most significant development for radio may be the expansion of digital radioservices into regional areas. The deployment of DAB+, or other digital radiotechnologies, in regional areas is an issue that requires further consideration by theACMA and other areas of government. Part of that process will be to supportscientific trials of new technology.57TelevisionThe government announced details of the timeline for digital switchover on 19October 2008. The ACMA is assisting the government in its digital switchoveractivities in a number of ways.The ACMA is involved in evaluating digital television coverage to assess whetheranalog and digital services achieve the same level of coverage and reception quality,as well as monitoring the nationwide rollout of digital television infrastructure.The ACMA is also working with the government and broadcasters to complete thedigital rollout process and to plan new digital only gap filler sites and the digitalconversion of self-help retransmission sites. Following the switch off of the analogtelevision services by 31 December 2013, the channels previously used to transmitthose services will become vacant. Digital services will continue to operate inchannels 52–69 (as well as the eight channels in VHF Band III). The services inchannel 52 and above will need to be shifted in order to clear a contiguous block ofspectrum (694–820 MHz) suitable for allocation and re-use as the digital dividend.57 Digital Radio Trials using the Broadcasting Services Bands – Policy Guidelines, available at:www.acma.gov.au/webwr/_assets/main/lib100535/dig%20radio%20trials%20pol%20march06.pdf.
50. In accordance with the government’s decision on the digital dividend, the ACMA hascommenced the replanning of digital television services to clear digital televisionservices from digital dividend band. This ‘restack’ process will see digital televisionservices operating on television channels 52–69 moved to alternative channelsbelow channel 52. This restack process will also require some digital televisionservices operating on channels below 52 to change channels in order to make roomfor services moving from higher channels. The extent to which channels below 52will be affected will depend on the approach taken to restack planning. Consultationon the configuration and allocation of digital dividend spectrum closed on 6December 2010 and the ACMA is currently considering submissions. The ACMAalso held its Digital dividend spectrum tune-up with stakeholders on 3 November2010.WRC-12The following WRC-12 agenda items are relevant to broadcasting services: Agenda item 1.4—to facilitate introduction of AM(R)S systems in the bands 112–117.975 MHz, 960–1164 MHz and 5000–5030 MHz Agenda item 1.17—sharing studies between the mobile service and other services in the band 790–862 MHz in Regions 1 and 3.The latest information on Australia’s preliminary view on WRC-12 agenda items is onthe ACMA website.5.2.4 Beyond 2015Digital radio broadcastingThe extension of digital radio services into regional licence areas is likely to dependon the success of DAB+ in the five metropolitan licence areas, the availability ofsuitable spectrum in either VHF Band III or the L-Band and the adequacy ofalternative technologies (such as DRM or DRM+). It is currently expected that digitalradio will complement rather than replace existing analog radio services anddiscontinuation of analog radio is unlikely within the timeframe of this report.It appears that new digital-only radio services, rather than performanceenhancements, are likely to drive DAB+ take-up. For example, the commercial andnational radio broadcasters have been providing a wide range of digital-only radiocontent, including short-term services relevant to particular touring artists andfestivals.VHF-FM transmission is expected to continue to be an attractive option well into thefuture, especially considering the relatively low cost of establishing and operating FMstations. However, if DAB+ services are commercially successful, some metropolitanMF-AM radio broadcasters may wish to vacate the MF band because of the cost andinefficiency of maintaining duplicate transmissions. Such a migration would onlyoccur if there was a high audience penetration of DAB+ digital receivers and anyaudience loss was commercially insignificant.Based on an assumed longer-term growth in the number of DAB+ services,especially in the metropolitan licence areas, DAB+ spectrum requirements mayincrease beyond current allocations. After the switch-off of analog television, VHFBand III is the preferred spectrum to accommodate additional DAB+ demand, whilemaking L-band spectrum available would require a strategy to clear incumbentservices. The Australian Communications and Media Authority (Realising the DigitalDividend) Direction 2010 will limit the total amount of VHF Band III spectrum inmetropolitan and regional areas to 14 MHz, which is equivalent to eight DABfrequency blocks, of which two or three are in use in each metropolitan licence area.
51. Other radio broadcasting technologies and planning issuesDemand for spectrum for alternative digital radio technologies beyond 2015 willrequire the ACMA to keep under review and potentially consider its policies on: the availability of HF broadcasting spectrum potential for replanning the MF-AM band should incumbent broadcasters wish to vacate the band the future use of vacated VHF Band I and II television spectrum should DRM+ technology become viable.Some alleviation of VHF-FM band congestion may be possible after digital televisionswitchover in areas that are currently covered by analog VHF Band II televisionservices. Areas where significant Band II analog television services currently operateare: Renmark/Loxton and Spencer Gulf North (about 200 km east north east and north of Adelaide, respectively) Bunbury (150 km south of Perth) Townsville Wollongong and Newcastle.Digital television and planning issuesAs mentioned earlier, analog television transmissions are scheduled to ceasenationwide by the end of 2013. This will release the channel capacity currentlyoccupied by analog services in each area. Once the restack of digital televisionservices has been completed, it is expected that there will be minimal scope for newservices beyond the six to be planned as part of the restack. There may be scope foradditional in-fill sites for existing networks depending on the location or whether thesite can be operated as part of a single frequency network. Under current law,decisions about the longer-term use of the BSB are to be made by the minister. Inaddition to the digital dividend in the UHF bands, a further VHF digital dividend willalso arise following the closure of Band I and II and Channel 5A analog televisionservices. A process to consider future use of these bands will need to take place.5.3 FixedThe fixed service is a radiocommunications service between a fixed transmitter andone or more fixed receivers—point-to-point (P-P) or point-to-multipoint (P-MP).58Fixed links are a fundamental communications delivery technology for numerousspectrum users (including government networks, emergency services, utilities andmining operators) and act as a back-haul enabler for other radiocommunicationsnetworks (including mobile telephony and satellite).5.3.1 Current spectrum useThe fixed service has allocations across the entire radiofrequency spectrum, fromvery low frequency (VLF) to extremely high frequency (EHF).59 The usageconsidered here is at UHF (400 MHz and 900 MHz bands) and the bands from 1.5GHz to 58 GHz (often referred to as the microwave bands). Another band includingnoteworthy use is VHF high band for fixed telephony services to remotehomesteads. In addition, a primary band for Defence operations is the 230–399.9MHz band, which is used, among other services, for tactical radio relay systems.58 In this Outlook, the fixed-satellite service is included in the satellite service section and FWA is includedin the WAS section.59 VLF is notionally the frequency range 3–30 kHz and EHF is notionally the frequency range 30–300GHz.
52. The fixed service in the UHF bands is predominantly used by narrowbandapplications including those that link land mobile base stations (P-P) and performtelecommand and telemetry functions (often P-MP). The bands also includewideband fixed services at 403–420 MHz (P-P) and 500–520 MHz (P-MP). The 900MHz band is also used for some studio to transmitter links (STLs) and sound outsidebroadcasting for the broadcasting service.At 400 MHz and 900 MHz, P-MP systems are typically digital or analog systems inwhich a single central master station communicates with a number of outlyingremote fixed stations. The predominant use of these systems is for datatransmission with typical applications including telemetry, supervisory control anddata acquisition (SCADA) systems, computer networking and alarm systems.Specific segments have been set aside in band plans for these systems, but thereare now limited opportunities for new frequency assignments.60 Recently, provisionwas made for these systems to access 400 MHz band spectrum allocated for theland mobile service. Demand for spectrum for P-MP systems appears to be strong inthe 400 MHz and 900 MHz bands.The microwave fixed bands that are used in Australia are specified mostly in theACMA’s Radiocommunications Assignment and Licensing Instruction (RALI) FX3—Microwave Fixed Services Frequency Coordination. These bands can be classifiedinto four major categories of use:1. low-capacity long-haul links—1.5, 1.8, 2.1 and 2.2 GHz bands2. high-capacity long-haul links—3.8, 6, 6.7 and 8 GHz bands3. medium-capacity medium-haul links—7.5, 10 and 13 GHz bands4. back-haul and urban networks—15, 18, 22, 38, 50 and 58 GHz bands.In rural and remote areas, the 1.5 GHz band is used for DRCS/HCRC, whichprovides telephone services to these areas, as well as for the provision of broadbandwireless access (BWA) services.61 The 1.5 GHz band is also used for non-DRCS/HCRC P-P links across Australia. The 1.5 GHz Band Plan prohibits newassignments in the frequency ranges 1452–1492 MHz and 1525–1530 MHz;however, fixed P-MP services for the delivery of telecommunications services in arural or remote area are still permitted.62 This constraint was made to preserveoptions in the 1452–1492 MHz band for the deployment of DSB transmitters in andaround metropolitan areas and in the 1525–1530 MHz band for the MSS.Other microwave bands not listed above are used for television outside broadcast(TOB) services (2.5, 7.2 and 8.3 GHz) or temporary links (49 GHz), or are spectrumlicensed (3.4 and 31 GHz).63 The 3.4 GHz band (outside spectrum-licensed areas)60 The administrative band plan RALI: MS 22 – 400 MHz Plan is available atwww.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD..PC/pc=PC_2571, while the legislative radiocommunications 900MHz Band Plan 1992 is available atwww.comlaw.gov.au/comlaw/Legislation/LegislativeInstrument1.nsf/0/9D52513538D665BACA256FF000063209?OpenDocument61 DRCS is Digital Radio Concentrator System; HCRC is High Capacity Digital Radio ConcentratorSystem. The DRCS system is a microwave point to multipoint system which concentrates thetelecommunication traffic of many users. A typical system comprises a central exchange which connectsto the wireline network, repeater stations and remote stations. Subscribers are connected either to therepeater or a remote station, with a typical transmission link length between two stations of approximately40-50km. DRCS is an ageing technology that is being replaced by HCRC.62 1.5 GHz Band Plan, available atwww.comlaw.gov.au/comlaw/Legislation/LegislativeInstrument1.nsf/0/D9FD9C61C81A64F4CA256FF6001CBA62/$file/1.5bandplan.pdf.63 TOB involves the use of temporary fixed links for broadcast coverage of an event remotely located fromthe broadcasting studio.
53. also provides rural communities with fixed telephony and data communicationsservices. The 2.5 GHz band is also used for electronic news gathering (ENG), whichinvolves the use of terrestrial portable radio equipment by services ancillary tobroadcasting. Typical ENG use includes the transmission of video from a remote unitat a sporting or news event. Some channels in the 13 and 22 GHz bands are alsodesignated for TOB services. The 5 GHz band (4400–5000 MHz) is Defence’s mainband for microwave fixed services, although it is also used for other services.Defence uses this band for tropospheric scatter systems and microwave fixed P-Plinks.5.3.2 2011–2015Issues affecting spectrum demandThe ACMA anticipates variations in spectrum requirements. A move towards HDtelevision and IP-based applications, including fast data access, unified messagingand broadband multimedia may drive increased capacity requirements. However, anincrease in the spectral efficiency of technology may offset this to some degree. TheACMA expects growth in the fixed service to be driven mainly by the back-haulneeded to support the creation and expansion of mobile carrier networks during thetransition from second generation (2G) to 3G and other International MobileTelecommunications (IMT) technologies.64 The demand for broadbandcommunications services in rural and remote areas is likely to have a consequentimplication for back-haul spectrum in the low-capacity bands to support fixedwireless broadband services. Following international trends, the use of high-capacityradio technologies is expected to increase in microwave bands below 15 GHz. Otherfactors that may affect future spectrum demand (such as the possible replacement ofhigh-capacity long-haul trunks with optical fibre) are discussed in the followingsubsections.In considering spectrum availability, particularly for the lower microwave P-P fixed-link bands, it is important to recognise the increasing influence of limiting factors.These include restrictions resulting from usage of these bands by other servicessuch as wireless access services, public telecommunications and other emergingtechnologies.Wireless access services and public telecommunications requirements are stillevolving and expanding to meet the needs of the Australian community. The ACMAhas considered the current and estimated future requirements of these services andmechanisms to minimise potential sharing issues while planning arrangements forfuture P-P fixed-link services. However, the increasing demands for access tospectrum to accommodate technological advances and other demands will almostcertainly require the ACMA to periodically revisit the planning arrangements for P-Pfixed-link bands.Prospective users need to recognise that use of the limited spectrum resource willincreasingly need to be shared and that future availability will inevitably decrease.400 MHz and 900 MHz bandsHigh demand for narrowband fixed links in the 400 MHz band has exceeded theavailable spectrum in certain areas, both metropolitan and regional. Parts of the 900MHz band are also heavily used and there is increasing difficulty in finding availablespectrum for P-MP links in particular. Industry has requested that the ACMA provideadditional opportunities to operate in these bands, particularly for telecommand andtelemetry applications and STLs. Figures 5.2 and 5.3 show the distribution of fixed64 IMT and IMT-Advanced are ITU-approved global standards for 3G and 4G (fourth generation) wirelesscommunications which includes the WiMAX technology.
54. P-P links and fixed P-MP transmitters in the 400 MHz and 900 MHz bandsrespectively.Figure 5.2 Distribution of fixed P-P links (blue lines) and fixed P-MP transmitters (red dots) in the 400MHz band
55. Figure 5.3 Distribution of fixed P-P links (blue lines) and fixed P-MP transmitters (red dots) in the 900MHz bandLow-capacity long-haul linksMost of the 1.8 GHz band is spectrum licensed in major city areas (1710–1785MHz/1805–1880 MHz) with 2 x 15 MHz in the lower segment of the band spectrumlicensed in regional areas (1710–1725 MHz/1805–1820 MHz). Spectrum licences inthis band are typically used for third generation (3G) and GSM mobile telephoneservices. In addition to this, part of the 1.8 GHz band is embargoed to supportpossible future replanning for WAS (see section 5.9.1).65 Most of the 2.1 and 2.2GHz bands in low, medium and high-density areas are either spectrum licensed orembargoed to facilitate the introduction of the Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) or topreserve options for future planning.66 Apparatus licences issued in these andseveral other bands are subject to apparatus licence advisory note BL which states: This frequency band is currently under review to accommodate changes in technology and may lead to a requirement to change frequency or cease transmissions. In this case, the bands are under review for the possible accommodation of WAS.65 Embargo 38, contained in RALI MS03 www.acma.gov.au.66 See Embargo 23, contained in RALI MS03, www.acma.gov.au and theSpectrum Management Agency, 1.9 GHz Band Plan, 1996,www.comlaw.gov.au/ComLaw/legislation/LegislativeInstrument1.nsf/0/4B5FF06D93A21416CA256FEB00083741?OpenDocument prohibits new fixed point-to-point services in 1880–1900 MHz, while Embargo 23(see above) applies to 2025–2110/2200–2300 MHz.
56. In recent years, there has been a decline in the number of low-capacity long-haullinks, which could be due to parts of the 1.8, 2.1 and 2.2 GHz bands beingembargoed and the spectrum licensing of large portions of the bands in populatedareas. These bands are under increasing pressure from other services to share orrelease their spectrum, which could result in operators being reluctant to roll out linksin these bands due to the uncertainty surrounding their future. However, rural andremote, along with some regional areas, are available for apparatus licensing andthese bands continue to be available for the provision of fixed back-haul in rural andremote areas.High-capacity long-haul linksThere is an international trend to identify spectrum below about 3 GHz (and morerecently 6 GHz) for WAS. Decreased opportunity for new fixed-service assignmentsin these lower bands has resulted in a shift of links from the 1.8, 2.1, 2.2 and 3.8GHz band to the 6, 6.7, 7.5 and 8 GHz bands. The latter group of bands are mostlyused along trunk routes that link major towns and cities across Australia andspectrum is highly utilised along these major routes. Considering the cost ofinstalling new trunk routes and the increased capacity that alternatives such as fibreoffer, the ACMA expects that use of these bands will increase slightly over the nextfew years.The deployment of the National Broadband Network (NBN) will inevitably replace anas yet unknown amount of capacity currently carried by fixed links and relievecongestion on major trunk routes and other high-density areas.Figure 5.4 shows the distribution of low-capacity and high-capacity long-haul fixedlinks across Australia.
57. Figure 5.4 Distribution of low-capacity (red lines) and high-capacity (blue lines) long-haul linksBands above 7 GHzThese bands are moderately utilised at present and the projected growth of recentfrequency assignment rates indicates that, based on current growth, there issufficient spectrum to accommodate demand in the short to medium term. However,the deployment of future technologies and the NBN may have an impact onspectrum requirements; for example, future growth in the bands above 15 GHz inurban areas is expected to be driven by the expansion of mobile operator networksand, in particular, the deployment of IMT technologies.The 50 and 58 GHz bands were made available for fixed services, however, due toslow take-up within industry they are currently very lightly utilised. A self-coordinatedapparatus licence is currently available to authorise the use of fixed P-P links in the58 GHz band, with the licensing process guided by RALI FX20—Millimetre WavePoint-To-Point (Self Coordinated) Stations.67 Based on international trends, theACMA believes that these bands may see a large increase in use in the future ifenvisioned technological improvements and increased affordability are realised.However, due to the relatively small re-use distance characteristics of the bands, theACMA expects that additional spectrum requirements for fixed services operating inthese bands are unlikely during the next 15 years.67 RALI FX20 is available at www.acma.gov.au.
58. The broadband wireless technology known variously as millimetre-wave, pencilbeam or gigabit wireless spectrum is designed to operate in the 71–76 GHz and 81–86 GHz bands. As for the 58 GHz band, self-coordinated apparatus licences mayauthorise the use of millimetre wave systems in the 71–76 and 81–86 GHz bands.Transmissions at these frequencies allow communication paths of up to threekilometres and with this technology, full duplex data rates of up to 10 gigabits persecond can be achieved.68 At these frequencies, antennas can have much narrowerbeamwidths than antennas at lower frequencies. This means that millimetre-wavetechnology has a relatively low potential to cause interference to other nearby linksand can provide high-level frequency re-use. Therefore, the ACMA does not expectspectrum shortage in these bands within the next five years, despite the expectationthat the use of this technology will become more widespread.The viable use of increasingly higher frequencies is a common trend inradiocommunications that is facilitated by technological advancements. The use ofactive services (services that generate their own electromagnetic emissions for thepurposes of radiocommunications) is expected to continue above 71 GHz. For thisreason, WRC-12 agenda item 1.8 is to consider the results of ITU studies intosharing arrangements between passive and active services (Resolution 731) andbetween multiple, different co-primary active services (Resolution 732).Spectrum management issuesA number of issues possibly affecting the fixed service will require consideration overthe next five years, in particular, sharing issues between the fixed service and otherservices as a result of decisions made at WRC-12. At WRC-07, the parts of the 790–806 MHz band allocated to the mobile service on a primary basis were identified foruse by administrations wishing to implement IMT—in addition to the existing IMTidentification in the frequency range 806–960 MHz. This latter range includes theentire 900 MHz fixed- service band. Considering the spectral congestion mentionedearlier, the introduction of WAS applications and expansion of publictelecommunications services has further reduced spectrum availability in the lowermicrowave bands.The limited availability of spectrum in the 1.5 GHz band is due in part to the existingheavy use of some channels. It is also due to the restrictions imposed by the 1.5GHz Band Plan to reserve part of the spectrum for the introduction of other services,such as Digital Sound Broadcasting (DSB). The identification of the 1518–1525 GHzMSS allocation (the ‘extension band’) for the satellite component of IMT at WRC-07(see section 5.7.2) may place additional pressure on the fixed service in the 1.5 GHzband in the future.Sharing issues with other services in certain bands may also affect future growth inthat band or other bands. For example, technical arrangements for the 10 GHz bandmay be changed to protect passive sensing operations of the Earth exploration-satellite service (EESS—see section 5.8.2). This could also indirectly affectspectrum demand in, for example, the 11 GHz band, which is currently relativelylightly utilised, but already growing rapidly. The 50 MHz channels of the 22 GHzband may be reviewed with a view to accommodating the potential future satellitebroadcast of high definition television (HDTV) in the 21.4–22 GHz band (see section5.7.2). These channels of the 22 GHz band are relatively lightly utilised by fixed P-Plinks.WRC-12 agenda item 1.5 considers the worldwide/regional harmonisation ofspectrum for ENG. However, the outcome is likely to be based on utilising existingallocations to accommodate ENG applications. Continuing consultation with relevant68 With four-level frequency shift keying (FSK) modulation.
59. stakeholders is essential for the formulation of a national position on this issue.Future spectrum usage for ENG in Australia is currently being considered andACMA’s review of arrangements for the 2.5 GHz band, and the associateddevelopment of long-term spectrum arrangements for ENG, will affect usage of other2 GHz bands.Technological advances, including the use of high-order modulation mechanisms,are resulting in increasing carriage data capacity for the same bandwidths. Theremay be potentially greater susceptibility to interference for new technologiescompared with current technologies. RALI FX3 provides coordination criteria thatinclude specification of target interference protection ratios. These ratios providecertainty of service availability for current technologies but may not be consistentwith the target performance limits of these developing technologies. While some ofthese technologies are capable of adjusting their data capacities to cope withinterference, it is not clear where the optimum balance is between coordination fordata capacity, maximum number of services and achievement of spectrum efficiencyfor the overall public benefit. The ACMA is considering how to manage thesedevelopments and achieve the necessary balance.Coordination of fixed services with Earth stationsThere are a number of frequency bands that have shared allocation with the fixedsatellite service. There are established performance and availability objectivesreflected in coordination arrangements in RALI FX3 providing a benchmark forspectrum use of these bands. However, interference coordination with Earth stationsis more problematic.This is particularly the case for Earth stations receivers considering the very lowsignal levels from satellites, their potentially larger bandwidths that span more thanone fixed-link channel, and the very wide bandpass characteristics of typicalreceivers.Considering the latter, it is often the case that receiver bandwidths greatly exceedthe emission bandwidth they are licensed to receive. This results in commensuratelygreater susceptibility to interference and related spectrum denial to other services.The ACMA cannot consider this larger bandwidth in its coordination decisions forfixed links and assumes that Earth station receivers are fitted with filters that limittheir spectrum use to that of their licensed bandwidth.5.3.3 The ACMA’s proposed approachesThe ACMA will monitor utilisation levels in the relevant bands. If it appears they arebecoming congested, the ACMA will investigate strategies such as facilitating theuse of more spectrally efficient technology, for example, the use of cross polarisationinterference cancellation (XPIC) technology, or increasing the use of unpairedspectrum.69Spectrum users may also consider the use of new trunk routes or the use of opticalfibre if the bands become congested, although these options would involve asignificant financial consideration.The ACMA is conducting an extensive review of P-P arrangements specified in RALIFX3. This review will analyse and amend, where necessary, the microwave bands in69 XPIC (cross-polarisation interference cancellation) is a technology that allows use of the samefrequency over the same path on the opposite polarisation. Unpaired spectrum means that acommunications link only uses one frequency channel, and bidirectional links can be achieved withunpaired spectrum using time division duplex (TDD) technologies.
60. RALI FX3 to ensure the arrangements address community and industry needs. Theproject has been broken down into three main sections: main bands 7.5 GHz band (7425-7225 MHz) 13 GHz band (12.75-13.25 GHz) 15 GHz band (14.4-15.35 GHz) 22 GHz (21.2-23.6 GHz) bands below 5 GHz bands above 5 GHz.The ACMA released a spectrum planning discussion paper in October 2010 thatdetails proposed changes to the microwave frequency bands below 5 GHz.70 Thispaper took into account the outcomes of a consultancy commissioned by the ACMA.The purpose of the consultancy was to determine the long-term aspirations of fixedP-P users in microwave frequency bands below 5 GHz.The paper sought comment from stakeholders about their spectrum requirementsand possible future band-planning arrangements. It was the first in a series of papersand included proposals for changes to existing channelling assignmentarrangements in RALI FX3. Industry responses to this and future papers will betaken into account when RALI FX3 is updated.Spectrum management issuesThe ACMA will consider the need for consistency with international practices whendeveloping arrangements for use of the fixed service bands. The ACMA plans tomaintain support for P-P links and does not intend to make major changes to fixedservice band usage without appropriate consultation. The ACMA may consider thepossible introduction of the satellite broadcast of HDTV in the band 21.4–22 GHz(see section 5.7.2). Generally, incremental improvements to planning arrangementswill be made and measures such as incentive pricing may be utilised to encouragethe use of less congested bands and the relinquishment of unused licences.The ACMA periodically conducts trending studies of fixed-service licensing andmakes adjustments to the licensing framework. A progressive review of protectioncriteria and planning arrangements for microwave services is planned to continueover the next five years, which may lead to a consequential update of RALI FX3.Consideration of changes to arrangements in the 10 GHz band for the protection ofthe EESS (see section 5.8.2) may be undertaken as part of a general review or as aseparate project. In order to protect future options for the use of the 11 GHz band bythe fixed service and other terrestrial services, the ACMA policy does not support theubiquitous, uncoordinated deployment of Earth station receivers in the 10.7–11.7GHz band (see section 5.7.2) or any planned fixed band.400 MHz and 900 MHz bandsThe ACMA has undertaken extensive consultation of the overall use of the 400 MHzband to find ways of increasing access to it (see Appendix A). Among other things,this is intended to improve access for the fixed service (mainly P-MP) in the mediumterm. The ACMA received feedback from several stakeholders seeking continuedaccess to 25 kHz channels for fixed P-P services in the 400 MHz band. Oneconsequence is that increased size and interoperability of land mobile networks, assought by government organisations (see 5.4.2), would correspondingly require an70 The Spectrum planning discussion paper Changes to Channel Arrangements for Fixed Point-to-PointLinks in the Lower Microwave Bands was released in October 2010 for a period of public consultationending 10 December 2010. A copy of the paper and the submissions received by the ACMA are availableat www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD/pc=PC_312337
61. increase in base station back-haul fixed link capacity. In response, the ACMA hasassured access to 25 kHz channels in the 400 MHz band and is encouraging the useof more efficient technologies to accommodate increased capacity demands.In the 1990s, spectrum in the 900 MHz band was allocated for cordlesstelecommunications services (CTS) known as CT2, CT3 and digital short-rangeradio (DSRR). These services did not gain wide acceptance in the Australian market(or internationally) and the spectrum is thought to be poorly utilised. The ACMA hasnot yet made a decision about the long-term use of this spectrum and has put inplace Embargo 34 to support replanning of this band.71 The embargo prevents newfixed or mobile assignments being made in this spectrum. The ACMA will commencea review of the 900 MHz band in 2011. Information on the review is in section 5.4.2.WRC-12The following WRC-12 agenda items are relevant to fixed services: Agenda item 1.5—worldwide/regional harmonisation of spectrum for ENG Agenda item 1.8—technical and regulatory issues relating to the fixed service in the bands between 71 GHz and 238 GHz Agenda item 1.15—possible allocations in the range 3–50 MHz to the radiolocation service for oceanographic radar applications Agenda item 1.13—spectrum usage of the 21.4–22 GHz band for the broadcasting-satellite service and the associated feeder-link bands in Regions 1 and 3 Agenda item 1.16—passive systems for lightning detection in the meteorological aids service, including the possibility of an allocation in the frequency range below 20 kHz Agenda item 1.18—extending the existing primary and secondary radiodetermination-satellite service (space-to-Earth) allocations in the 2483.5– 2500 MHz band Agenda item 1.20—spectrum identification for gateway links for high altitude platform stations (HAPS) in the range 5850–7075 MHz in order to support operations in the fixed and mobile services Agenda item 1.24—existing allocation to the meteorological-satellite service in the 7750–7850 MHz band with a view to extending this allocation to the 7850– 7900 MHz band Agenda item 1.25—possible additional allocations to the mobile-satellite service.The latest information on Australia’s preliminary view on WRC-12 agenda items is onthe ACMA website.5.3.4 Beyond 2015Based on current growth in frequency assignment rates (Figure 5.5), the 8 GHz bandmay experience more growth than the other high-capacity long-haul bands beyond2015. Despite the international trend towards the replacement of high-capacity long-haul radio links with optical fibre systems, the feasibility of this in Australia issomewhat limited by rough terrain, a small dispersed population, large distancesbetween population centres and higher costs. Consequently, the high utilisation ofthese bands is expected to continue.71 Embargo 34, contained in RALI MS03, available at www.acma.gov.au.
62. Figure 5.5 Licence trends for the high-capacity long-haul bands of the fixed service 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 6 GHz 6.7 GHz 8 GHzBands above 7 GHzA trend of increasing use of wider channels across the bands by operators has beennoted by the ACMA. The ACMA will monitor utilisation levels in these bands. If it isevident that the bands are becoming congested, the ACMA may consider replanningthese bands.If growth increases in the bands above 13 GHz to the extent that there may beunmet demand, the ACMA may consider making alternative bands available torelieve the pressure. For example, the 25 GHz band (24.5–26.5 GHz) has beenembargoed for potential future use by the fixed service.72 Other bands, including the32 GHz band (31.8–33.4 GHz), have been identified by the ITU for high-densityapplications in the fixed service.73It is also expected that fixed-service usage will extend up to frequencies above100 GHz within the next 15 years. The use of such high frequencies is likely to beinfluenced by the possible results of agenda item 1.8 at WRC-12, particularly if inter-service sharing criteria are determined.5.4 Land mobileThe land mobile service is a terrestrial service that provides radiocommunicationsbetween base stations and land mobile stations, or directly between land mobilestations. Land mobile stations typically provide one-to-many or one-to-onecommunication services to law enforcement, defence, security and emergencyservices organisations, transportation, rail and utilities industry sectors. Thesestations also provide communications services to, couriers, private companies withlarge vehicle fleets, and field staff and others from industry sectors includingagriculture, construction, hospitality, mining, manufacturing, tourism andtelecommunications service providers.72 Embargo 24, contained in RALI MS03, available at www.acma.gov.au.73 See Article 5.547 in the ITU Radio Regulations.
63. The land mobile service comprises the following licensing options: land mobile systems ambulatory stations citizen band radio service (CBRS) repeaters paging systems.Land mobile systems usually comprise a fixed base station communicating with oneor more mobile units, which can be handheld or vehicle mounted. Coverage istypically metropolitan in scale.Ambulatory stations are similar to land mobile systems, but they do not have basestations. Communication is between handheld units, which typically have lowerpower than land mobile systems and therefore a comparatively smaller coveragearea.The CBRS is a two-way, short-distance voice communications service that can beused by any person in Australia. A CBRS repeater is established at a fixed locationfor the reception and automatic retransmission of radio signals from citizen band(CB) stations.Paging systems comprise a base station and portable receiving devices used tocontact individuals or convey messages to them. Paging systems can be used ineither indoor or outdoor applications.5.4.1 Current spectrum useThere are six frequency bands generally used for the land mobile service:1. HF band (3–30 MHz)2. VHF low band (29.7–45 MHz)3. VHF mid band (70–87.5 MHz)4. VHF high band (148–174 MHz)5. 400 MHz UHF band (403–430 MHz and 450–520 MHz)6. 900 MHz UHF band (820–825 MHz and 865–870 MHz).In addition to some of these bands, Defence deploys land mobile systems in otherparts of the spectrum; in particular, 230–399.9 MHz. Defence has specified its use ofHF for long-distance communications and VHF low band for land-forcecommunications, including joint and allied interoperable communications.This Outlook focuses on the 400 MHz and 900 MHz bands, as these are the primeland mobile bands for non-defence users. However, the ACMA does not ignore thevalue of lower-frequency bands for land mobile radio users. The superior coverageof these bands makes them useful for communications in regional and remote areas.For example, in the VHF high band, the Victorian Government uses the StateNetMobile Radio (SMR) network and Telstra operates its commercial Fleetcoms trunkedland mobile network. The Queensland Government uses the VHF mid band foremergency services communications.400 MHz bandThe 400 MHz band caters for land mobile and fixed services with a mix of 12.5 and25 kHz channelling. Both single- and two-frequency operation is supported, as wellas trunked land mobile services. The 400 MHz Plan details planning arrangementsfor the 400 MHz band.74 Industry feedback indicates that users of the 400 MHz band74 The 400 MHz Plan, available at: www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD/pc=PC_2571.
64. agree that current spectrum arrangements, technology availability and frequencycharacteristics make 400 MHz the ideal band for wide-area land mobileradiocommunications. VHF is suitable for regional areas but requires largerantennas and is more susceptible to man-made noise. On the other hand, 900 MHzis optimal for urban areas, but lesser coverage makes infrastructure rollout toregional areas very expensive.900 MHz bandThe majority of this band is used for second 2G and 3G public mobiletelecommunications services using GSM and wideband CDMA (WCDMA)technologies.75 Land mobile services in this band are for trunked systems restrictedto one paired segment: 820–825 MHz (base receive)/865–870 MHz (base transmit).All land mobile assignments in this paired segment authorise 25 kHz systems. The900 MHz Band Plan details planning arrangements for the 900 MHz band.76TrendsAnalysis since 1997 shows steady growth in the number of land mobile assignments.Apparatus licence data only gives an indication of the growth of base station orrepeater station numbers, but not the actual number or growth of mobile stations.Motorola has advised the ACMA of studies estimating that there were approximately800,000 two-way radios in use in 2003, utilised by around 180,000 differentorganisations and that annual shipments of two-way radios had grown by 30 percent since then.77 However, there is evidence to suggest that growth has beentempered by congestion in some metropolitan areas. In congested areas, newsystems are often accommodated by splitting 25 kHz channels into 12.5 kHzchannels or by deploying low-power systems. The growth of land mobileassignments in the 400 MHz and 900 MHz bands is charted in Figures 5.6 and 5.7below. Traditionally used mostly for voice communications, the operation of landmobile radio for data services is increasing rapidly and becoming very important tousers.75 Code division multiple access.76 The 900 MHz Band Plan, available at:http://legislation.gov.au/comlaw/Legislation/LegislativeInstrumentCompilation1.nsf/0/FFAC85B8A5C4FB5FCA25703B0015B33F?OpenDocument.77 Motorola Australia Pty Ltd Response to the draft Five-year Spectrum Outlook 2009–2013,www.acma.gov.au/webwr/_assets/main/lib310714/motorola.pdf.
65. Figure 5.6 Total land mobile assignments in Australia in the 400 MHz 40000 36000 32000 28000 24000 20000 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010Figure 5.7 Total land mobile assignments in Australia in the 900 MHz bands 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010There has been a gradual decline in the number of paging assignments over thepast four years, which is largely attributable to the growth of the short messageservice (SMS) provided by mobile telephony services. This decline can be seen inFigure 5.8.
66. Figure 5.8 Paging assignments 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010The operation of CB radios is authorised under a class licence, which means thatstations are not recorded individually. 78 Growth in the use of the CBRS can beinferred from the growth in CBRS repeater assignments over the last decade, asshown in Figure 5.9.Figure 5.9 CBRS repeater assignments 1000 900 800 700 600 500 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 20105.4.2 2011–2015Issues affecting spectrum demandCongestion and the availability of spectrum to facilitate new technologies are keyissues for the land mobile service. Industry has expressed the view that land mobileradio services provide essential features that in most cases cannot be provided byother services (such as public mobile telephony and satellite) including group calling,one-to-many communications, accessibility and reliability. Such features make landmobile radio a continuing requirement for a variety of commercial and governmentusers.78 Australian Communications Authority, 2002, Radiocommunications (Citizen Band Radio Stations) ClassLicence 2002,www.comlaw.gov.au/ComLaw/legislation/LegislativeInstrument1.nsf/0/9C9C576BDCCEBF70CA256F8C007DAC72?OpenDocument.
67. Fragmented government land mobile spectrum holdingsTo date, spectrum use by government agencies, including those involved in lawenforcement, defence, security and emergency services, is fragmented acrossvarious segments of the 400 MHz band.79 Driven by the ACMA’s review of the 400MHz band, federal, state and territory governments are developing strategies forusing 400 MHz band spectrum for land mobile systems, including whole-of-government or most-of-government networks, which could exploit trunkingefficiencies and potentially use less spectrum. The various government jurisdictions,with the assistance of the ACMA, are working towards a national strategy for theconsolidation of government land mobile spectrum holdings to achieve inter-jurisdictional interoperability. In December 2009, the Council of AustralianGovernments (COAG) endorsed the introduction of a framework for improving theinteroperability of radiocommunications equipment used by emergency services.The rail industry is also an important user of the 400 MHz band, especially inparticular channels widely used by government rail authorities. Land mobile systemsdeployed by the rail industry include train protection, command and control systemssuch as Queensland Rail’s shunt radio, train control radio (TCR), maintenancesupervisory radio (MSR) and automatic train protection (ATP). Several othersystems are also used to provide voice communications and monitor data. TheACMA acknowledges that radiocommunications are essential in the safe andefficient operation of Australia’s railways.The requirements of the commercial sector must also be accommodated and someindustry commentary has argued that the level of interoperability and, consequently,the contiguous, common spectrum, being sought by government agencies isexcessive.CongestionCongestion, especially in high-demand markets such as Sydney and Melbourne, iscurrently the most significant issue affecting the land mobile service. Survey resultsfrom frequency assigners indicate that in high-demand markets it is almostimpossible to find available 25 kHz channels. Consequently, frequency assignershave resorted to splitting 25 kHz channels and/or using low-power assignments tomeet the demand.Figure 5.10 shows the percentage of 12.5 kHz land mobile assignments in Sydneyand for the rest of Australia. It indicates that over the past 12 years, has had a higherproportion of 12.5 kHz assignments than has the rest of Australia. The differencebetween the 12.5 kHz assignment proportions of Sydney and Australia has grownover the last decade to the extent that nearly 45 per cent of land mobile assignmentsin Sydney are now 12.5 kHz, compared to the national ratio of almost 30 per cent.The ACMA is aware of through industry feedback that digital radio technologiesemploying 6.25 kHz channel bandwidths are readily available and of the view thatspectrum planning should be focused on a future of 6.25 kHz channel widths tosupport the use of even more spectrally efficient technologies.79 403–420 MHz—used by SA, as well as the NSW Government for its government radio network (GRN).420–430 MHz—Victorian metropolitan mobile radio (MMR) and NSW mobile data radio service (MDRS)networks used by police and emergency services; NT has expressed interest in moving its trunked radionetwork to this band. 458.3375–459.9375/467.8375–469.4375 MHz—law enforcement and public safety(LEPS) spectrum—used by most jurisdictions (principally police) for voice communications; this band hassome capacity for cross-jurisdictional operations and interoperability. 470–490 MHz—used by lawenforcement and security agencies for radiocommunications in counter-terrorism operations. 500–520MHz—includes systems deployed by Motorola—trunked radio network for Western Australian police andthe mobile data network (MDN) and the Victorian MMR network.
68. Figure 5.10 Percentage of 12.5 kHz land mobile assignments in Sydney compared with the rest ofAustralia (400 MHz band) Percentage of 12.5 kHz land mobile assignments 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Australia wide excluding Sydney SydneyUnder utilisation of channelsThere is evidence to suggest that the abovementioned ‘congestion’ is betterdescribed as a lack of channel availability. Assignments in a number of channels inthe 400 MHz band are lightly used. At any given time of the day, there is a highprobability that these channels will not be in use. Spectrum monitoring by the ACMAindicates that there is a significant quantity of spectrum occupied by suchassignments. There may be a number of reasons why the assignments are not usedor only lightly used, and this situation could be further examined with a view to usingthese channels more productively.The ACMA notes that government agencies involved in law enforcement, defence,national security and emergency services, and the rail industry, have said that theircommunications cannot be subject to unacceptable delay or interference becausetheir operations involve the preservation of public safety. Consequently, they arestrongly opposed to the principle of sharing their land mobile channels. Emergencyservices acknowledge the low average temporal utilisation of theirradiocommunications networks. However, they are adamant that network capacitymust be capable of supporting the simultaneous peak demand of all lawenforcement, defence, security and emergency services agencies in the case ofmajor events and emergencies.Support for new technologiesNew technologies employing digital modulation schemes, particularly thoseemploying trunking techniques, can improve the spectral efficiency and quality ofland mobile services. For example, the Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) systemenables four-time divided communications channels in 25 kHz of bandwidth. 80 TheAssociation of Public Safety Communications Officials (APCO) Project 25 (P25)system supports both 12.5 kHz and 6.25 kHz bandwidths.81 Both systems weredesigned to support the operations of government agencies. To maximise options forthe introduction of such new technologies, flexible arrangements would be requiredand would necessitate changes to band arrangements, for example, compatible,contiguous blocks of spectrum and compatible frequency splits).82 Despite the large80 For further information on TETRA see www.etsi.org/website/technologies/tetra.aspx.81 For further information on APCO P25, seewww.apcointl.org/frequency/project25/information.html#documents.82 Paired spectrum blocks of 5 MHz each, with 10 MHz splits, are sought by law enforcement, security andemergency services agencies.
69. amount of work required by both the ACMA and radiocommunications users,industry feedback suggests that users support changes to spectrum arrangementswithin the 400 MHz band that would enhance the efficiency of spectrum use,including reduced bandwidths and trunked radio technologies. However, trunkedsystems are not optimised for some services, such as those deliveringcommunications to rural areas, and use of conventional land mobile radio systems isexpected to continue in the near future.Future developmentsThe United States of America, as part of the planning process for digital dividendspectrum (see section 5.2.2), has set aside the paired bands 763–775 MHz and793–805 MHz to support the deployment of a nationwide broadband ‘public safety’network, enabling interoperability between different law enforcement, defence,security agencies and emergency services. While the lower half of the ‘700 MHzpublic safety band’ is for broadband communications, the upper band pair (769–775MHz and 799–805 MHz) is intended to accommodate existing narrowband (6.25 kHzchannel widths) land mobile services. Various Australian defence and securityagencies, and organisations involved in law enforcement and emergency services,have expressed interest in accessing parts of the 700 MHz band for medium-speedbroadband data communications.A similar development to meet the increasing need of such government agencies forbroadband data communications was the identification of the 4940–4990 MHz bandfor use by public protection and disaster relief (PPDR) organisations (at WRC-03).Various Australian organisations involved in PPDR-type operations have expressedinterest in using the 4.9 GHz band for deployable, high-speed data systems.At WRC-07, the band 450–470 MHz was identified for administrations wishing toimplement IMT (see 5.9.2). The initial focus for this band was on the implementationof IMT systems in developing countries where the use of lower frequencies cansignificantly reduce infrastructure costs. A primary candidate technology for WAS inthis band is CDMA450. Due to the favourable propagation characteristics of theband and broadband communications capability, CDMA450 is seen by someindustry members as a potential solution for the provision of wireless in rural areas.While Australia supported this allocation at WRC-07, the feasibility of using this bandfor WAS in Australia appears low in high and medium density areas. Prospectiveusers are examining the viability of CDMA450 in other areas.5.4.3 The ACMA’s proposed approaches400 MHz bandIn April 2008, the ACMA took the first formal step in the review of arrangements inthe 400 MHz band with the release of the first discussion paper Spectrum Options:403-520 MHz. The purpose of the discussion paper was to stimulate discussion andgather information from stakeholders to assist the ACMA to develop futurearrangements. Subsequent analysis of the responses and additional work carried outby ACMA resulted in the development of the refined options and proposals set out inACMA’s second discussion paper Spectrum Proposals: 403-520 MHz, released inApril 2009.In April 2010, the ACMA released the third paper in the review of the 400 MHz band,The way ahead: Timeframes and implementation options for the 400 MHz band.That paper set out a range of decisions for future arrangements in the band putforward implementation plans and timeframes to implement the new arrangements.The final paper of the 400 MHz review was released in December 2010. This paperset out the ACMA’s implementation plans and timeframes to move to the newarrangements set out in the third paper.
70. The broad objectives of the review of the 400 MHz band have been to implementmeasures to: improve the harmonisation of spectrum use by certain government agencies to assist in radiocommunications interoperability objectives and the development of efficient government networks improve the allocative, technical and dynamic efficiency with which spectrum in the band is allocated and used, by reviewing the relevant frequency assigning and licensing mechanisms (including band plans, licensing instructions, licensing options and pricing) facilitate new technologies and possible complementary uses of the band implement arrangements that take advantage of the different spectrum management requirements and challenges between different geographic areas minimise the requirement for ongoing ACMA intervention in the band.The ACMA has put in place spectrum embargoes 50, 51, 53-56 and 60 to supportand preserve planning options associated with the review of the 400 MHz band andis currently implementing short-, medium- and long-term usage strategies for thisspectrum. 83900 MHz bandIn 2011, the ACMA will commence a review of the 820–960 MHz band, morecommonly referred to the 900 MHz Band.The 900 MHz band review will explore alternative uses of the 806-820 MHz bandand opportunities for combining use with the 820-960 MHz band. It will also considerrationalisation, redesignation and concatenation of existing allocations to maximisethe overall public benefit derived from its use.Industry has indicated an interest in expanding the 850 MHz PMTS bands (currently825–845 MHz paired with 870–890 MHz), expanding the existing trunked landmobile band segments, exploring opportunities in a combined band for alternativebroadband and other applications, reconsideration of arrangements for the fixedservice and harmonisation with international markets. Other stakeholders haveexpressed an interest in expanding the trunked land mobile segments in the band.However, the ACMA is aware of concerns in the community and industry at the paceand scope of its many other band replanning activities and accommodation of newtechnologies. These activities reflect the increasing demands on the radiofrequencyspectrum and for global harmonisation of spectrum use which the ACMA is obligedto consider. The ACMA intends to conduct its review with these concerns in mindand with appropriate public consultation.Data communications requirementsThe ACMA will undertake consultation to assist in developing appropriate spectrummanagement processes to support use of the 4.9 GHz band by PPDR applications.This will involve liaison with Defence and various other government agencies. Anyfuture spectrum arrangements should provide flexibility and interoperability betweenPPDR organisations. As with the 400 MHz and 700 MHz band, the identification andspecification of which organisations and agencies will have access to this band willbe crucial.WRC-12The following WRC-12 agenda items are relevant to land mobile services: Agenda item 1.17—sharing studies between the mobile service and other services in the 790–862 MHz band in Regions 1 and 383 RALI MS03—Embargoes 50 and 51 available at www.acma.gov.au.
71. Agenda item 1.20—spectrum identification for gateway links for high altitude platform stations (HAPS) in the range 5850–7075 MHz in order to support operations in the fixed and mobile services Agenda item 1.24—existing allocation to the meteorological-satellite service in the 7750-7850 MHz band with a view to extending this allocation to the 7850–7900 MHz band.The latest information on Australia’s preliminary view on WRC-12 agenda items is onthe ACMA website.5.4.4 Beyond 2015Currently, the land mobile landscape generally consists of small, land mobile radionetworks serving individual client groups. Based on an international trend towardslarger, more integrated networks, it is expected in the future that land mobile radionetworks in Australia will expand in size to accommodate many client groups and thenumber of smaller single client networks will decline. This will require the wider useof trunking and thereby improve spectrum usage, with these networks ideallyresiding in contiguous blocks of spectrum where trunking efficiencies could be fullyrealised.As mentioned earlier, the US has set aside blocks of spectrum within the 700–800MHz range for land mobile services and interest for similar public safety networks inAustralia has been expressed, with consideration of the advantage of equipmentmanufactured overseas. However, this spectrum will not be available in Australia atleast until after the switch-off of analog television and decisions on the final use ofthe digital dividend are unlikely to be made within the next five years.5.5 MaritimeThe maritime mobile service (MMS) forms an important part of Australia’sradiocommunications infrastructure.84 A wide range of organisations and individualsuse the spectrum allocated to the MMS including: the Royal Australian Navy the Royal Life Saving Society search and rescue (SAR) organisations coastal patrol stations competing commercial entities recreational boating enthusiasts the fishing industry.In addition to its usual roles of spectrum management and interference investigation,the ACMA also assists Australian Search and Rescue (AusSAR) in locatingemergency position indicating radio beacons (EPIRBs).Just as for the aeronautical service, the international nature of maritime operationsmeans that Australian allocations are consistent with harmonised ITU allocations tothe maritime mobile service, with much of the planning work being driven andoverseen by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO). The IMO is responsiblefor ensuring the safety and security of shipping activities.84 In this Outlook, the maritime mobile-satellite service is included in the satellite service section, and themaritime radionavigation service is included in the radiodetermination service section.
72. 5.5.1 Current spectrum useThe majority of spectrum usage in the maritime mobile service occurs in the HF andVHF maritime mobile bands. Above these bands, there is only one maritime mobileallocation (457–467 MHz), which is used for on-board communications. There arealso several maritime mobile bands in the VLF to MF spectrum, with the mostsignificant of these being the MF bands 415–526.5 kHz and 2000–2495 kHz.Especially important are the 490 and 518 kHz channels for maritime safetyinformation (MSI) and the 2174.5, 2182 and 2187.5 kHz channels used for distress,urgency and safety communications.HF maritime mobile bandsAppendix 17 of the ITU Radio Regulations specifies the frequencies allocated to themaritime mobile service in the HF bands. There are eight HF maritime mobile bands,ranging from 4 MHz to 26 MHz. Australia also allocates the 27.5–28 MHz band formaritime use. Figure 5.11 shows the number of licensed maritime coast transmittersper band in the HF maritime mobile bands.Figure 5.11 Number of licensed maritime coast transmitters per band in the HF maritime mobilebands Maritime coast transmitters180160140120100 80 60 40 20 0 4 MHz 6 MHz 8 MHz 12 MHz 16 MHz 18/19 MHz 22 MHz 25/26 MHzAppendix 17 allocates channels in the HF bands for transmissions using: radiotelephony (voice communications) Morse telegraphy narrowband direct printing (NBDP) wideband and direct printing telegraphy, facsimile and data transmission; facsimile digital selective calling (DSC).Radiotelephony, NBDP and DSC can all be used in distress situations, ondesignated channels specified in Appendix 15. A few radiotelephony and NBDPchannels are also designated for the transmission of maritime safety information(MSI). In Australia, the state and territory governments operate a safetycommunications service that includes a listening watch on 4, 6 and 8 MHz distressfrequencies and the broadcast of MSI on 8176 kHz. Radiotelephony and NBDPchannels can also be used for public correspondence in Australia. The telegraphy
73. and data channels are mainly used by Defence in Australia for both command andcontrol via formal messaging and for tactical data beyond LOS communications.85Figure 5.12 provides a breakdown of the proportion of maritime coast frequencyassignments used for each of these purposes. Figure 5.12 Percentage of maritime coast frequency assignments used for each purpose86 1% 41% 50% Radiotelephony Distress and safety NBDP Telegraphy, facsimile and data MSI 3% 5%VHF maritime mobile bandAppendix 18 of the ITU Radio Regulations specifies the frequencies of the VHFmaritime mobile band (59 channels in the range 156–162 MHz). Two channels inthis band (161.975 MHz and 162.025 MHz) are reserved for use by the automaticidentification system (AIS), which is required by the IMO to be fitted on all cargoships over 300 gross tonnage (GT) on international voyages, cargo ships of over 500GT not on international voyages and all passenger vessels.87The National Standard for commercial vessels (NSCV) now includes carriagerequirements for AIS for most commercial vessels in most operational areas.88 AIS isincreasingly being fitted to small recreational vessels for safety purposes.85 Telegraphy involves the transmission of low-rate data and text messages for both distress situationsand working for commercial and non-commercial operations.86 The majority of assignments in the frequencies assignable to coast stations for wideband and Morsetelegraphy, facsimile, special and data transmissions systems and direct-printing telegraphy are held byDefence.87 AIS provides information about the ship (including identity, type, position, course and speed) to otherships and coastal authorities.88 Further information can be found on the NMSC website at www.nmsc.gov.au.
74. The Radiocommunications Licence Conditions (Maritime Coast Licence)Determination 2002, Radiocommunications Licence Conditions (Maritime ShipLicence) Determination 200289 and the Radiocommunications (Maritime Ship Station– 27 MHz and VHF) Class Licence 2001 specify the permitted uses and conditionsapplicable to the use of VHF maritime mobile spectrum in Australia. Permitted usesinclude distress, urgency and safety communications, and calling and working for thecommercial, non-commercial, professional fishing and port operations sectors. VHFmaritime mobile communications generally use radiotelephony, with the exception ofVHF Channel 70, which is designated for distress signals using DSC. At WRC-07,regulations were changed so that distress, urgency and safety calls andannouncements must be made using DSC on VHF Channel 70 where stations wereequipped to do so.Figure 5.13 shows the percentage of maritime coast frequency assignments used fordifferent purposes in the 27 MHz and VHF maritime mobile bands. Apparatus licenceinformation does not reveal information about the large number of ship stations thatare class licensed in the 27 MHz and VHF maritime mobile bands, or those licensedby foreign governments.Figure 5.13 Percentage of maritime coast frequency assignments used for each purpose in the27 MHz and VHF maritime mobile bands 27 MHz Band VHF Maritime Mobile Band 5% 2% 2% 9% 41% 1.2 1 0.8 20% 0.6 59% 62% 0.4 0.2 0 1 Distress, urgency and safety Non-commercial operations Port operations Commercial and professional fishing operations Public correspondence AIS89 See Radiocommunications Licence Conditions (Maritime Coast Licence) Determination 2002,www.comlaw.gov.au/ComLaw/Legislation/LegislativeInstrumentCompilation1.nsf/all/search/6F188ABFCE7A90A1CA2575390022BE89 and Radiocommunications Licence Conditions (Maritime Ship Licence)Determination 2002,www.comlaw.gov.au/ComLaw/Legislation/LegislativeInstrumentCompilation1.nsf/all/search/B456B37B6531036ECA25753D00067FF5.
75. Figure 5.14 shows the distribution of HF and VHF maritime coast stations acrossAustralia.Figure 5.14 Distribution of HF (red dots) and VHF (blue dots) maritime coast stations90Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) requirements91It is a requirement of the International Convention of Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS)that all SOLAS passenger vessels and ships of 300 GT and over on internationalvoyages be fitted for the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS).Commercial vessels under 300 GT, or on domestic voyages, are subject to therequirements of their flag state. The GMDSS became mandatory for SOLAS vessels(and signatory countries’ shore facilities) from 1 February 1999.92 The GMDSSstipulates requirements relating to: distress, urgency and safety communications to ship and coast stations using radiotelephony, NBDP and DSC at MF, HF and VHF90 The two HF stations in the centres of Western Australia and Queensland are located at Wiluna andCharleville, respectively. These stations broadcast marine weather warnings from BoM, and compriseAMSA’s Safety Offshore System (based on GMDSS), monitored from the Rescue Coordination Centre inCanberra.91 GMDSS is an international system using radiocommunications equipment on ships, land and satellitesto achieve the rapid and automated alerting of coastal authorities and nearby ships of another ship indistress.92 A graphic description of GMDSS can be found at ICS Electronics, The Global Maritime Distress andSafety System (GMDSS), www.icselectronics.co.uk/GMDSS.php.
76. the coordination of SAR operations involving ship, aircraft and coast stations using aeronautical frequencies at HF and VHF93 the reception of MSI via NBDP at MF and HF 406 MHz EPIRBs, X-band SARTs and L-band satellite communication equipment to relay distress alerts and EPIRB emissions.94The Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA) requires all ships to be equippedwith GMDSS equipment, except for ships normally engaged in harbour duties, whichonly require fitting with VHF radios and 406 MHz EPIRB.95 For emergenciesrequiring ship evacuation, vessels are required to carry handheld VHFradiotelephone equipment able to communicate on VHF channels 6 (for coordinatedSAR purposes), 13 (for ship-to-ship navigation safety communications) and 16 and67. In addition, all seagoing vessels are required to maintain a continuous watch onVHF distress channels 70 (automatic watch using DSC) and 16 (listening watchusing radiotelephony). The government-operated safety communications servicementioned earlier maintains watch on VHF Channels 16 (156.8 MHz) and 67(156.375 MHz).5.5.2 2011–2015Issues affecting spectrum demandConsultation with AMSA has indicated that current maritime spectrum arrangementsare largely sufficient to meet the requirements of existing applications andtechnologies. There appears to be no shortage of spectrum for distresscommunications and provisions for NBDP are adequate.InterferenceInterference poses a threat to all radiocommunications services, but it is particularlytroublesome at HF because propagation characteristics allow interference tooriginate overseas from a number of sources, including malicious and illegaloperations and poor radio equipment.96 In addition, aural telephony distress alertsare being replaced with automated DSC alerts. Undecoded interference may gounnoticed and has the potential to prevent the reception of distress alerts. There aresimilar service degradation concerns for the VHF maritime mobile bands, especiallyinappropriate use of the international distress, safety and calling channel 16. Theusability of the band may degrade further in the future due to the low cost and classlicensing of VHF equipment, which could make detecting the source of misusedifficult.GMDSSThe safety of life nature of maritime mobile communications makes it important tohave numerous communications technologies providing redundancy in the case ofemergencies. This is why a single global interoperable system such as GMDSS isrequired to ensure that any ship in distress will be able to alert a relevant authority ofits situation. The transition of vessels to the GMDSS has been a major focus of theITU and IMO for many years, but so far, the process has been very slow. InAustralia, AMSA has ensured this transition through the requirement of GMDSSequipment carriage in its Marine Orders, to which all ships registered in Australiaand foreign non-SOLAS ships navigating in Australian waters are subject. However,a major consideration is to maintain a communications environment that will continue93 3023, 4125 and 5680 kHz at HF; 121.5, 123.1 and 156.3 MHz at VHF.94 X-band refers to the microwave frequency range between 8 GHz and 12 GHz.95 Australian Marine Safety Authority, Marine Orders, Part 27—Radio Equipment, Issue 3, 2006,www.comlaw.gov.au/ComLaw/Legislation/LegislativeInstrument1.nsf/0/6637919175A029C6CA25717E0001540B?OpenDocument.96 This is because HF signals travel long distances both along the surface of the Earth and in sky-wavemode (by reflecting off the ionosphere).
77. to accommodate non-SOLAS vessels and support interoperability with SOLASvessels.Digital technologiesThe ITU has specified the need to enhance spectrum efficiency with the use of newdigital technology in order for both the HF and VHF maritime mobile bands to betterrespond to future spectrum demand.97 Digital HF technologies have already beendeveloped and are in use. Digital communications such as DSC will also relieve theburdens of aural watch-keeping.98It is likely that in the long term, NBDP may be replaced by more advanced digital HFdata exchange technologies, for which the IMO considers it important to identifyadditional spectrum allocations for the future, particularly in the range 9–18 MHz.99It is also likely that changes will be made to Appendix 17 at WRC-12. The objectiveof agenda item 1.9 is to revise the frequencies and channelling arrangements ofAppendix 17 to accommodate new digital technologies for the maritime mobileservice. Several administrations have proposed using channels allocated to NBDPtransmission to accommodate digital data systems, but some NBDP allocations (atleast those for MSI and distress and safety communications) may need to bepreserved globally for some years due to the unavailability of satellite-basedalternatives in polar regions.While digital HF data transfer protocols using 3 kHz channel widths have beenproposed, additional spectrum may be required if the potential advent of higherspeed services (akin to email) are implemented. However, the use of commercialand personal HF data services may be declining (certainly those using NBDP) due toan increasing preference for satellite-based solutions.Growth in spectrum usageIn Australia, trends in maritime coast frequency assignments over the past eightyears indicate that the NBDP channels in the 8 MHz band may become congestedwithin the next five years, if the current growth rate is maintained. The ACMA doesnot anticipate that additional spectrum will be required for NBDP within the next fiveyears as the growth can be attributed to a single licensee and because of the declinein commercial HF data services.Security, safety, tracking and surveillanceThe increasing need for systems enhancing ship identification, tracking andsurveillance, as well as ship and port security and safety, is an issue to beaddressed under agenda item 1.10 at WRC-12. A resolution to review provisionsand consider additional allocations for such systems was made at WRC-07, toconsider the use of long-range HF data systems for the transmission of securityalerts, safety information and information from the long-range identification andtracking (LRIT) system.100 The LRIT system is a satellite-based tracking system thatis similar to AIS in the information it provides, but is intended only for recipientsauthorised to access such information (mainly coastal authorities).97 ITU Radio Regulations, Resolutions 342 and 351.98 The obligation for coast stations to maintain listening watch on the 2182 kHz international callingchannel was removed by the IMO in 1999.99 International Maritime Organisation, IMO position on WRC-12 agenda items concerning matters relatingto maritime services, 2011.100 Resolution 357–Consideration of regulatory provisions and spectrum allocations for use by enhancedmaritime safety systems for ships and ports. This resolution is in the Provisional Final Acts of WRC-07,and its name will be changed on publication of the Final Acts. Transmission of security alerts; as is donewith ship security alert systems, which are a SOLAS requirement.
78. At WRC-07, additional provisions were made for use of the two AIS channels by AISsearch and rescue transponders (AIS-SARTs), by aircraft stations for search andrescue operations and for reception by the MMS. Correspondingly, the ACMA hasproposed to make variations to class licences to allow for the above uses. Maritimeauthorities expect to use AIS base stations to transmit information relating to safetyand aids-to-navigation (AtoN) and as repeater stations to extend AIS network range,especially considering the expected increase in the use of AIS and AIS-SARTs.Variations have also been proposed to determinations for licence conditionsdeterminations to allow for the licensing of AIS base stations, including those usedfor AtoNs. AMSA has indicated that it has experienced difficulties in coordinating AISstations with adjacent band land mobile services at some locations.VHF communicationsWRC-07 considered two proposals for changes to the VHF band to allow for moreefficient use. The first was a proposal initiated by the US to convert more channels tosimplex and to move from 25 kHz to 12.5 kHz channelling. The second proposal,initiated by Europe, was to use the public correspondence channels to introduce newdigital, spectrally efficient systems. Both proposals received support at WRC-07.In addition, similar channel spacing reductions have occurred for the aeronauticalmobile service overseas and are likely in the land mobile service in Australia. Assuch, a reduction in channel spacing in the VHF maritime mobile band from 25 kHzto 12.5 kHz is possible.The possible reduction in channel spacing, combined with the overall reduction ofAustralian maritime coast stations over the past eight years, suggests that spectrumdemand will not exceed current VHF maritime mobile allocations in the 2011–2015timeframe.The ACMA is considering the future use of the VHF channels intended for publiccorrespondence (about 500 kHz of spectrum formerly used for Telstra’s VHFSeaphone service). Consequently, no assignments can currently be made to them.Some search and rescue organisations have shown interest in using them for callingand working communications.5.5.3 The ACMA’s proposed approachesAISA review of assigning instructions for the VHF Maritime Mobile Service (MMS) will beconducted following WRC-12. The purpose of this review will be to reassess theapplicability of the current assigning instructions in RALI LM8 to the MMS. This maynecessitate the amendment of the existing instruction or a new instruction thatreflects the specific operating characteristics and requirements associated with theMMS. It will also be assessed whether special instructions are required for theassignment of channels designated specifically for the transmission and detection ofAutomatic Identification System (AIS) messages.The scope of this review will depend heavily on the outcomes of WRC-12deliberations on agenda item 1.10. Part of the focus of this item is to improveprovisioning for AIS. This includes upgrading the regulatory status of AIS channelsand identifying potential new channels for satellite detection of AIS. The review willalso address any changes made to Appendix 18 of the Radio Regulations toaccommodate new digital technologies.Digital technologiesThe ACMA plans to investigate the use of HF data transfer technologies and theirspectrum requirements. Because allocations for digital technologies are likely to bemade in Appendix 17 at WRC-12, an Australian position may need to be developed
79. on which frequencies would be suitable for use or, conversely, which frequencieswould be undesirable for Australian users. HF spectrum requirements for e-Navigation (see 5.5.3) and characteristics for HF digital data and email radiosystems have not yet been finalised and may be an important consideration informing any changes to Appendix 17 frequency allocations. Consultation withexisting NBDP users may also be an important part of forming such a position.VHF communicationsThe ACMA may perform some preliminary research into VHF radiotelephonytechnologies using 12.5 kHz channel widths and subsequently reassess thepossibility of changing technical requirements of equipment. This would have thebenefit of preparing Australian ships for changes to radiocommunications equipmentin advance. However, such work would be of low priority considering that the use ofinterleaved channels will not be possible until international changes are made by theITU and especially because the issue will not be on the WRC agenda for at leastanother four years.The ACMA is currently investigating the future use of the channels formerly used forTelstra’s VHF Seaphone network, with the outcomes of WRC-07 to be considered inthe investigation.The ACMA also recently released a discussion paper entitled A new approach forrecreational boaters who operate VHF marine radios, which looks at regulatoryarrangements for VHF marine radio used by recreational boat operators.101Comments close in February 2011.WRC-12The following WRC agenda items are relevant to the maritime mobile service: Agenda item 1.9—Appendix 17 – New digital technologies for the MMS Agenda item 1.10—Allocation requirements of safety systems for ships and ports Agenda item 1.14—Radiolocation service 30–300 MHz Res 611 Agenda item 1.16—Meteorological aids Agenda item 1.23—Amateur service secondary allocation.The latest information on Australia’s preliminary views on WRC-12 agenda items ison the ACMA website.5.5.4 Beyond 2015Growth in spectrum usageWhile the ACMA expects no additional spectrum requirements for the maritimemobile service from 2011–2015, current growth in the number of apparatus-licensedcoast stations operating in the HF channels for NBDP suggests that additionalspectrum may be required in the 4, 6, 8, 12 and 18/19 MHz bands by 2023. The 8and 18/19 MHz bands have the highest growth rates and congestion would seem tobe likely within the next 10 years. The 8 MHz band may require an additional 3 kHzchannel by 2018, with a further 3 to 40 kHz needed by 2023, depending on servicegrowth. The 18/19 MHz band may require between two and six additional 3 kHzchannels by 2023.Digital technologiesThe introduction of a new digital HF data exchange technology will increasespectrum efficiency. However, it may also present an opportunity to implementhigher data rate services, which could require additional spectrum. On the other101 Available at www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD..PC/pc=PC_312390.
80. hand, channels for NBDP are not heavily utilised at present (supported bydiscussions at WRC-03 and WRC-07) and HF data services for commercial andpersonal purposes are becoming less attractive in comparison to satellite-basedsolutions. The ACMA will continue to monitor the progress of HF data services andrelevant technological developments and will assess options for planningarrangements when more is known about spectrum requirements.e-NavigationAdditional spectrum may be needed for a proposed network known as e-Navigation.Current maritime mobile bands, especially the HF and VHF bands and UHF satellitefrequencies, are expected to play a major part in e-Navigation. It is intended toprovide a globally harmonised navigation system using a wide variety of currenttechnologies, enabling the transmission, processing and display of navigationalinformation to increase the level of safety and efficiency of maritime voyages. e-Navigation will supplement GNSS with terrestrial on-board positioning systems togenerate up-to-date electronic navigational charts, complemented by routeinformation and meteorological and oceanographic data. This information will betransmitted to and from coast stations and to other ships for efficient vessel trackingand management.e-Navigation is envisioned to provide global broadband communications via satelliteand terrestrial networks. Based on those of similar broadband navigation systemsand systems recognised for high bandwidth use of the VHF maritime mobile band,its VHF spectrum requirements could be in the vicinity of 150 kHz.However, the system architecture, including communications requirements, is not yetfully developed. A strategic framework for e-Navigation has been proposed by theIMO, which outlines a proposed timeline for an implementation plan that should bedeveloped by 2012. This means that the use of e-Navigation may not be realisedwithin the next five years.102 The ACMA will continue to monitor the development ofe-Navigation and revisit the issue when more information is available.5.6 RadiodeterminationRadiodetermination is the use of the propagation properties of radio waves todetermine the position, velocity or other characteristics of an object, or to obtaininformation relating to these parameters.103 Radar and radionavigation beacons arethe best-known examples of radiodetermination systems. Radiodeterminationsystems operate under a number of different spectrum service allocations includingradiodetermination, radiodetermination satellite, radionavigation, radionavigationsatellite, radiolocation and radiolocation satellite services.5.6.1 Current spectrum useCurrent spectrum usage by the radiodetermination service occurs across the radiospectrum. There are, however, only a relatively small number of systems thatcurrently make use of the frequency bands below 300 MHz. The most notable ofthese are non-directional beacons (NDBs) in the low frequency (LF) and mediumfrequency (MF) bands and the instrument landing system (ILS) and VHFomnidirectional range (VOR) system in the very high frequency (VHF) band, all ofwhich are used for civil air navigation. The greater number of systems can be foundspread across the ultra high frequency (UHF) and microwave frequency bands withmost being radar systems.102 Sub-Committee on Safety on Navigation (NAV), 54th session, 30 June–4 July 2008, seewww.imo.org/Newsroom/mainframe.asp?topic_id=112&doc_id=8876.103 The radiodetermination service includes the radionavigation, radionavigation-satellite, radiolocationand radiolocation-satellite services.
81. There are relatively few licensees in this service with the most significant being theDepartment of Defence, Airservices Australia and the Bureau of Meteorology (BoM).About half of all the bands with radionavigation and radiolocation allocations in theSpectrum Plan are designated principally for defence purposes, primarily for militaryradar for surveillance and tracking of both aircraft and ships.The main non-Defence uses of spectrum for the radiodetermination service are listedin Table 5.2.Table 5.2 Main uses of spectrum for the radiodetermination service Frequency band Use 328.6–335.4 MHz ILS (Airservices Australia) 400.15–403 MHz Weather monitoring using radiosondes—meteorological sensors on weather balloons (the BoM) 420–430 MHz Vehicular tracking and monitoring (QuikTrak) 915–928 MHz Automatic identification systems (Australian Rail Track Corporation—ARTC, RailCorp NSW and Pacific National) 960–1215 MHz Distance measuring equipment, secondary surveillance radar (SSR), airborne collision avoidance system, ADS-B for air traffic control purposes and landing approach guidance (Airservices Australia) 1164–1350 MHz and Allocations to the radionavigation satellite service (RNSS)—currently used by 1559–1610 MHz global navigational satellite systems (GNSS) such as the USA’s Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Russian Federation’s Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS). 1270–1295 MHz Wind profiler radar 2700–2900 MHz Primary surveillance radar—PSR (Airservices Australia) S-band weather radars (the BoM)104 2900–3100 MHz Maritime radar beacons (AMSA) and associated shipborne S-band radars 5010–5030 MHz RNSS allocation (Galileo) 5600–5650 MHz C-band weather radars (the BoM)105 9000–9500 MHz Maritime radar beacons (AMSA), harbour surveillance radar, SARTs, airport surface movement radar and airborne weather radars 9500–9800 MHz Slope stability radar GroundProbe 22–26.5 GHz UWB short range vehicle radar 24.05–24.25 GHz & Traffic speed radar (police) 34.7–35.2 GHzThe number of frequency assignments authorising the uses in this table has beensteady or only slightly increased over the past decade. The most significant growthin assignments has occurred for automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B), C-band weather radars, radar beacons and 35 GHz police traffic speed radars.Growth has also occurred in the use of S- and X-band maritime radar and SARTs,as well as airborne class-licensed devices such as radio altimeters (4200–4400104 S-band refers to the microwave frequency range between 2 GHz and 4 GHz.105 C-band refers to the microwave frequency range between 4 GHz and 8 GHz.
82. MHz), weather radars (5350–5470 MHz and 9300–9500 MHz) and Doppler radars(8750–8850 MHz and 13.25–13.4 GHz).106Defence radiodetermination usage includes: the use of the HF spectrum for the operation of the Jindalee Operational Radar Network (JORN), which consists of two over-the-horizon radars for air and surface object detection using sky waves UHF spectrum used for military radar systems like identity friend or foe (IFF— included as part of the JTIDS platform) and tactical air navigation (TACAN); L- band systems include airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) surveillance radar airfield radar and ground-based air defence radars. Defence also uses a variety of X-band radar systems.5.6.2 2011–2015Issues affecting spectrum demandCivil air navigation, surveillance and landing systemsDevelopments in navigation and landing systems have been very much towards theadoption and use of GNSS augmentation systems over terrestrial-based navigationsystems. However, the use of ILS and distance-measuring equipment, in particular,is expected to remain important in the near future (though their role may bereduced). This is to avoid an over reliance on GPS-based systems that couldpresent a single point of failure unacceptable for the safety-of-life nature of theaeronautical radionavigation service (ARNS). ILS facilities in Australia are currentlybeing upgraded by Airservices Australia and the installation of new sites is alsopossible.Microwave landing systems (MLS) are not currently used in Australia and, despite itsplanned phasing out in the US, spectrum in the the MLS band (5030–5091 MHz) isnot likely to become available in the near future because of increasedimplementation in Europe and the UK and a strong position from ICAO to protect thespectrum. This position was upheld at WRC-07, with no additional allocations madein the band despite the need for additional spectrum in the 5 GHz range for airportsurface applications in the aeronautical mobile service.Until recently, Australia’s surveillance infrastructure has depended primarily on PSRand SSR, but this is expected to change with the current deployment of theAustralia-wide ADS-B network. ADS-B and GNSS-based navigation, surveillanceand landing systems are expected to expand and possibly replace some ground-based surveillance systems within the next decade. The primary objective of theproposed wider application of ADS-B for air traffic surveillance and GNSS-basednavigation for aircraft navigation is to enhance safety and increase efficiency of airtraffic management.The use of class-licensed airborne radars is expected to increase in proportion to theincrease in aircraft traffic, which is expected to at least double over the next 15years.GNSSSatellite-based positioning systems are different to other radionavigation servicesbecause they are used by many different platforms, industries and end users.Currently, only the GPS and GLONASS systems are operational; the US is106 X-band refers to the microwave frequency range between 8 GHz and 12 GHz.The Australian Communications and Media Authority, Radiocommunications (Aircraft and AeronauticalMobile Stations) Class Licence 2006, is available from the www.comlaw.gov.au/ComLaw.
83. modernising GPS with the introduction of new signals (L5, L1M, L2M and L1C) andthe launch of new satellites (Block IIR and IIF over the next seven years, Block IIIfrom 2013). The Russian Federation has also committed to the maintenance of afully restored GLONASS satellite constellation beyond 2011.Systems under development for future deployment include the European Union’sGalileo positioning system and Japan’s Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS),operating in the L-band. There are proposals to extend Galileo to also usefrequencies in the 5 GHz band. China is developing its system known as Compass(or Beidou-2). Currently, there are five Beidou-1 satellites offering limited coverageand application. Initially intended to be used for military purposes, ‘open’ services toChina and Asia are expected with worldwide coverage by 2014. The Indian RegionalNavigation Satellite System (IRNSS) plans to use both L-band and the S-bandradiodetermination-satellite allocation at 2483.5–2500 MHz.107 Although it is aprimary allocation only in Region 2 (and some Region 1 countries), WRC-12 agendaitem 1.18 is to consider making this a global primary allocation, taking into accountITU-R studies analysing the compatibility of GNSS with existing services.108GNSS ground-based augmentation systems (GBAS) combine received GPS signalsand the surveyed positions of ground stations to compute corrections for signalerrors (for example, timing and ionospheric delay). This achieves far greaterpositioning accuracy than stand-alone GPS. One of the earliest and most significantexpected applications of GPS augmentation is for aeronautical navigation,surveillance and landing guidance, which is exemplified by the wide-areaaugmentation system (WAAS) in the US. Differential GPS (DGPS) is a terrestrialGPS augmentation system currently used in Australia to facilitate coastal marinenavigation (at LF and MF), as well as in land surveying and navigation (typically VHFhigh band and UHF).The means for providing augmentation for GPS signals for aviation applications inAustralia has not been finalised. However, GBAS has already been introduced atSydney Airport by Airservices Australia for trialling and qualification. The ground-based regional augmentation system (GRAS) may be selected for en-route andregional approach navigation. In both cases, GPS signal corrections are broadcastto aircraft at VHF in the 108–117.975 MHz band. Airservices Australia will considerexpanding the GBAS service to other airports in Australia. There are however nonew radiodetermination spectrum implications from this project.Industry has expressed some concern about the potential for interference to GalileoL-band systems (to be introduced after 2014) operating at 1164–1350 MHz and1559–1591 MHz from Defence’s JTIDS and airborne warning and control systems(AWACS). AWACS are aircraft that use radar technology and can be used to collectintelligence and coordinate Defence activities.Current co-channel operation between GPS, GLONASS and Defence radar in the L-band suggests that no significant sharing problems will be encountered in the future.However, further use of L-band GNSS frequencies by other services has beenidentified as a concern by industry. This is because the operations of the currentGNSS elements are entirely based on the availability of the 1559–1610 MHz band.Several regulatory and representative bodies (including the ACMA) and industrycontinue to hold the position that the use of this spectrum by GNSS should not beconstrained by other services.107 The first satellite of the IRNSS constellation is expected to be launched in late 2011, with full operationexpected in about 2012. However, this is a regional positioning system and will not serve Australia.108 Region 1 includes Europe (including the entire Russian Federation and the former Soviet SocialistRepublics), Africa, the Middle East (excluding Iran and Afghanistan) and Mongolia.
84. UHF radarDefence considers the 430–450 MHz band critical to its operations due to itssuitability for long-range air surveillance radars and foliage penetration radar.S-band radarThe primary users of the 2700–2900 MHz band are Defence, Airservices Australiaand the BoM, which operate a number of fixed and mobile radar systems. As shownin Table 5.2, Airservices Australia operates PSR and the BoM operates part of its S-band ‘Weather Watch’ system and wind-finding radars in the band. Recent andplanned procurement programs by existing radar system operators in this band haveidentified a number of assignment coordination difficulties. While in the short termthese difficulties have been resolved by discussions between operators, it is possiblethat additional radar deployments in the band will result in the need to develop moreformal coordination requirements.Proposed new Defence radar systems, such as advanced phased array 3D radarsfor air and missile defence systems (particularly aboard naval vessels), are currentlyunder development. These technologies are designed for the 2900–3400 MHz bandand are likely to increase demand for spectrum.C-band weather radars and RLANsC-band weather radars are widely deployed and are critical to the BoM’s operations.The BoM has indicated that it may have a future spectrum requirement, dependingon the extent to which it introduces rural area weather radar coverage. The BoM hasalso expressed concern about the introduction of class-licensed radio local areanetworks (RLANs) in the 5600–5650 MHz band.The frequency range 5600–5650 MHz, used by C-band weather radars in Australia,is currently excluded from Australian class licensing arrangements for 5 GHzRLANs. Sharing arrangements for the compatible operation of RLANs and weatherradars in this band, and the wider 5470–5725 MHz frequency range, have beendefined in ITU Recommendation ITU-R M.1652. RLANs and C-band weather radarscurrently operate in this shared spectrum in Canada, the US and Europe. The ACMAis aware of changes in standards for RLANs to include extended monitoring periodsfor dynamic frequency selection, previously not implemented to protect weatherradar systems operating in this band. The European Telecommunications StandardsInstitute (ETSI) has reviewed its standard for 5 GHz RLANs (ETSI EN 301 893) andis incorporating enhanced RLAN receiver capabilities to detect narrower radarpulses over several iterations of the standard.Airport surface detection equipmentThe use of advanced surface movement guidance and control systems (A-SMGCS)utilising surface movement radar commenced in Australia in 2008 operating in the9.0–9.2 GHz band and is currently in use at several major airports. Airport surfacedetection equipment (ASDE) performs a very similar role to A-SMGCS, providingsurface movement tracking and control of aircraft and vehicles. ASDE systems arecurrently deployed in smaller overseas airports, where they use the 9.0–9.2 GHzband.109 ASDE109 is used in larger overseas airports in the 15.7–16.6 GHzradiolocation band.110 The US has commenced replacement of ASDE systemsoperating at 23.6–24.4 GHz with those operating at 16 GHz. For this reason, apotential increase in spectrum demand has been identified for ASDE in the 15.7–16.6 GHz frequency range, due to increasing traffic densities at airports and theneed to reduce runway incursions by personnel, vehicles, aircraft and debris.109 ASDE-X is used in the 9.0–9.2 GHz band, and utilises two to four frequencies.110 ASDE-3 is used in the 15.7–16.2 GHz band, and has a 16-frequency hopset, with two assignablehopping patterns.
85. While the deployment of ASDE is not currently planned for Australia, any futureintroduction of this equipment would need to be made in consultation with Defencebecause spectrum in this range is designated to be used principally for defencepurposes.111Automotive radar systemsThe operation of two different types of automotive radar systems are currentlyauthorised by the Radiocommunications (Low Interference Potential Devices) ClassLicence 2000 (LIPD class licence) in the 22–26.5 GHz (24 GHz band) and 76–77GHz frequency ranges.112 The 24 GHz short-range radar (SRR) technology is usedfor low-power collision avoidance applications (at the front, back and sides of thevehicle), while the 76–77 GHz long-range radar technology is used in longer-rangeintelligent cruise control applications (observing traffic on the road ahead of thevehicle).The uses of automotive radar systems is expected to increase in the future, asautomotive radar systems move from limited use in luxury cars to become acommon safety system in many vehicles. It is expected that new collision-avoidanceradars operating in the 77–81 GHz band (79 GHz band) will eventually replace thosein the 24 GHz band. The European Commission (EC) decided that 24 GHz ultrawideband (UWB) SRRs were only a temporary solution for anti-collision automotiveradar and that new systems would be installed only until June 2013, after which newsystems would be limited to other bands. Europe is currently looking at other bandsas 79 GHz radars are currently considered too expensive.113The likely future proliferation of automotive radar is of concern to operators in theradioastronomy services (RAS) that also operate in the 24 GHz, 76–77 GHz and 79GHz bands. However, careful planning to provide adequate protection throughseparation distances and terrain shielding can minimise the risk of interference.Members of the scientific community have also expressed concerns about the risk ofharmful interference to the Earth exploration-satellite service (EESS). Compatibilityanalyses performed by the ACMA show that for UWB SRRs to cause harmfulinterference to EESS passive sensors operating in the 23.6–24 GHz band, asignificantly large number of vehicles would have to be equipped with SRR within thecoverage area of the sensors.114 Such interference scenarios could only occur in themost densely populated areas in Australia and would require significant growth in theuse of 24 GHz UWB SRRs. Given the expected gradual migration of UWB SRRs tothe 79 GHz band or other bands, the likelihood of sufficient 24 GHz UWB SRRdensities to that would cause interference to EESS passive sensors over Australia tobe negligible.WRC-12 radiolocation allocationsThe radiolocation service currently has no global primary allocation in the frequencyrange 3–300 MHz (HF and VHF).HF radars are generally capable of useful over-the-horizon operation and the ITUhas recognised the need for oceanographic HF radars for the measurement of111 As per footnote AUS1 of the Spectrum Plan.112 Available at www.comlaw.gov.au.113 European Commission, Commission Decision on the harmonisation of the 24 GHz range radiospectrum band for the time-limited use by automotive short-range radar equipment in the Community,2005,http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2005/l_021/l_02120050125en00150020.pdf.114 Australian Communications and Media Authority, Ultra-wideband short-range radars for automotiveapplications, Radiofrequency Planning Branch, Australian Communications and Media Authority,Canberra, 2005, www.acma.gov.au/webwr/radcomm/frequency_planning/spps/0502spp.pdf.
86. coastal sea surface conditions in support of a range of operations. The ACMA hasbeen approached to facilitate the trialling of HF surface wave radars and temporaryarrangements have been developed to support these trials. Defence has alsoindicated its involvement in research into HF surface wave radar.The large distances over which HF signals propagate mean that the interferencepotential of a HF signal is high, so the operation of HF radar requires carefulcoordination with existing services. Agenda item 1.15 of WRC-12 is to considerpossible allocations to the radiolocation service in the 3–50 MHz range foroceanographic radar applications. A number of sub-bands within the HF and VHFspectrum have been identified for possible new allocations to the radiolocationservice.In addition, agenda item 1.14 of WRC-12 is to consider primary allocations to theradiolocation service in the HF and VHF bands for space detection applicationsincluding space sensing and asteroid detection.The 15.4–15.7 GHz band is also being considered for a primary radiolocationallocation under agenda item 1.21 of WRC-12, which is relevant to the current use inthe 15.7–17.3 GHz frequency range (for example, ASDE) and the trend towardsincreasing bandwidths. Currently allocated to the aeronautical radionavigationservice, Defence has expressed interest in this band for use of new airborne weatherradar technology that is under development.Agenda item 1.3 of WRC-12 seeks to identify additional or modified spectrumallocations for communications in support of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)operations. In addition to the mobile communications mentioned in that section, thesafe operation of a UAV will require technologies enabling the detection and trackingof other aircraft, terrain and obstacles, for which spectrum requirements also need tobe considered.5.6.3 The ACMA’s proposed approachesCivil air navigation, surveillance and landing systemsAirservices Australia has indicated that additional spectrum requirements foraeronautical radionavigation are unlikely to arise within 2011–2015. However, theACMA will continue to liaise with Airservices Australia and monitor developments inspectrum requirements for navigation, surveillance and landing systems.GNSSInternational GNSS systems operate on frequencies allocated by the ITU and theintroduction of new GNSS constellations, satellites and signals generally has littleimpact on the ACMA’s spectrum management activities. Despite this, the ACMAmonitors international policy and technological developments and will continue to doso.As mentioned earlier, there are concerns that JTIDS and AWACS may causeinterference to Galileo L-band systems. The ACMA is aware of technicalspecifications associated with Galileo and is working to facilitate communicationsbetween Defence and the EC to resolve potential interference issues.Considering the obvious future public benefits of GNSS, the ACMA will aim toaccommodate GNSS advances within an increasingly complex regulatoryenvironment. The ACMA supports and encourages industry involvement in servicesassociated with GNSS by facilitating access to spectrum for GNSS, including theproposed introduction of Galileo and the QZSS. The ACMA also assists in mattersrelated to GNSS through its involvement with the Galileo Inter-DepartmentalCommittee and the Australian Government Space Forum.
87. UHF radarThe 430–450 MHz range is part of the 400 MHz band, which is under review by theACMA. See section 5.4 for further information.S-band radarGiven the importance of the services provided by Defence, Airservices Australia andthe BoM in the 2700–2900 MHz band, the ACMA believes that it is in the overallpublic interest that stakeholders in the band continue to cooperate so that all criticaluses of the spectrum have adequate access. The ACMA will work with thesestakeholders to establish spectrum-sharing agreements in this band. The ACMA willalso investigate the need to develop further spectrum planning guidance on futureuse of the band by radar systems.C-band weather radars and RLANsThe ACMA will monitor the outcomes of sharing between weather radars and RLANsin the 5470–5725 MHz band overseas. The ACMA believes that sharing, based oninternational arrangements set out in the Recommendations and Annex of ITU-RM.1652, is possible. The ACMA will proceed carefully with the implementation ofRLANs sharing the 5600–5650 MHz and will aim to align developments with thefinalisation of the relevant ETSI standard, which is currently being reviewed toaddress sharing concerns overseas.ASDEThe ACMA will continue to monitor ASDE developments and its possible futureintroduction in Australia.Automotive radar systemsTo protect the RAS from harmful interference caused by 24 GHz UWB SRRs, thesedevices are prohibited by the LIPD Class Licence from operating within 10kilometres of the Parkes and Narrabri observatories and the Western Australia RadioAstronomy Park, and within three kilometres of the Canberra Deep SpaceCommunication Complex.The ACMA believes that the density of operational UWB SRRs required to causeharmful interference to satellites of the EESS will not be realised in the short tomedium term. In Europe, 24 GHz UWB SRRs are considered to be only a temporarysolution for automotive radar systems and, given that European cars constitute asignificant proportion of the automobile market (especially among luxury cars withthe most advanced features), it seems likely that phase out of 24 GHz UWB SRRsmay commence within the next 10 years. The ACMA will monitor developments inexisting automotive radar systems, particularly 79 GHz UWB SRRs, throughconsultation with peak groups such as the Federal Chamber of AutomotiveIndustries and liaise with potentially affected users. Should new systems beproposed in additional frequency bands, the ACMA will conduct sharing studies todetermine the potential effect of their introduction on incumbent users, andappropriate licensing regimes and interference mitigation strategies.WRC-12 radiolocation allocationsThe ACMA will continue to facilitate the use of HF surface wave radars throughtemporary arrangements. The development of permanent arrangements depends onthe outcome of WRC-12.The ACMA will monitor demand for and developments of the other WRC-12 agendaitems for VHF space detection applications, the 15.4–15.7 GHz radiolocationallocation and any future allocations in support of UAV operations.The following WRC-12 agenda items are relevant to the radiodetermination services: Agenda item 1.3—unmanned aircraft systems (UAS)
88. Agenda item 1.14—new applications in the radiolocation service and review allocations or regulatory provisions for implementation of the radiolocation service in the range 30–300 MHz Agenda item 1.15—possible allocations in the range 3–50 MHz to the radiolocation service for oceanographic radar applications Agenda item 1.18—extending the existing primary and secondary radiodetermination-satellite service (space-to-Earth) allocations in the band 2 483.5–2 500 MHz.The latest information on Australia’s preliminary view on WRC-12 agenda items is onthe ACMA website.5.6.4 Beyond 2015Civil air navigation, surveillance and landing systemsAs mentioned earlier, aeronautical navigation and landing systems are evolvingtowards GNSS-based systems. For this reason, the use of some current systems isplanned to decline within the next five years following the implementation of GPS-based navigation and landing systems on aircraft. As early as 2010, there wereplans in the US to phase-down non-directional beacon (NDB), VHF omnidirectionalrange (VOR) and microwave landing system (MLS) to a minimum operationalnetwork, based on projected satellite navigation program milestones.115 No spectrumis expected to become available from such activity within the near future. Someinterest has been expressed by the telecommunications industry in the 2700–2900MHz band for regional broadband services, although it is important to note thecontinued requirement of the band for weather and Defence radars.Airborne weather radars are under development in the 15.4–16.6 GHz band. Theyare currently very lightly utilised, but there is interest in their use for defencepurposes.Wind profiler radarWind profiler radars that operate in the 448–450 MHz range are currently not used inAustralia. However, the BoM does use wind profiler radars that operate in otherbands and expects its use of these radars to increase generally. The BoM maycommence using 450 MHz wind profiler radars and, consequently, anticipates anincrease in the need for 450 MHz spectrum allocations at some locations, currentlylimited to 448–450 MHz. The ACMA will liaise with the BoM on its futurerequirements for in this area.GNSSThe passive reception of GPS is expected to increase, but this should not impact onspectrum demand in the next 10 years. The ACMA will instead focus on adjacentband issues to ensure the functionality of GPS.Spectrum demand will most likely increase for terrestrial augmentation systems. Theuse of VHF spectrum for the broadcast of GPS corrections indicates that other futuresystems may also require additional spectrum allocations, but at this time, there isinsufficient information to quantify such demand. Spectrum requirements for GNSS(in particular GPS) augmentation systems will more likely be quantifiable afterterrestrial tracking applications are more widely introduced in Australia. The ACMAwill continue to observe the deployment of GNSS augmentation systems over thenext five years.115 US Department of Defence, Department of Homeland Security, Department of Transportation, 2005Federal Radionavigation Plan, www.navcen.uscg.gov/pubs/frp2005/2005%20FRP%20WEB.pdf.
89. Shipborne maritime radarThe use of S- and X-band maritime radars has increased over the past decade andis expected to increase well into the future. Spectrum demand for these radars maytherefore increase, but a spectrum shortage is not anticipated in the near future. TheACMA will continue to monitor the deployment of S- and X-band maritime radars andreassess whether additional spectrum may be needed if there are indications ofgrowing spectrum usage.Maritime radar beacons (racons) are widely used. Their increasing use over the pastdecade should continue in the future. However, consultation with AMSA hasrevealed concerns that new technology non-magnetron radar may not be compatiblewith existing racons. In addition, there is the possibility that they will not bereplaceable at the end of their lifetimes and alternative technologies with differentspectrum requirements may be introduced after 10 years. The ACMA will monitor thedevelopments of non-magnetron radars and consult with AMSA on the continuationof S- and X-band racons after 2013.Automatic rail identification systemsThe rapidly increasing general use of RFID systems worldwide suggests that the useof rail identification systems will also increase. Despite the limited deployment andgrowth of this application to rail networks in Australia, increased use for suburban railtransport routes may be a possibility. However, international developments indicatethat tracking systems for terrestrial transport may instead use GNSS augmentationsystems. The ACMA will continue to monitor the use of the 915–928 MHz band forrail identification systems, but at this stage does not anticipate additional spectrumrequirements for this purpose.Radiodetermination in support of UAVsAs mentioned in section 5.6.2, WRC-12 may consider the spectrum requirementsand identify additional spectrum allocations for radiodetermination applications toenable a UAV to operate safely through an awareness of its position relative to otheraircraft, terrain and obstacles. This work may not be completed at the nextconference and the preliminary agenda for the World RadiocommunicationConference 2016 includes an item that will focus specifically on theradiodetermination requirements of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS).5.7 SatelliteSatellite communications have enabled applications requiring internationalcommunications or large coverage areas and are an important component of thetelecommunications industry. In particular, satellite communications are often thepreferred or only solution for the provision of communications to remote and ruralareas, especially in developing countries. It also provides an important backup forundersea cables that are vulnerable to being cut as a result of geologicalmovements. The main categories of satellite communications are as follows: fixed-satellite service (FSS)—satellites communicating with Earth stations located at fixed, specified locations on the Earth mobile-satellite service (MSS)—satellites communicating with Earth stations that move across the Earth’s surface broadcasting-satellite service (BSS)—satellites transmitting signals intended for direct reception by the general public.116116 In this report, the radiodetermination-satellite service and the RNSS are included in theradiodetermination service section, and the meteorological-satellite and Earth exploration-satelliteservices are included in the space science services section. The space operations service is also included
90. Satellite systems have ‘footprints’ (coverage areas) that can cover up to one-third ofthe Earth so they usually cannot be considered solely on a national basis. For thisreason, the ITU provides a process for the coordination of satellite systems that isoutlined in the ITU Radio Regulations.5.7.1 Current spectrum useLong-term forecasts for satellite spectrum demand in the 1990s never materialised,leading to an oversupply of capacity across the industry. However, the use ofsatellite spectrum has increased in the past decade.Internationally, the major satellite operators of the fixed-satellite service (FSS) andbroadcasting-satellite service (BSS) are Intelsat, SES Global and Eutelsat, whichoperate primarily in the C-, Ku- and Ka- bands.117 Most Australian coverage comesfrom footprints of geostationary satellites serving the Asia-Pacific region operated byIntelsat/PanAmSat and Optus and, to a lesser extent, others including ASIASAT,APT Group and SES New Skies. In the FSS and BSS markets, television distributionand broadcasting is the dominant service with much of the recent growth in satelliteusage attributable to the development of digital television. Broadcasting to the publicgenerally uses Ku-band spectrum, with utilisation of C- and Ku-band for contributionfeeds. C-band satellite communications currently facilitate important applicationsincluding distance learning, telemedicine, universal access and disaster recovery. C-band is also used for feeder links for the MSS. The Ku-band is also used heavily forvery small aperture terminal (VSAT) applications and some satellite news gathering(SNG) and digital terrestrial television broadcasting (DTTB) distribution.The paired FSS allocations 7250–7750 MHz and 7900–8400 MHz are designated tobe used principally for the purposes of defence and Defence holds space licences inthese bands.The MSS is more of a niche market based on the needs of specific communities (forexample, maritime, aeronautical and transport industries) that require services inregions without alternative infrastructure. The major satellite operators of the MSS inAustralia are Inmarsat, Iridium, Globalstar, Orbcomm, Optus and Thuraya. Theseservices primarily use L- and S-band spectrum. Table 5.3 shows the main bandsused to provide satellite services in Australia:in the space science services section, since it is concerned with the operation of spacecraft and notlimited to the tracking, telemetry and control of satellites.117 When discussing satellite services, these band names generally refer to different frequency rangesthan those for other services. For the frequency ranges of satellite services corresponding to these bandnames, refer to Table 5.2.
91. Table 5.3 Main satellite spectrum usage in Australia Band Service Comments <1 GHz MSS Shared with RNSS and science services; the only exclusive MSS band is for the use of EPIRBs. Generally used for low data rate and messaging requirements (for example, Orbcomm at 137–138 MHz/148–150.05 MHz and 400.075–400.125 MHz, and Defence at 240–270 MHz/290–320 MHz and 312–315 MHz/387–390 MHz for allied satellite communications). L-band MSS 1525–1559 MHz (downlink) paired with 1626.5–1660.5 MHz (uplink), (1–1.98 1610–1626.5 MHz (uplink) paired with 2483.5 MHz–2500 MHz GHz) (downlink)—global or near global coverage by Inmarsat, Iridium, Thuraya and Globalstar services, such as voice, data, fax, paging and digital messaging. Earth stations are class licensed in these bands where the space object apparatus is otherwise licensed.118 The 1525–1530 MHz and 1660–1660.5 MHz bands are shared with the fixed and radioastronomy services, respectively. Inmarsat commenced operation of its aeronautical Broadband Global Area Network (BGAN) service in 2007. Optus MobileSat (1545–1559 MHz (downlink)/1646.5–1660.5 MHz (uplink) on B-series Optus satellites) provides mobile phone coverage for voice, fax and data across Australia and 200 km out to sea. No new fixed assignments are permitted in the 1525–1530 MHz band to preserve options for the MSS.119 In Australia, Earth receive licences are held by the Australian Defence Force Academy, NewSat Networks and Telstra. BSS 1452–1492 MHz—shared with broadcasting, mobile and fixed services (DRCS/HCRC).120 No new assignments are permitted in order to preserve options for government policy on the introduction of DAB. S-band MSS 1980–2010 MHz (uplink)/2170–2200 MHz (downlink) 2500–2690 MHz (1.98–3.4 —clearance of these bands to facilitate introduction of identified for GHz) the MSS, which have also been identified for the terrestrial satellite component of IMT). Earth stations can component of operate under class licence. Few fixed P-P links still IMT. operating. Shared with ENG 2483.5–2500 MHz (downlink paired with 1610– at 2.5 GHz. 1626.5 MHz)—used, for example, by Globalstar service downlinks. Earth receivers are authorised to operate under class licence where the space object apparatus is otherwise licensed. C-band FSS C-band was the first band to be used for commercial satellite (3.4–7.25 communications, and there are many extant legacy systems. C-band also GHz) has the largest number of satellites. Currently shared with the terrestrial fixed service, use of C-band is authorised by apparatus licences in Australia. 3400–4200 MHz (downlink)/5850–6725 MHz (uplink)—about 200 frequency assignments held by several licensees. Foxtel and Austar are users of this band (supplied by Intelsat or AsiaSat satellites) for contribution feeds to receive channel content from suppliers. Government organisations such as Airservices, Defence, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade and the Australian Federal Police also use C-band for critical118 Radiocommunications (Communication with Space Object) Class Licence 1998, Available:www.comlaw.gov.au/ComLaw/Legislation/LegislativeInstrument1.nsf/0/F19B53DD2D4DA6F8CA256FD9000555FA?OpenDocument.119 This is specified in the 1.5 GHz Band Plan; however, fixed P-MP services for the delivery oftelecommunications services in rural or remote areas (such as DRCS) are still permitted.120 Under Resolution 528, new BSS systems may only be introduced in the upper 25 MHz of the band (i.e.1467–1492 MHz).
92. communications in neighbouring countries and with international deployments of officers/troops. The principal usage is in ‘standard’ C-band (3700–4200/5925–6425 MHz), although some satellite services, including Inmarsat feeder links, also use parts of ‘extended’ C-band (3550–3700/5850–5925 and/or 6425–6725 MHz). 5091–5250 MHz (uplink)/6700–7075 MHz (downlink) bands—limited to feeder links for non-geostationary satellite systems of the MSS, such as Globalstar feeder links. X-band FSS 6725–7075 MHz (uplink)—used by AsiaSpace for TCR to ASIABSS satellites; also licensed to SKY Channel and Lockheed Martin. 7250–7750 (uplink)/7900–8400 (downlink)—satellite bands used by Defence—communication with AUSSAT C 156E GOV satellite is class licensed.121 Ku-band FSS This band is experiencing the fastest growth in satellite communications. (10.7– 10.7–11.7 GHz (downlink)—used by iPSTAR in Australia for the provision 18.4 of broadband connectivity in regional areas, and LBF Australia (French GHz) digital TV). Several Earth receive assignments held by NewSat Networks, as well as Lockheed Martin, Pacific Teleports and Soul Pattinson Telecommunications. 12.2–12.75 GHz (downlink)/14–14.5 GHz (uplink)—Earth stations are class licensed in these bands where the space object is apparatus licensed. These bands are used for direct-to-home (DTH) television services (including Foxtel services on the Optus C1 satellite), SNG, VSAT services including IP broadband and private networks, DTTB distribution and international teleport services. The bands are used by all Optus satellites. There are many Earth receive/space assignments, held by several licensees including Defence, iPSTAR, Lockheed Martin, NewSat Networks, Optus and Telstra. 13.75–14 GHz (uplink)—apparatus licensed due to sharing requirements with radiolocation and space sciences services. Only a few satellites serve Australia using this band. Optus D-series use the upper portion of the band for TT&C. 17.3–18.4 GHz (uplink)—use by geostationary satellites is limited to feeder links for the BSS. Optus uplinks to Optus D3 BSS satellite use 17.3 to 17.8 GHz with Fixed Earth Licences. Australian fixed Earth assignments are held by Stratos Global, Lockheed Martin and Optus for TT&C operations for BSS satellites. BSS 11.7–12.2 GHz—no Australian usage. Optus D3, launched in August 2009, uses this band at 156E. Ka-band FSS Increasing international use for national and regional broadband (17.7– connections. 37.5 17.7–21.2 GHz (downlink)/27–31 GHz (uplink)—only the 19.7–20.2 GHz GHz) and 29.5–31 GHz bands are not shared with fixed and mobile services, even though Earth stations are class licensed in the 18.8–19.3 GHz / 28.6–29.1 GHz bands. There are also MSS allocations. Iridium feeder links use a portion of these bands, Thaicom (formerly Shin Satellite), also operates in these bands under a 27 GHz spectrum licence. Defence has exclusive access to spectrum-licensed bands 20.2–21.2 GHz/30–31 GHz, which is part of the Optus C1 satellite payload. 24.75–25.25 GHz (uplink)—shared with the fixed and mobile services, but currently preserved under Embargo 24122 pending further planning and satellite service developments.121 Radiocommunications (Communication with AUSSAT C 156E GOV Satellite Network) Class Licence 2005, availablewww.comlaw.gov.au/ComLaw/legislation/LegislativeInstrument1.nsf/0/3AA5BADC5AF7B80DCA25709A000AEEC3?OpenDocument.
93. BSS 21.4–22 GHz—not considered compatible with existing terrestrial fixed links.1235.7.2 2011–2015Issues affecting spectrum demandFactors that are expected to drive demand for satellite spectrum include increasingconsumer demand for higher data rates and flexibility to accommodate various usesand increasing government demand and investment in technology.The growth that the satellite communications industry has experienced over the pastdecade (for example, a 38 per cent increase in revenue from 2000 to 2005) isexpected to continue for at least the next decade. Satellite communications involvesa 15-year investment cycle, meaning that long-term strategic planning is necessaryso the industry can respond to spectrum allocation changes.MSS in the L- and S-bandsThe MSS sector is growing rapidly and strong revenue growth is expected for thefuture. Globalstar and Iridium are undertaking satellite constellation replenishmentsand the MSS services they provide to Australia are expected to continue, as are theInmarsat and Thuraya services. While for now MSS usage is primarily in L- and S-bands, WRC-12 agenda item 1.25 is to consider possible additional MSS allocations,principally in the range 4 to 16 GHz. This is unlikely to have a significant effect onthe Australian radiocommunications environment within the next five years.Potential future S-band MSS systems in AustraliaIn the USA, Terrestar’s integrated S-band 4G mobile satellite and terrestrialcommunications network and ICO’s MSS/ATC (ancillary terrestrial component) areplanned to operate in the 2000–2020 MHz and 2180–2200 MHz frequency ranges.The MSS/ATC system is designed to provide wireless voice, data, video and internetservices throughout the US on mobile and portable devices.124 Internationally, therehas also been discussion about MSS/ATC use in the MSS bands 1610–1626.5 MHzand 2483.5–2500 MHz. These MSS systems, along with the introduction of nextgeneration broadband platforms, satellite digital multimedia broadcasting services(particularly for handheld units) and network solutions for communications in supportof aeronautical, maritime and rail operations, are expected to drive sector revenue.Since the ECC adopted decisions in 2006 on the harmonised use of the 1980–2010MHz and 2170–2200 MHz bands for MSS, Europe has undertaken publicconsultation on a proposed framework for selection of MSS systems to be assignedspectrum in this band. To date, 12 to 13 systems have been considered for use inthis band.125The ACMA has identified the S-band (1980-2010 MHz and 2170-2200 MHz) as analternative band for interim use by ENG services as they transition out of the 2.5GHz band. The ACMA will continue to monitor international activities in this band inrelation to the development of MSS/ATC systems.122 Australian Communications and Media Authority, 2007, RALI MS03—Embargo 24, www.acma.gov.au.123 This portion of the 22 GHz band is occupied by a relatively low number of microwave fixed links.Licences in this band are subject to advisory note BL, which states that the band is currently under reviewto accommodate changes in technology, which may lead to a requirement to change frequency or tocease transmission.124 ICO Global Communications, Overview, www.ico.com/%5Fabout/.125 Electronic Communications Committee (ECC), CEPT Report 013, Report to the European Commission(EC), Harmonised technical conditions for the use of the 2 GHz bands for Mobile Satellite Services in theEuropean Union, July 2006.
94. L-band congestion and sharing issuesExisting MSS allocations in the L-band, the band primarily used by the MSS, arecongested. A memorandum of understanding was required between satelliteoperators to satisfy their short-term spectrum requirements as many were looking toreplenish or update existing constellations. Additional MSS allocations were made atWRC-03 (1518–1525 MHz downlink and 1668–1675 MHz uplink) and identified foruse by the satellite component of IMT at WRC-07. For example, Inmarsat isdeveloping a new satellite to operate in these WRC-03 ‘extension bands’, withservices to Europe and Africa planned to begin in 2012. In Australia, theabovementioned congestion issues are intensified by sharing issues with otherservices. This may hinder the use of WRC-03 extension bands.For example, Australia protects DRCS/HCRC in the 1518–1525 MHz band fromproposed MSS services by implementing a pfd limit of –124 dBW/MHz/m2.126Protection of the passive space research service (SRS) in the 1668–1668.4 MHzband is facilitated by a new resolution drafted by the ITU at WRC-07, which specifiesconditions for coordination with the SRS’s SPECTR-R system.127 Any introduction ofMSS in the 1668–1675 MHz band in Australia would also require protection of theradioastronomy sites at Parkes and Narrabri, which operate between 1660–1670MHz. In light of these factors, future MSS growth is likely to rely on spectrumallocations in the S-band (essentially unused in Australia) and the WRC-03extension bands.There appears to be little scope for the future expansion of existing networks or theintroduction of new networks within existing L-band allocations. Despite the possibleintroduction of mobile television within the next five to 10 years, along with increasedMSS subscriber numbers, additional spectrum requirements for the MSS are notexpected within the 2011–2015 timeframe.FSS and BSS in the C-band and higher frequenciesWith the MSS spectrum congestion and the identification of the 2500–2690 MHzband for the possible future terrestrial IMT use, the FSS and BSS are expected, forthe most part, to continue to be limited to frequencies above 3 GHz.128 An exceptionis the possible broadcasting of satellite digital radio in the L-band and the proposedlaunch of AsiaSpace’s AUSDSB satellite at 150.5ºE, which is intended to provideAustralian digital radio broadcast coverage.C-bandModerate growth of C-band usage is expected to continue in international markets.Current worldwide transponder utilisation is estimated to be about 65 per cent andmoderate growth should be accommodated within this capacity for the next decade.In the longer term, satellite capacity issues may place some pressure on certainheavily utilised orbital locations over the US, Europe and Asia. Orbital locations forC-band satellites are less heavily congested over Australian skies, which may besuitable to continue to serve the Asia-Pacific region.The continued improvement in satellite beam-forming technologies would beexpected to result in a gradual migration of some C-band services to Ku-band in thelonger term. However, the significant investments in existing C-band Earth station126 Protection is applied due to Universal Service Obligations that these DRCS/HCRC services currentlyfulfil.127 Resolution 904 of the ITU Radio Regulations resolves that MSS systems exceeding the coordinationthreshold of Appendix 5 of the regulations will be coordinated with the SPECTR-R system operating in theSRS (passive). Along with the Appendix 5 pfd coordination threshold, ITU R Report M.2124 provides abasis for undertaking a sharing analysis.128 S-band FSS (2500–2535/2655–2690 MHz) and BSS (2520–2670 MHz) allocations are not used inAustralia, and satellite applications are not considered feasible here.
95. infrastructure would be likely to limit the rate of any such migration. Given this andthe fact that certain satellite applications and services require high levels of serviceavailability offered by the C-band, this band is expected to continue to play andongoing role in international communications, including Australia.129C-band also provides the sole means of international communications for severaldeveloping countries, including some of Australia’s neighbouring Pacific islandterritories. Australia hosts several teleport Earth stations providing feeder links tomajor Earth stations on these islands.There is an unknown number of unlicensed C-band satellite receivers operated byethnic communities, hotels and educational institutions as well as radio andtelevision stations. Much of this use involves unlicensed, fortuitous reception fromsatellites whose major intended audience is in other countries. The ACMA does notsupport the ubiquitous, uncoordinated deployment of Earth station receivers inbands shared with terrestrial services, or the use of the spectrum not authorisedunder current licensing regimes.There is industry concern about the possibility of interference from future use of theC-band downlink for IMT, particularly for WiMAX, and the constraint on future FSSdeployments that could result.130 Part or all of the ‘extended’ C-band (3400–3600MHz) was identified for use by IMT in many countries at WRC-07. While the list ofcountries does not include Australia or the US, part of the band has been proposedfor the introduction of WAS in Australia (3575–3700 MHz). In addition, parts of theextended C-band are already used for WAS under apparatus and spectrumlicences.131 Industry has also identified the interference potential of WAS for theadjacent ‘standard’ C-band (3700–4200 MHz).X-bandDefence expects its use of this band to increase with its involvement in theWideband Global System satellite communications program. In its response to thedraft Outlook, Defence has expressed a concern over the interference potential ofcurrent sharing arrangements between satellite and terrestrial fixed services in theband. Defence is seeking long- term protection for anchor stations, and trainingareas in particular, as well as possible protection in future for areas of higher densityuse.Ku- and Ka-bandsThe Ku-band is currently experiencing the fastest growth in satellite communicationsand this is expected to continue well into the future. The widespread use of severalcommunications solutions is expected in this band, including: television distribution and broadcasting SNG broadband VSAT data communications, including IP broadband and private networks, and international teleport services mobile television—satellite downlinks are being considered in both the S- and Ku- bands and terrestrial retransmission in the S-band.129 The C-band is the only FSS band commonly used for commercial (non-government/military) purposesbelow 10 GHz. Above 10 GHz, rain attenuation becomes significant. This makes the C-band critical forcommunications in tropical areas.130 WiMAX stands for worldwide interoperability for microwave access.131 Since 2000, the 3425–3492.5 MHz and 3542.5–3575 MHz bands have been allocated for spectrumlicensing. Seven entities currently hold licences in different geographical areas around Australia.
96. Television distribution and broadcasting is the dominant service in the FSS and BSS.Considering that the Asia-Pacific region has over half the world’s population and anumber of developed and developing countries, high growth of the BSS market isexpected in the region, with increasing numbers of both users and televisionchannels. Such growth is also expected for Australia. The expansion of the Optussatellite fleet (D2 launched in 2007 and D3 launched in 2009), intended to supportFoxtel’s HDTV and other satellite broadcasting services, is an example of capacityplanned to address the expected growth in demand. The D3 satellite uses 11.7–12.2GHz for television broadcasts and 17.3–17.8 GHz for BSS feeder links. Like thelatter band, the 14.5–14.8 GHz is also limited to feeder links for the BSS, but sincethe band is designated to be used principally for defence purposes, it is complicatedto introduce satellite services within it.Footnotes 5.502 and 5.503 of the ITU Radio Regulations outline sharing criteriabetween FSS Earth station transmitters and radiolocation/space research services inthe 13.75–14.0 GHz band. Currently, Earth stations must be individually apparatuslicensed to facilitate coordination. Industry feedback indicates that, due to theimbalance between FSS uplink and downlink allocations, congestion in 14.0–14.5GHz is starting to occur in Australia. As new Ku-band satellites are capable ofserving Australia in the 13.75 to 14.0 GHz band, there is some interest in a simplifiedlicensing approach that still satisfies the international sharing arrangements.Internationally, there is increasing interest in satellite broadcasting at Ka-bandfrequencies. Agenda item 1.13 of WRC-12 is to decide on the future spectrum usageof the 21.4–22 GHz band for HDTV in the BSS and associated feeder link bands,based on technical and regulatory studies on the harmonisation of spectrum usageand BSS technologies. Currently, such BSS usage of the band is not consideredcompatible with existing fixed P-P links in the 22 GHz band. Sixty fixed links overlapwith the 21.4–22 GHz range and arrangements in RALI FX3 specify that apparatuslicences issued in the 22 GHz band for fixed-link assignments shall be subject toadvisory note BL, which states that this frequency band is currently under review toaccommodate changes in technology. This review may lead to a requirement tochange frequency or to cease transmission.With the advent of government plans to deliver broadband nationally, spectrumdemand for a satellite component to this solution is being analysed.From 1995 to 2005, the spectrum efficiency of satellite communications technologiestripled and it is expected to double again over the next 10 years. Technologies thatcan enhance the efficiency of spectrum include video encoding and modulationstandards such as: MPEG 4, a video compression format standardised by the Moving Picture Experts Group digital video broadcasting-satellite-second generation (DVB-S2), a forward error coding and modulation standard that has enhanced performance over the digital video broadcasting-satellite (DVB-S) standard digital video broadcasting return channel via satellite (DVB RCS), which provides a return channel to enable internet access and other data services over satellite.Others include phased array antennas, spot beam-forming technologies, multi-bandantennas and adaptive array antennas.Spectrum demandsIt is important to consider the type of growth expected for services and applicationssupplied by the satellite industry, as this will directly influence the demand onspectrum resources.
97. The highest levels of growth within the satellite industry are expected for handheldand mobile multimedia applications (for the MSS), along with television distributionand broadcasting and the VSAT market (for the FSS and BSS). Despite thesedrivers, there are no expected requirements for additional WGS, MSS, FSS or BSSallocations or additional class-licensing arrangements within the next five years.There is a general agreement by industry that service providers can continueoperations within existing spectrum allocations.There is interest in the international environment to deploy MSS/ATC systems.Should these networks prove successful, it may drive interest in the Australianmarket. If this occurs, consideration will need to be given to the effects of such asystem on co- and adjacent-band services. The ACMA would need to undertake areview of spectrum management arrangements, as MSS/ATC systems were notconsidered when existing MSS arrangements were developed.Earth station sitingDue to competing demands between satellite and terrestrial radiocommunicationsservices, the ACMA has identified spectrum management issues associated with thesiting of some satellite Earth stations. In certain bands, they currently shareterrestrial services in areas of high spectrum demand, such as urban areas.While it is acknowledged that some satellite Earth stations need to operate in urbanareas, in at least some cases there may be satellite dependent services that can besuccessfully provided by Earth stations located in less populated areas wherespectrum demand is low.The ACMA is planning to release a discussion paper in the third quarter of 2011 thatwill review current spectrum management arrangements regarding the deploymentof satellite Earth stations in shared bands in metropolitan areas. The ACMArecognises that it must balance the costs to Earth station operators of locating theirstation in these areas, with the benefits of making spectrum available for services tothe community. Where spectrum demand for terrestrial services is highest, thepossibility of siting of Earth stations in less populated areas may make spectrumavailable in urban areas (for which it would otherwise be denied).This is a complex issue and will require extensive consultation with stakeholders.Through submissions to the Outlook, the satellite industry has expressedreservations about such an approach being implemented, which according to thisindustry may result in substantial costs associated with relocating equipment andinfrastructure and establishing and maintaining backhaul communications, along withlogistical considerations.The ACMA is also planning to release a discussion paper on licensing for satelliteEarth stations in the third quarter of 2011, to examine the efficiency andeffectiveness of this regime.5.7.3 The ACMA’s proposed approachesMSS in the L- and S-bandsWithin the 2011–2015 timeframe, the ACMA expects to maintain current L-band andS-band class-licensing arrangements for MSS services. The ACMA will also monitorany MSS requirements for WRC-03 extension band applications in Australia,including class-licensing arrangements for these bands, and will consider sharingarrangements between MSS and fixed DRCS/HCRC services. The ACMA isunaware of any current plans for the use of MSS systems in these bands inAustralia. However, increasing pressures on existing L-band resources, combined
98. with EIRP limits published at WRC-07 to limit the interference potential oftransportable radio-relay systems operating in the L-band extension band for theuplink, may result in the commencement of international use of this band. It ispossible that the coverage of such international services may extend to Australia.The ACMA will continue to protect DRCS/HCRC in the 1518–1525 MHz band byimposing pfd thresholds on the MSS in this band. Though the current limit wasnegotiated to ensure that MSS development would not be severely constrained,future sharing arrangements for the potential introduction of MSS services in thisextension band may lead to a need to reconsider the pfd limit in more depth.There are currently no MSS systems operating in the 1668–1675 MHz band inAustralia. Potential future use of the band for the MSS may require a study into thefeasibility of sharing with RAS facilities at Parkes and Narrabri. In particular,protection of RAS stations at 1660–1670 MHz will need to be considered. This mayrequire the use of separation distances and mobile Earth station output power limitsfor co-band 1668–1670 MHz MSS systems and adjacent band 1670–1675 MHzMSS systems.132FSS and BSS in the C-band and higher frequenciesFor the ACMA’s proposed approaches to L-band BSS, see section 5.2.2.From 2011 to 2015, the ACMA’s apparatus licensing arrangements will maintaincurrent access arrangements to the C-band for satellite Earth stations. In addition,the ACMA expects to maintain its policy not to support the ubiquitous, uncoordinateddeployment of Earth station receivers in bands shared with terrestrial services,particularly the 3.4–4.2 GHz frequency range (standard and extended C-band) andthe 10.7–11.7 GHz band.The ACMA will continue to work with Defence to balance its operationalrequirements in the X-band with those of the broader community andradiocommunications industry.The ACMA will maintain Ku-band class-licensing arrangements in the 11.7–12.75GHz and 14.0–14.5 GHz bands, as strong continued growth is expected in the Ku-band for DTH broadcasting and VSAT applications. Current class-licensingarrangements in the Ku-band are expected to be sufficient to support satelliteapplications, including HDTV, within the 2010–2014 timeframe. However, the ACMAnotes some industry interest in revised licensing arrangements in the 13.75–14.0GHz band. Any consideration of such a revision would require consultation withinterested and affected stakeholders in the band.The ACMA will monitor any international technological and regulatory developmentsfor HDTV services broadcast at 21.4–22.0 GHz. The ACMA will also monitordemands for HDTV BSS systems in Australia, which may involve public and industryconsultation.Australia’s current position on agenda item 1.13 is to support WRC-12 progressing,to definitive procedures, the existing interim procedures for introduction ofbroadcasting-satellite service (HDTV) systems in the band 21.4-22.00 GHz inRegion 1 and 3 as detailed in the Annex to Resolution 525 (Rev. WRC-07).Ka-band class-licensing arrangements in the 18.8–19.3 GHz and 28.6–29.1 GHzbands will also be maintained, with the expectation that demand for Ka-band DTHbroadband applications may arise within the 2011–2015 timeframe. Industryrequirements for arrangements for class licensing of ubiquitous Earth stations in the19.7–20.2 GHz and 29.5–30.0 GHz bands will also be examined.132 As specified in Article 5.379C of the ITU Radio Regulations.
99. As mentioned in section 5.1.2, at WRC-07, the 5091–5150 MHz band was allocatedto the AM(R)S on a primary basis and is intended for use by airport surfaceapplications, security transmissions and wideband AMT. The ACMA will need toconsider the impact of the introduction of such systems on existing Globalstar feederlinks serving non-geostationary satellites of the MSS, which are licensed for theground transmit segment only.WRC-12The following WRC-12 agenda items are relevant to satellite services: Agenda item 1.8—fixed service in the bands between 71 GHz and 238 GHz Agenda item 1.13—spectrum usage of the 21.4-22 GHz band for the broadcasting-satellite service and the associated feeder-link bands in Regions 1 and 3 Agenda item 1.18—primary and secondary radiodetermination-satellite service (space-to-Earth) allocations in the 2 483.5-2 500 MHz band Agenda item 1.21—radiolocation service in the 15.4-15.7 GHz band Agenda item 1.24—meteorological-satellite service in the 7 750-7 850 MHz band with a view to extending this allocation to the 7 850-7 900 MHz band Agenda item 1.25—mobile-satellite service Agenda item 7—advance publication, coordination, notification and recording procedures for frequency assignments for satellite networks.5.7.4 Beyond 2015Bridging the ‘digital divide’The expected increase in usage of satellite broadband is supported by a keyinitiative of the International Telecommunications Satellite Organisation. The GlobalBroadband Satellite Infrastructure (GBSI) initiative aims to develop and strengthenbroadband satellite provision in areas without terrestrial infrastructure. The goal ofthe GBSI initiative is to bridge the ‘digital divide’ between developed and developingcountries (and urban and rural/remote areas) by providing broadband internetaccess on a global and non-discriminatory basis and at an affordable cost. Currenttechnology, spectrum and deployed satellites could form such a global infrastructure,but international technical standards for terrestrial user terminals and reduced costfor these terminals, as well as harmonised spectrum, are required.133Potential future deployments and spectrum demand pressures in AustraliaIt is likely that insufficient spectrum allocations for MSS under 3 GHz will beavailable for deployment of a MSS/ATC system and mobile television, if subscribernumbers continue to increase. Therefore, additional allocations in L- and S-bandspectrum may be required by about 2018. Moreover, the introduction of a MSS/ATCsystem operating at 1.6 GHz and 2.5 GHz would require the consideration of theRAS at 1610–1613.5 MHz and ENG services, and possible future WAS applicationswithin the 2500–2690 MHz frequency range.There is concern within the satellite industry that WAS may also impact on satelliteusage in the standard C-band (3700–4200 MHz). This concern has been intensifiedby the proposed use of the band for IMT by some administrations before WRC-07and the implementation of BWA systems in the 3400–3800 MHz band in Europe.The ACMA is monitoring international developments in this band and will canvassthe possible use for mobile broadband in its service planning for the mobilebroadband project referred to at section 18.104.22.168 Ahmed Toumi, Director General and CEO of the International Telecommunications SatelliteOrganisation, presentation at the Baku Global ICT Conference 2004, Global Broadband SatelliteInfrastructure (GBSI) Initiative, http://global-ict.mincom.gov.az/presentations/2.ppt.
100. Ku-band growthGrowth in the number of satellite television channels will increase spectrum demand,as will the increased proportion of HD transmissions and the expected growth ofVSAT deployment numbers and data rates. There is a possibility that this may leadto congestion of Ku-band spectrum allocated to the FSS within the next 10 years,despite considerable portions of unencumbered spectrum. While it is likely that Ku-band FSS spectrum demand will exceed current satellite capacity within the next 15years, there are several vacant orbital locations over Australia that could satisfy theestimated demand within current spectrum allocations. Spectrum demand for theBSS is not expected to exceed current spectrum allocations.Growth in higher frequency bandsThere has been slow commercial deployment and usage within Ka-band becausethe relative immaturity of technology and because severe rain fade (mainly aconcern in tropical and sub-tropical areas) poses limitations to satellite service usageat such high frequencies. However, the use of Ka-band does permit more complexsatellite antennas. This allows for a cellular approach to spectrum re-use, whichincreases throughput through a satellite. Industry feedback indicates that Ka-bandsatellite communications may be considered as a means of extending broadband toregional and remote areas. It is already being used in the US and may be relevant toAustralia in the future.V- and W-band satellite technology (50–75 GHz and 75–110 GHz) is currentlyimmature and significant utilisation of this spectrum is not expected to materialisewithin the next 15 years.5.8 Science servicesThe science services (also referred to here as space science services) consist ofthe: radio astronomy service (RAS) Earth exploration-satellite service (EESS) space research service (SRS) space operation service (SOS) meteorological-satellite service (MetSat) meteorological aids service (MetAids).EESS and SRS include: Space-to-Earth, space-to-space and Earth-to-space communication links and sensors to perform microwave measurements. These can be further classified into passive and active services. Passive services involve the reception of naturally occurring electromagnetic radiation (emitted at fixed frequencies depending on the molecule). Active services measure reflected or back scattered radiation from a transmitter in the system, for example, radar). EESS sensors observe phenomena on the Earth’s surface. SRS systems can similarly comprise passive sensing (normally looking away from the Earth’s surface) and active sensors (used only for sensing planets in our solar system), but more commonly comprise space-to-Earth, space-to-space and Earth-to-space communications.The space operations service (SOS) is also included in this section of the Outlookbecause it is associated with manned space operations for scientific purposes. TheSOS is concerned with tracking, telemetry and control (TT&C) of spacecraft,normally during the launch and early orbit phase (LEOP) and in emergencysituations.
101. These services also have communications components. Frequency allocations forthese services are made on a global basis due to their use of space and, in somecases, their dependence on naturally occurring emissions.5.8.1 Current spectrum useRAS involves the study of celestial bodies by way of the reception of radio waves ofcosmic origin at a terrestrial station. The SRS (passive) is similar, but with thereception of cosmic radio waves by spacecraft-borne instruments. Theseinstruments may be carried on a wide range of scientific spacecraft that explore oursolar system, collecting data through sensors, video systems and other devices.The EESS on the other hand, involves the reception of the radio waves originatingon or reflected from the Earth. The measurements of interest are made on airborne,terrestrial or satellite-based platforms and are processed to obtain informationrelating to the characteristics of the Earth and its natural phenomena, for example,soil moisture, sea surface temperature, snow cover, rainfall and atmospherictemperature and water vapour content. Both the EESS and SRS havecommunications components connecting the Earth and space stations that comprisethese services in order to transfer data to the Earth for processing.MetSat is a subset of the EESS specifically for meteorological purposes and MetAidsinvolves the transmission of meteorological information from airborne or terrestrialsensor platforms to ground stations. The environmental and cosmic parametersdetermined through MetAids and the EESS are characterised by the strength andfrequency of signals received by the passive and active sensors employed. Sincethe naturally emitted or reflected electromagnetic signals with characteristicsfundamental to these space science services have fixed frequencies (apart fromsome shifting due to anomalous phenomena), their protection is crucial to theoperation of these services.There is a significant radioastronomy presence in Australia, with RAS facilities at: Narrabri, Parkes and Mopra, operated by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Mt Pleasant and Ceduna, operated by the University of Tasmania the Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex (CDSCC), which is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Deep Space Network the Mid West Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ) located in the Murchison Shire near the Boolardy Station with the Murchison Radioastronomy Observatory (MRO) operating at the centre of the Mid West RQZ.However, Australia does not operate its own satellites under the other scienceservices. Instead, Australia has Earth stations that receive environmental andscientific data from sensing instruments aboard foreign satellites and provide TT&Cto others. Most of the Earth stations associated with these satellites are operated bythe BoM, CSIRO (including the CDSCC), Stratos Global and Geoscience Australia(GA).Table 5.4 lists the main frequency bands used by space science services relevant tothe Aust.ralian scientific community. Note that this is not a comprehensive list.
102. Table 5.4 Main frequency bands used by science servicesKEY:* d—downlink** u—uplink† a—active†† S—secondary allocation‡ p—passive Frequency Service Main Usage band Australian licensee VHF MetSat (d*) BoM 137–138 MHz—meteorological image downlink from polar-orbiting satellites (NOAA POES134 and FengYun-1). UHF MetAids BoM 400.15–401 MHz—radiosonde135 data downlink. MetSat AAD136 401–403 MHz—uplink for meteorological data (d/u**) AMSA sensed at data collection platforms. 460–470 MHz—interrogation downlink for data collection platforms. GA 401.25 MHz—ionospheric correction signal for the DORIS137 system for position tracking. L-band EESS (a†) - 1215–1300 MHz—L-band synthetic aperture radars (SAR) on Japan’s ALOS and Argentina’s SAOCOM satellites. RAS CSIRO 1400–1427 MHz & 1610.6–1613.8 MHz—Parkes, Narrabri and Tidbinbilla stations. MetSat (d) BoM 1670–1710 MHz—meteorological satellite data GA downlink (NOAA POES, FengYun, GOES, Meteosat CSIRO and MTSAT and OrbView-2 satellites). S-band EESS (u/d) 2025–2110/2200–2290 MHz—primary TT&C uplink/downlink, used SRS (u/d) by almost all satellites in the EESS and SRS. SOS (u/d) Stratos Global European Space Agency’s (ESA’s) ESTRACK (Xantic B.V.) stations support: Perth—XMM-Newton and Cluster II missions New Norcia – Mars Express, Rosetta and Venus Express Both stations—LEOP support for several ESA missions. CSIRO Deep-space stations at CDSCC, which communicate with many spacecraft in the SRS and EESS. USN Provides TT&C from Yatharagga, WA under PrioraNet network (various clients). GA 2036.25 MHz—main Doppler signal for DORIS.134 Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) of the US’s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).135 Radiosondes are meteorological sensors mounted on weather balloons.136 Australian Antarctic Division.137 Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite, used by Jason-2, SPOT-2 and Envisat.
103. SRS (deep Stratos Global 2110–2120/2290–2300 MHz—deep-space space) (u/d) CSIRO uplink/downlinks to the tracking stations at New Norcia, and Canberra.S-band RAS CSIRO 2690–2700 MHz—Parkes and Narrabri stations. EESS 3100–3300 MHz—Envisat’s Radar Altimeter (RA-2). (aS††)C-band 4033–4042 MHz—meteorological data dissemination service (GEONetCast). RAS CSIRO 4800–5000 MHz—Parkes and Narrabri stations. EESS (a) 5250–5570 MHz—radar altimeters, SARs and scatterometers for the determination of wind speed. EESS (p‡) 6700–7075 MHz—advanced microwave scanning radiometer (AMSR) and the Windsat radiometer.X-band SRS (u) Stratos Global 7145–7235 MHz –X-band command uplinks from (Xantic B.V.) tracking stations at Perth, New Norcia and Canberra. CSIRO Deep-space missions operate in the 7145–7190 MHz band. MetSat (d) 7450–7550 and 7750–7850 MHz—limited current use. EESS (d) GA 8025–8400 MHz—primary data downlink for EESS USN satellites (data from Terra, Aqua, Landsat-5 and -7, ALOS, EO-1, Radarsat-1, Resourcesat-1 and ERS-1 and -2 are received in Australia). SRS (d) Stratos Global 8400–8500 MHz—primary SRS data downlink, used (Xantic BV) by Perth, New Norcia and Canberra tracking CSIRO stations. Deep-space missions in the 8400–8450 MHz band. EESS (a) 9500–9800 MHz—SAR on TerraSAR-X. ESS (p) 10.6–10.7 GHz—AMSR, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) microwave imager (TMI) and the Windsat radiometer.Ku-band EESS (a) 13.25–14.3 & 17.2–17.3 GHz—radar altimeters, the SeaWinds scatterometer, the TRMM precipitation radar and the Jason Microwave Radiometer. SRS (d/u) CSIRO 13.75–15.35 GHz—spacecraft tracking from Perth and Canberra.Ka-band MetSat (d) 18.1–18.4 GHz—MTSAT Ka downlink (not in Australia). EESS (d/u) Stratos Global 25.5–27 GHz—Ka-band downlink—at Canberra and SRS (d/u) (Xantic BV) New Norcia. CSIRO 28.5–30 GHz—MTSAT Ka uplink (not in Australia). SRS (d/u) Stratos Global 31.8–32.3 GHz / 34.2–34.7 GHz—communications (Xantic BV) to/from Canberra deep space station and New CSIRO Norcia. SRS (d/u) 37–38/40–40.5 GHz—planned links to/from Canberra and New Norcia.
104. EESS (p) Various bands between 18.6 and 24 GHz, and 36– 40 GHz—AMSR, TMI, advanced microwave sounding unit (AMSU), special sensor microwave imager (SSM/I), and other microwave radiometers. > 50 GHz EESS (p) 50.2–59.3 GHz and 86–92 GHz—AMSU, TMI, SSM/I and AMSR. 100 GHz—AMSU. EESS (a) 94–94.1 GHz—cloud-profiling radar (Cloudsat).5.8.2 2011–2015The general issues of most concern for the science services are: the protection of passive sensors operating at naturally emitted/reflected frequencies for Earth, atmosphere and space observations from harmful interference the future increase in bandwidth requirements, in particular, wideband data downlinks to accommodate an increase in scientific data being collected by current and future exploratory missions the need for SRS uplink spectrum near 23 GHz to support mission SRS downlinks allocated in the 25.5–27 GHz band (being addressed under WRC-12 agenda item 1.11) the protection of sensitive passive receivers in the frequency range 70 MHz to 25.25 GHz at the Mid West RQZ.Passive servicesFor passive reception in the RAS, EESS and SRS, the extremely weak nature of thewanted signals—and hence the high sensitivity of receivers—makes these servicesparticularly susceptible to harmful interference. This is compounded by the fact that,because passive services do not transmit radiocommunications signals, techniqueslike dynamic frequency selection being developed to sense and avoid other servicescannot be used for detection and avoidance of passive services, along with otherradiocommunications receivers. This is a major challenge in implementing dynamicspectrum access (see section 5.9.3). Protection of passive services up to now hasrelied on regulatory measures, such as separate frequency allocations or exclusionzones, requiring prior knowledge of fixed passive stations by potential interferers.While some of these are protected by Article 5.340 of the ITU Radio Regulations,other space science allocations are not. Various members of the scientificcommunity, including the BoM, have expressed concerns about reportedinterference to passive satellite measurements from fixed P-P links in the 10.6–10.68GHz band. This issue has also been identified at an international level and wasaddressed during WRC-07. As a result, a resolution was created to specify newsharing criteria between passive sensors in the EESS and fixed P-P links.The scientific community has also expressed concern about potential interference inthe 23.6–24 GHz passive band due to the class licensing of automotive UWBSRR at 22–26.5 GHz, particularly for the EESS and RAS (see section 5.6.2).138 All emissions are prohibited in the bands specified in Article 5.340 of the ITU Radio Regulations.139 Resolutions 751 (10.6–10.68 GHz) and 752 (36–37 GHz) of the ITU Radio Regulations outline sharingcriteria specifying incidence angle, spatial resolution and main-beam efficiency limits for passive sensorsin the EESS, and elevation angle and transmit power limits for P-P and P-MP links in the fixed service.140 ITU Radio Regulations Article 5.340.
105. Recognition of science servicesThere is concern within the space science sector that because scientific usage of thespectrum generates benefits that are generally difficult to gauge financially, suchusage is particularly likely to experience pressure from commercial users. Forexample, the ACMA recognises that the communications components of spacescience services involve very sensitive reception, which in some cases within thespace research service extends to distances exceeding 14 billion kilometres.Therefore, it is desirable that incompatible services do not operate in close proximityto highly sensitive RAS and SRS facilities.To reduce the consequent spectrum denial as much as possible, the ACMA hasactively encouraged the location of such stations, along with EESS andmeteorological satellite Earth stations, in areas where spectrum demand is likely tobe low. This may impose additional costs on the operator of the Earth station,including large capital investments that may reduce the operator’s ability to providescientific services that could be of great value to the community. Feedback fromthese operators highlights claims that the costs of relocating equipment, establishingand maintaining the associated high-speed data communications to data- collectionfacilities and power supply to remote locations may be prohibitive. However, theACMA must balance these costs with the benefits of making spectrum available forservices that must be locally based to the community in those areas where demandis likely to be strongest, in addition to meeting its obligations to protect existingservices operating under co-primary allocations. The ACMA recognises that even inremote locations demand for spectrum may exist and coordination between scienceservices and other uses may be necessary.Technological trendsWith limited scope for further improvement of receiver sensitivities (particularly in theRAS), sensing applications are expected to tend towards larger collecting areas andwider operational bandwidths. At WRC-07, the X-band active EESS and SRSallocations were extended by 200 MHz down to 9300 MHz, in acknowledgement ofsuch bandwidth increases. Sensing services are also expected to operate atincreasingly higher frequencies. WRC-12 agenda item 1.6 is intended to update thespectrum use by passive services, as outlined in Article 5.565 of the ITU RadioRegulations, to include the range 1000–3000 GHz.It is expected that the communication components of the EESS, SRS and MetSatwill use higher frequencies and wider channel bandwidths in the future. This is drivenby the ongoing demand for higher data rates, which are expected to increase rapidlyover the target period of this Outlook. Meteorological satellites, in particular, most ofwhich currently use L-band141 downlinks, are moving towards X-band data downlinks(already used by many EESS satellites). For example, China’s FengYun-3meteorological satellite use X-band transmitters and the US’s four National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) satellites (to belaunched between 2013 and 2020) will also operate in the X-band, along with theprecursor mission NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP), scheduled for launch in2011. In addition to using the EESS downlink 8025–8400 MHz, these systems willalso use the meteorological-satellite service downlink 7750–7850 MHz.NPOESS will also use Ka-band downlinks for stored mission data and use of the Ka-band by science services is expected to increase beyond the next five years.142An example of the higher frequency, wider bandwidth trend is the extension of theKa-band meteorological-satellite downlink allocation to 300 MHz (18.1–18.4 GHz) at141 L-band refers to the microwave frequency range between 1 GHz and 2 GHz.142 Ka-band, when related to satellite services, refers to the microwave frequency range from about 18GHz to 40 GHz; the NPOESS downlink occupies the frequency range 25.5–27 GHz.
106. WRC-07. In addition, WRC-12 agenda item 1.24 is to consider a similar extension ofthe 7750–7850 MHz space-to-Earth meteorological-satellite service allocation by 50MHz (up to 7900 MHz), limited to non-geostationary satellites. Use of higherfrequencies and wider bandwidths will also apply to the SRS and SOS, with plans toupgrade the facilities at New Norcia (European Space Agency) and CDSCC(Canberra) to commence and improve Ka-band reception at 37–38 GHz and 25.5–27 GHz. Uplink assignments at 40.0-41.5 GHz at New Norcia and CDSCC will alsobe an operational requirement. These Earth stations support many scientificspacecraft missions, which include exploration of the solar system utilising remotesensors, video and even robotic techniques.The next phase will include support of manned missions to the moon and eventually,Mars. Both NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) are increasing their solarsystem exploratory activities and Ka-band frequencies for radio links to lunar andplanetary missions via data relay satellites and direct-to-Earth stations are proposed.At WRC-12, an additional primary uplink allocation to the SRS in the band 22.55–23.15 GHz is proposed under agenda item 1.11. This allocation is intended to beused in the future for such purposes. Data relay satellites are already using this bandin the existing inter-satellite service allocation and would be paired with the 25.5–27.0 GHz band. As missions venture further into space, the longer links furthercomplicate coordination due to the need for higher protection ratios and bandwidths.In turn, the higher potential for interference may slow technological development.Australia presently supports the new primary allocation.Square Kilometre ArrayAnother example of demand for more sensitive instruments with larger apertures andwider bandwidths is the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). The SKA is a planned radiotelescope made up of an array of parabolic antennas with a combined collectingarea of one km2. It will operate between 70 MHz and 25.25 GHz.Australia and South Africa have been short-listed to host the SKA and both countriesare building technology demonstrators at their proposed sites. It is essential that theSKA be located in a very quiet radio emission area to protect the highly sensitivereceivers required for such an instrument.The Australian proposed SKA site is in a remote area which provides a naturallyradio quiet environment. To further support Australia’s bid, a radio quiet zone (RQZ)has been established in Western Australia. The ACMA consulted on the proposedRadiocommunications (Mid West Radio Quiet Zone) Frequency Band Plan in2010.143 The intended purpose of the proposed band plan is to protect the operationof radioastronomy services within the identified geographic area.The proposed arrangements allow for the operation of other services in the area,provided the services are able to coexist and do not cause interference to the SKA.The CSIRO has developed consultation mechanisms and processes that interestedapplicants can use to approach the CSIRO with their intended applications, beforesubmission with the ACMA.Within the RQZ, the Murchison Radioastronomy Observation is currently the locationof the Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) radio telescope, the Murchison WidefieldArray radio telescope being constructed by a consortium of national and internationalinstitutions and other radioastronomy projects. These will help demonstrate thesuitability of the proposed SKA site in Western Australia. The introduction of theSKA, if hosted by Australia, is the most significant foreseeable change inradioastronomy and spectrum requirements for the RAS.143 Radiocommunications (Mid West Radio Quiet Zone) Frequency Band Plan, www.comlaw.gov.au.
107. 5.8.3 The ACMA’s proposed approachesPassive servicesThe protection of passive services in the 10.6–10.7 GHz band from harmfulinterference caused by fixed P-P links was discussed at WRC-07 and sharing criteriahave been established to limit potential interference. These are consistent with theproposed Australian arrangements and restrictions. Final arrangements to protectpassive services in the band will be documented and formalised by the ACMA in thefuture, following the additional formal consultation required to implement thechanges. Consultation on changes to the current arrangements is likely to considermeasures to maintain the utility of the band for fixed P-P links, such as a review ofminimum path length and antenna performance requirements.CSIRO is informed of new frequency assignments within these zones so that if theyare likely to cause interference to the operation of RAS stations, negotiations withthe new licensee can be undertaken. However, only the Parkes and Narrabri RASstations hold Earth-receive licences. If other stations seek protection within the RASallocations, then appropriate licences should be obtained.Recognition of space science servicesThe ACMA must assess additional costs to Earth station operators of locating theirstations in areas where spectrum demand is likely to be low in light of the benefits ofmaking spectrum available for services to the community in the areas where demandis likely to be strongest. Typically, high demand services must be located close toend users, whereas Earth stations can be operated as effectively, or more so, inmore remote areas.Technological trendsThe ACMA considers that the current trends towards the use of higher frequencieswhen the planning of future satellite systems in space science services may simplifypossible competing demand issues.The ACMA will continue to monitor the development of radiocommunicationstechnologies for Earth-observing and deep-space missions, with a particular focuson NASA and ESA. Such missions may be the driving force behind expansion offrequency allocations for space science services, as seen in the 18 GHz MetSat andthe X-band EESS and SRS (active) allocations.WRC-12The following WRC-12 agenda items are relevant to science services: Agenda item 1.6—update the spectrum use by the passive services between 275 GHz and 3 000 GHz Agenda item 1.11—of primary allocation to the space research service (Earth-to- space) within the band 22.55-23.15 GHz Agenda item 1.12—primary services in the 37–38 GHz band from interference resulting from aeronautical mobile service operations Agenda item 1.16—passive systems for lightning detection in the meteorological aids service, including the possibility of an allocation in the frequency range below 20 kHz Agenda item 1.24—existing allocation to the meteorological-satellite service in the 7 750–7 850 MHz band with a view to extending this allocation to the 7 850–7 900 MHz band.The latest information on Australia’s preliminary view on WRC-12 agenda items is onthe ACMA website.
108. 5.8.4 Beyond 2015The trend towards use of higher frequencies is expected to continue and allocationsmay be made for passive observations in the RAS and EESS above 300 GHz.Use of the L- and S-bands for communications is expected to continue (especially S-band TT&C), but most of the growth is expected in the X- and Ka-bands. It isanticipated that the Ka-band could possibly surpass the X-band as the primary datadownlink band within the next 10 to 20 years. However, given the long life spans ofEESS satellites, the X-band is expected to remain the primary data downlink forsome time.The SKA is expected to become operational between 2015 and 2020, although atthis stage it is not known whether the SKA will be built in Australia or South Africa. Inany case, the radio-quiet environment established by the development of the RQZ inAustralia will ensure that it continues to remain an appropriate place for thedeployment and future development of radioastronomy activities.5.9 Wireless access servicesThe term ‘wireless access services’ (WAS) encompasses the variety of ways thattelecommunications carriers, internet service providers or other service providersdeliver a radio connection to an end-user from a core network. This is usually apublic network such as a public switched telephone network, the internet or alocal/wide area network. WAS covers a range of other terms such as: fixed wireless access (FWA) broadband wireless access (BWA) wireless local loop (WLL) multipoint distribution system (MDS) radio local area network (RLAN).Mobile telephony and mobile television services may also be considered as types ofWAS. WAS are being deployed as both a supplement and an alternative to fixed andmobile telecommunications networks, such as digital subscriber line (DSL)technologies, and cable and satellite.144 WAS technologies are particularly attractiveto service providers who do not have the capacity to build extensive fixed wirelineinfrastructure.When wireless technology is used to provide the ‘last mile connection’, it avoids thehigh capital costs associated with the installation of fixed wireline and cable. Itsrelatively lower infrastructure costs and potential for faster deployments hasincreased the viability of service provision in regional and remote Australia.Depending on the frequency band chosen, either bandwidth or distance can beoptimised and sometimes both.5.9.1 Current spectrum useFrequency bands up to 6 GHz are in high demand for fixed and mobile WASapplications. The higher microwave frequencies offer the advantage of morebandwidth for high-speed communication applications, but communication distancesare limited by propagation constraints.Lower frequencies are preferred by operators, especially where cost considerationsand low tele-density warrant the installation of fewer base stations.145 On the other144 Although satellite communications are also wireless, this section focuses on the requirements for WASusing terrestrial networks.145 Resolution 224 (WRC-2000) and Article 5.317A of the ITU Radio Regulations.
109. hand, bands below about 500 MHz are inherently limited by bandwidth andcongested with narrowband services, for example, the land mobile segments of the400 MHz band.Table 5.5 lists the bands available under apparatus, class and spectrum licensingthat are capable of supporting WAS applications in Australia. With the convergenceof fixed and mobile services, frequency bands supporting mobile telephony servicesare also included in this table.Table 5.5 Spectrum allocations available for the deployment of WAS in Australia Band Licensing regime Current usage 825–845 MHz/ Spectrum Australia-wide mobile telephony (3G-WCDMA). 870–890 MHz (paired spectrum) 890–915 MHz/ Apparatus Australia-wide mobile telephony (3G-WCDMA) (GSM- 935–960 MHz (paired spectrum) 900). 915–928 MHz Class RLAN/BWA, other low-powered devices. 1427–1535 MHz Apparatus Regional and remote areas—DRCS/HCRC and BWA in (paired spectrum) regional and remote areas (DRCS is not permitted within 200 km of capital city GPOs and other specified locations; BWA is not permitted in high- and medium-density areas). 1710–1785 MHz/ Spectrum Capital cities and regional areas, Australia wide (restricted 1805–1880 MHz (paired spectrum) to the lower 15 MHz in regional areas)—mobile telephony (GSM-1800). 1900–1920 MHz Spectrum (unpaired Capital cities only—3G and BWA services. spectrum) Apparatus Regional and remote areas only—BWA. (unpaired spectrum) 1920–1980 MHz / Spectrum Capital cities and regional areas (restricted to the upper 2110–2170 MHz (paired spectrum) 20 MHz)—3G mobile telephony and broadband. Apparatus (paired Regional and remote areas—3G mobile telephony and spectrum) broadband. 2302–2400 MHz Spectrum Australia wide—technical framework supports WAS (unpaired spectrum) deployments. 2400–2483.5 MHz Class RLAN/BWA, other low-powered devices (e.g. WiFi and Bluetooth). 3425–3442.5 MHz / Spectrum Capital cities and major regional centres only— 3475–3492.5 MHz (paired spectrum) FWA/BWA. Apparatus Other regional and remote areas only—FWA/BWA. (paired spectrum) 3442.5–3475 MHz / Spectrum Capital cities and regional areas only—FWA/BWA. 3542.5–3575 MHz (paired spectrum) 3575–3700 MHz Apparatus Regional remote areas—FWA/BWA. (unpaired spectrum) 5150–5350 MHz Class RLAN/BWA, other low-powered devices (e.g. WiFi).
110. 5470–5725 MHz Class RLAN/BWA, other low-powered devices (e.g. WiFi). 5725–5850 MHz Class RLAN/BWA, other low-powered devices (e.g. WiFi and WiMAX).In 2010, the ACMA continued to release of the 3.6 GHz band (3575–3700 MHz) forusers of BWA services in regional and remote areas of Australia.146 The ACMAreleased spectrum in certain geographic areas in regional areas one at a time.Licences were issued through an administrative allocation process, or an over-the-counter (OTC) process.The order of release for OTC areas was Area 1: south-east corner of South Australia, and parts of Victoria, Tasmania and southern New South Wales Area 2: parts of Queensland and northern New South Wales Area 3: parts of Western Australia, the Northern Territory and northern South Australia Area 4: Bunbury (Western Australia), Gippsland (Victoria), Hobart (Tasmania) and the Hunter Valley (New South Wales) Area 5: Queensland coast.The ACMA also anticipates some demand for access to spectrum as a result ofsome population density. Current analysis demonstrates that the amount ofspectrum available may be limited as a result of incumbent services being present inthe band. Consequently, the ACMA will release further spectrum in the 3.6 GHzband in areas where there is some increase in population density via a price-basedallocation (PBA) process in the first half of 2011.5.9.2 2011–2015Issues affecting spectrum demandGrowth of WASIn 2008–09, the telecommunications industry reported significant growth in the useof both fixed and nomadic wireless access and mobile telephony services. Thisgrowth is expected to continue in the near future and the 2009–10 reporting perioddemonstrated an emphasis in consumers continuing to demand greater access tomobile services from telecommunications operators.147 This trend is expected tocontinue in the near future. The demand for WAS and the spectrum to support themis being driven by a number of factors, including: Spectrum harmonisation, facilitating international roaming and the increasing availability of low-cost standardised equipment. This is particularly important for Australia because it is predominantly an importer of technology rather than a manufacturer and typically does not independently drive markets of scale or developments in technologies. Evidence of increased reliance on mobility, including the rise of ‘anything, anywhere, anytime’ models for advanced mobile telecommunications. Since mobile data services have far greater demand for spectrum than traditional voice services, it is expected that a combination of more spectrum and more spectrally efficient technologies will be required.146 www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD/pc=PC_311887147 See the ACMA’s 2009–10 Communications report series, particularly Report 2—Take-up and use ofvoice services by Australian consumers at www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD/pc=PC_312356.
111. WAS applications range in bandwidth requirements from voice applications, usingtransmission bandwidths of several kHz, through to high-speed internet and video,requiring bandwidths of several MHz. Many technological advances, particularly incoding and compression, have increased the spectrum efficiency of wirelessdevices, but the trend for new functionality and user expectations continue toincrease demands on bandwidth for customer access. While bandwidthrequirements for wireline are also increasing, the wireless situation is complicated byinterference and competition for limited spectrum bandwidth. The ACMA will releasea discussion paper in the first half of 2011 seeking comment from industry onpossible frequency bands that could be made available for mobile broadbandservices and applications.Work conducted by the ITU-R and other organisationsAlthough gains in spectrum efficiencies will offset demand to a degree, spectrumrequirements are still expected to exceed current allocations. This is an issue that iscontinually being addressed by the ITU.ITU Working Party 5D (WP 5D) is responsible for matters relating to IMT Systems. Asignificant body of work being conducted by this group during this study cycle is thedevelopment of requirements/technical performance criteria for IMT-Advanced radiointerfaces (i.e. the next generation of IMT technologies generally termed 4G) as wellas evaluating candidate technologies. The 3GPP and IEEE standards bodies havesubmitted LTE-Advanced and IEEE802.16m technologies for consideration ascandidates for IMT-Advanced. This work is expected to be finalised in 2011. WP 5Dhas also conducted numerous studies into the future spectrum requirements for IMT.The GSM Association (GSMA) and industry players have announced that they arenow aiming to rationalise and harmonise the international regulations that wereagreed upon during WRC-07.148In relation to the digital dividend, the Asia-Pacific Telecommunity Wireless Group(AWG) has developed a Report (APT/AWF/REP-14) detailing harmonisedarrangements for the use of the 698-806 MHz band for WAS within the Asia-Pacificregion.149 There is also ongoing work within the AWG to study aspects relating tospectrum sharing with adjacent services.ConvergenceService convergence is one aspect of radiocommunications that applies particularlyto WAS. This refers to a progressive blurring of the boundaries between the differenttechnical categories of: mobility (fixed, nomadic or mobile) information (for example, voice or different levels of multimedia) and activity types (for example, conversational, streaming or interactive).The ACMA acknowledges that it may need to review relevant regulatory instrumentsto ensure their efficiency, effectiveness and appropriateness.Mobile televisionMobile television is the transmission of television programming to mobile handsets.The main options for the delivery of mobile television are: unicasting to a particular user over the mobile telephony network (as Foxtel already does), which requires dedicated network capacity for each user148 S.Billquist, ‘Mobile industry to press spectrum needs in 2016 world conference preparations’, PolicyTracker, July 2010, p.1.149 The AWG was formally known as the APT Wireless Forum (AWF). APT Report on Harmonisedfrequency arrangements for the band 698-806 MHz, available at www.apt.int/AWF-RECREP
112. multicasting or broadcasting, both of which are independent of audience size.150Unicasting or multicasting over mobile telephony 3G networks has the advantage ofusing existing spectrum allocations and established infrastructure. However, theremay not be sufficient capacity to serve a large audience.Mobile television could be implemented with DVB–H, which can deliver between 20and 40 video channels on a single 7 MHz television channel. There are also anumber of other competing technologies such as Digital Multimedia Broadcast(DMB), MediaFLO (forward link only) and Multi-Broadcast Multimedia Service(MBMS).Spectrum demand estimatesThere is currently a total of 578 MHz (not including class licensed bands) ofspectrum allocated to WAS in capital cities in Australia—198 MHz for fixed andnomadic wireless access and 380 MHz for mobile telephony services. Currentindicators suggest that additional spectrum will be required over the coming years tomeet demand.The demand for spectrum has generated debate on how spectrum can be usedmore efficiently. This is reflected by the objects set out in the RadiocommunicationsAct, which state that spectrum should be managed to ‘ … maximise, by ensuring theefficient allocation and use of the spectrum, the overall public benefit derived fromusing the radiofrequency spectrum’. It is also generally recognised that spectrum is afinite resource and there are a number of incumbency issues to consider.Consequently, operators may increasingly need to adopt smarter and more efficientspectrum utilisation techniques to maximise the use of existing spectrum rather thanrely on the ACMA to make further spectrum available for allocation. Efficientspectrum use is typically achieved by optimising infrastructure deployments andleveraging improvements in technology, such as making use of femtocells, forexample. It is also understood that contiguous and larger bandwidth allocations alsofacilitate efficient spectrum use.Figure 5.15 indicates the increase in internet data downloaded during a specifiedquarter over the past few years. The figure clearly shows a trend of increasing datarequirements from users, with the projected growth predicted to continue into thefuture. Growth in data traffic is also expected to be driven in the coming years by ICTdevelopments in new industries outside of traditional telecommunications. Inparticular, this includes future machine-to-machine communications where it isanticipated that anything that can benefit from a wireless connection will have one.151150 Multicasting is the transmission of data to a controlled set of users in a network.151 Ericsson submission to the 2010-2014 FYSOOutlook, this document can be viewed atwww.acma.gov.au.
113. Figure 5.15 Volume of data downloaded via the internet 180000 160000 Terabits of data downloaded 140000 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 Jun-06 Mar-07 Jun-08 Jun-09 Jun-10 Quarter endingSource: ABS, 8153.0-Internet Activity, Australia, June 2010.Another key indicator of increasing spectrum demand is the growth in number ofinfrastructure deployments to support WAS. Figure 5.16 depicts the increase in thenumber of transmitter spectrum accesses (in both apparatus and spectrum-licensedbands) over a three-year period for frequency bands typically used to support mobiletelephony services, including 3G services.Figure 5.16 WAS deployments (by number of transmitters) in the 800 MHz, 900 MHz, 1800 MHz and2.1 GHz bands over a three-year period 35000 30000 Number of Device Registrations 25000 20000 800 MHz 15000 900 MHz 1800 MHz 10000 2.1 GHz 5000 0 Jan 08 July08 Jan 09 July09 Jan 10 July-10 Month and year
114. The technical and regulatory considerations outlined above, along with Australianand international statistics on data traffic types, data rates, session durations andarrival rates, and population, is consistent with GSMA claims that more spectrummay be required by ISP operators for WAS within the next five years.1525.9.3 The ACMA’s proposed approachesRegulatory arrangementsThe ACMA aims to provide technology flexible licensing arrangements that aredesigned to provide the government with a return for use of a community resource,especially in highly populated areas, without delaying the deployment of WASinfrastructure.Some of the challenges in developing effective licensing arrangements for WASinclude: achieving appropriately balanced pricing and delivery mechanisms across the country making spectrum as widely available as possible while avoiding the ‘tragedy of the commons’ that can affect the quality of service required by services making the band less than ideal153 ensuring that there are opportunities for new carriers and ISPs to compete with established telecommunications carriers, particularly in regional areas.These issues are addressed to varying degrees by the characteristics andparameters of the different radiocommunications licence types currently available—class, spectrum and apparatus—and provided for in the Radiocommunications Act.Each licence type has its own benefits and limitations, depending on the intendedapplication.154In addition, the ACMA monitors and reviews the regulatory arrangements proposedby other international regulatory authorities. The aim is to optimise and improveAustralia’s spectrum management arrangements and to ensure alignment andconsistency with the objectives of the Radiocommunications Act. An example of thisis evident in the ACMA’s approach to the mobile broadband project outlined insection 4.2.4.Planning for future WAS spectrum allocationsThe ACMA plans to undertake a number of steps in the medium term, in response toits review of spectrum options for meeting demand for WAS.The key components of the ACMA’s medium-term approach include: The identification of possible spectrum bands that could be made available for mobile broadband through the Mobile broadband: Considering future spectrum requirements public discussion paper. This paper aims to identify, as early as possible, spectrum that could be used for future mobile broadband applications while considering the impact on existing services. Based on international standards and developments, the candidate bands considered in this paper include the 850 MHz ‘Expansion’ band, the152 The ACMA acknowledges that GSMA is not the only organisation/agency that has made thissuggestion. The ACMA is aware of the FCC announcement claiming that 500 MHz of spectrum would berequired by 2015; and is also aware of the recent claims from the United Kingdom echoing the FCC’ssentiment.153 The tragedy of the commons may exist where there is unfettered use occurring under class licensing.154 For further discussion on the licence types, please refer to the February 2006 ACMA discussion paperSPP 1/06—Strategies for Wireless Access Services; available at:www.acma.gov.au/webwr/_assets/main/lib100639/was_discussion_paper_feb_06.pdf.
115. 1.5 GHz band, the 3.3 GHz band, the 3.4-3.6 GHz band, and the 3.6–4.2 GHz band. The continued release of the 3.6 GHz band (3575–3700 MHz) for users of BWA services in regional areas, while addressing the interests of incumbent users. The ACMA developed appropriate technical and regulatory arrangements to support the release of spectrum in the 3.6 GHz band (3575-3700 MHz) for WAS in regional areas of Australia. The band was released for allocation via an administrative method in identified geographic areas; and the remaining geographic areas will be released via a price-based allocation process. Once this process is completed, the ACMA will start accepting applications for all identified regional and remote areas through administrative allocation methods. The release of the digital dividend (694–820 MHz) as a result of the switch-off of analog television and the restacking of digital television services. Planning the 2.5 GHz band to permit 2 x 70 MHz segments in the frequency ranges 2500–2570 MHz and 2620–2690 MHz to be used for WAS, at least in major metropolitan areas. Spectrum could also be available for WAS in regional areas, depending on the outcome of the review on the planning arrangements in RALI FX14 for fixed point-to-multipoint services in specified parts of the 3.4–3.59 GHz band. RALI FX14 may be reviewed to allow for the operation of time-division duplex (TDD) systems. The current arrangements set out in RALI FX14 allow for use mainly by frequency-division duplex (FDD) systems with some limited use by TDD systems. As the availability, use and access to TDD technologies increase, the effectiveness of the current planning arrangements set out in RALI FX14 need to be reviewed. Reviewing the use of the 3492.5–3542.5 MHz band to consider the potential for both WAS and WiMAX types of services to be operated in the band. This band is part of the 3.4–3.6 GHz band with allocations to fixed, radiolocation, amateur, fixed-satellite (space-to-Earth) and mobile services.The ACMA intends to continually monitor demand and trends for WAS at both thelocal and international levels through: internal research, consultation and modelling studying developments in organisations such as the APT, the ITU and the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administration (CEPT), as well as standards organisations such as 3GPP, 3GPP2, WiMAX Forum and UMTS Forum, and observing the activities of other administrations such as Ofcom and the FCC.155The ACMA notes that global and regional harmonisation of spectrum identified forWAS would provide the opportunity to take advantage of the capabilities offered byglobal roaming, the development of economies of scale for both the operator andconsumer and the increased certainty offered by continued product support andtechnology evolution.However, the ACMA also notes that there are a large number of existing services inbands targeted for WAS applications. These existing services will need to beconsidered when determining possible future spectrum arrangements for WAS. Asspectrum becomes increasingly congested and contested by various services,strategies for these services to coexist and share spectrum will become increasinglyimportant. Some solutions may be provided in the future by the characteristicsoffered in new technologies, such as software-defined radio (SDR) or cognitive radio155 Ofcom (Office of Communications) and the FCC (Federal Communications Commission) are therespective communications regulatory administrations of the UK and the US.
116. systems (CRS). However, many solutions will need to be developed and achievedthrough regulatory arrangements.The development of necessary regulatory arrangements require time for appropriatesharing studies, consultation with industry and the development of transitionalarrangements. The allocation of some bands to WAS may take several years due tovarious technical and incumbency issues. Therefore, forward planning is essential.Some bands have complex incumbency issues and the need to continue to supportexisting services means that consideration of a number of bands rather than a singleband in isolation may be required. An example of this is the ACMA’s consideration ofthe 2.5 GHz band.Re-farming spectrum as old technologies are phased out—for example, GSM—mayoffer some spectrum in the future for use by spectrally efficient technologies.However, the amount available may not satisfy demand for spectrum. The timing ofany re-farming will also be important, as there can be significant social, political andeconomic consequences of such moves. For example, Telstra’s switch off the CDMAnetwork in the 850 MHz band in 2008 CDMA is demonstrative of these concerns.Promoting efficient use of spectrumAs the demand for bandwidth from numerous services increases, the availability ofspectrum decreases, especially in the highly contested region below 6 GHz. As theradiofrequency spectrum is a limited resource, it needs to be managed to ensure itsmost efficient use. There are various ways the ACMA can promote the efficient useof the spectrum, including: creating pricing arrangements that reflect the level of demand for spectrum in a given band and geographical area, as well as the spectrum denial created by the service creating incentives, such as lower licence fees for using higher performance, spectrally efficient equipment, or offering higher levels of protection from interference for highly sensitive services to locate in low-demand areas providing arrangements both in the framework of the licence as well as in the size of spectrum lots that allow the flexibility for the most efficient use of a particular technology encouraging licensees to plan and deploy networks that will ensure greater spectrum utilisation and efficiency.WRC-12The following WRC-12 agenda items are relevant to wireless access services: Agenda item 1.5—worldwide/regional harmonisation of spectrum for ENG Agenda item 1.17—sharing studies between the mobile service and other services in the band 790-862 MHz in Regions 1 and 3 Agenda item 8.2—development of future agenda items.The latest information on Australia’s preliminary view on WRC-12 agenda items is onthe ACMA website.5.9.4 Beyond 2015Different WAS applications and services will continue to converge in the future.Trends suggest that broadband access will become increasingly more mobile,particularly with the release of new spectrum and the deployment of next generationtechnologies under the IMT-Advanced banner including LTE-Advanced and WiMAX2or IEEE802.16m. Other emerging technologies such as ultra wideband (UWB) andcognitive radio systems may also challenge the way we manage spectrum in thefuture. This is detailed further in 5.10.
117. The ACMA is currently considering statements made by industry that spectrumrequirements will increase significantly in the future as a result of the uptake ofmobile broadband services. The ACMA will undertake research into the impact onexisting services in any band identified for WAS, as well as the spectrumrequirements of new technologies; consider the consumer take-up of services andassociated trends; and analyse spectrum availability into the future. Some spectrummay become available through the introduction of spectrally efficient technologiesand efficient spectrum management by both the ACMA and industry. However, theamount available may not significantly ease the demand for additional spectrumallocations for WAS.5.10 Emerging technologiesBeyond 2015The ACMA monitors and researches emerging technologies that have potential tosignificantly enhance the lives of Australians. As a result, the ACMA activelymaintains awareness of international spectrum developments and other allocationalspectrum management issues. In some circumstances, the ACMA has theopportunity to provide access to spectrum for trial purposes.Identifying emerging technologies that utilise spectrum in new and innovative wayswill be the challenge over the next decade. Advances in smart radio design, smartantennas, new digital signal processing and modulation techniques, and softwaredefined radios (SDR) will broaden the capabilities and flexibility with which newwireless systems can be designed.5.10.1 Dynamic spectrum access technologiesDynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) describes technologies that are designed tooperate in spectrum that is not being used in a particular area or at a particular pointin time. While these technologies operate at power levels that have the potential tocause interference to primary users, the constant monitoring of the DSA device’senvironment allows it to dynamically move its transmission to other ‘unused’frequencies to minimise the interference.Software defined radio (SDR) and cognitive radio systems (CRS) are two importantconcepts that could enable and maximise the utility of DSA in wirelesscommunications. As defined by the ITU-R, a SDR is a transmitter and/or receiveremploying a technology that allows radiofrequency operating parameters to be set oraltered by the software.156 SDRs provide the platform for DSA technologies.CRS is defined by the ITU-R as a radio system employing technology that allows thesystem to: obtain knowledge of its operational and geographical environment, established policies and its internal state dynamically and autonomously adjust its operational parameters and protocols according to its obtained knowledge in order to achieve predefined objectives learn from the results obtained.While some forms of SDR are readily employed in devices today, CRS are stilldeveloping and are currently the subject of academic study. White-space devicesare an example of early generation CRS currently being trialled internationally. .These devices operate in television broadcast spectrum at locations where channelsare not being used for television or other authorised services. This is known as ‘TV156 Parameters include but are not limited to; frequency range, modulation type, or output power to be setor altered by software. This excludes changes to operating parameters which occur during the normal pre-installed and predetermined operation of a radio according to a system specification or standard.
118. white space’. However, white-space devices could be developed to use white spacein other bands, for example, to provide broadband services especially in rural andremote areas where spectrum is generally less congested.DSA technologies can significantly increase the efficiency of spectrum use byenabling radios to access and share available spectrum. Arrangements to addressspectrum management issues associated with these technologies will be the subjectof further work by the ACMA. DSA technologies are likely to challenge traditionalviews of spectrum regulation but they present opportunities to facilitate access to thespectrum to gain the most benefit. Considerations include developing protectionfactors for ancillary access (PFAA). The ACMA intends to release a discussionpaper on this issue in 2011. The ACMA is also mindful of these technologies whendesigning technical frameworks for new and expiring spectrum licences.Internationally, WRC-12 agenda item 1.19 is to consider regulatory measures thatwill be required to enable the introduction of SDR and cognitive radio. It is likely thatthis agenda item will lead to further studies in the ITU-R over the coming years.5.10.2 Ultra widebandUltra wideband (UWB) technologies use extremely wide bandwidths (>500MHz) toimprove the communication of data in high noise, high interference or low signalstrength environments. UWB technologies can be used to provide a range ofservices including short-range, high-capacity wireless data transfer; high-precision,short-range radar for motor vehicles; precision location RFIDs; and ground- or wall-penetrating radar systems.Most UWB systems operate at very low signal levels and, because of their widebandnature, their emissions often look like the noise floor to narrower bandwidthradiocommunications systems. UWB systems have been described as noise floor orunderlay systems implying that they are capable of being operated underneathexisting services. Their use has the potential to significantly increase the number ofsystems operating in currently used spectrum.However, many operators of existing radiocommunications services see thewidespread use of UWB technologies as likely to cause a rise in the overall noisefloor experienced by their systems. The rising man-made noise floor is slowlyreducing available margins of existing radiocommunications services. This loss ofmargin can lead to a potential loss of reliability for these existing services oralternatively lead to a need to replace existing equipment.The concerns expressed by operators of existing radiocommunications services leadto significant work in the ITU-R to update the protection requirements for existingservices and to develop a framework for the introduction of UWB technologies thatwould protect existing services. Australia is putting in place arrangements to supportthe indoor use of low- power UWB devices to allow the introduction of this newtechnology while protecting existing services.In April 2010, the ACMA released a discussion paper Planning for Ultra Wide-band(IFC 10/2010).157 The paper sought comment on a range of technical and regulatoryissues associated with the development of planning and licensing arrangements forUWB technologies in the 3.6-4.8 GHz and 6.0-8.5 GHz bands.5.10.3 Smart infrastructureSmart infrastructure is technology based, adaptive infrastructure that combines two-way communication systems with infrastructure. The systems gather real-time data157 www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD/pc=PC_312114 .
119. and use the information to improve efficiency, report and dynamically fix problemsand adapt to meet requirements. Smart infrastructure is recognised as a majordevelopment that will modernise the transport, resource, mining, electricity, gas andwater sectors over the coming decades.Modernisations that will make existing and new infrastructure ‘smart’ will enable day-to- day access to available resources, such as energy, to operate more efficiently.This will be especially important to facilitate a decrease in carbon emissions andmore effective energy use.Due to the anticipated ubiquitous nature and high mobility of smart devices in thefuture, wireless communication will likely be a major component of the effective andefficient operation of smart infrastructure systems. Therefore, radiofrequencyspectrum will be required to facilitate area-wide and statewide smart infrastructurenetworks.In the electricity industry, some providers have already gained access to spectrumfor smart metering and smart grids. For example, some energy providers havegained access to the 2.3 GHz band via either trading or third party access, withothers using the 900 MHz SM band for smart meter devices. Therefore, differentproviders are choosing different technology platforms, and spectrum, to facilitatetheir networks.The ACMA believes that the greatest spectrum efficiency and overall public benefit islikely to be achieved by a nationally harmonised approach to spectrum for smartinfrastructure. In order to determine the spectrum needs for smart infrastructure andpromote a nationally harmonised approach, the ACMA has established a smartinfrastructure project team. The role of this team is to work with infrastructure sectorsto identify the spectrum needs of various smart infrastructure projects. Theseprojects include, smart grids, intelligent transport systems, and monitoring of waterresources. The work that the ACMA is planning to undertake to consider spectrumrequirements for smart infrastructure is described in detail at Chapter 4, in section22.214.171.124.10.4 High altitude technologiesThe ACMA supports the future deployment of High Altitude Platform Stations(HAPS) with the proviso that work, including detailed sharing studies, is undertakento ensure the successful coexistence of HAPS with other systems. The ACMA iscurrently monitoring HAPS developments and will use this information to assist informing a position on agenda item 1.20 of WRC-12.HAPS base stations are intended to be fitted to aircraft or airships for the wirelesstransmission of both narrowband and broadband telecommunications services touser terminals over a wide area.There are currently two sets of paired bands, 47.2–47.5 / 47.9–48.2 GHz, availablefor the use of HAPS in Australia. At WRC-07, power flux density (pfd) limits weredetermined to protect fixed services, separation distances were defined to protectadjacent band radioastronomy stations and equivalent isotropically radiated power(EIRP) and antenna beam pattern constraints were applied to facilitate sharing withthe FSS.158158 Provisional Final Acts of WRC-07, Resolution 122 – Use of the bands 47.2–47.5 GHz and 47.9–48.2GHz by high altitude platform stations in the fixed service and by other services.
120. At WRC-07 the 27.5–28.5 GHz (28 GHz) and 31–31.3 GHz (31 GHz) bandsidentified for HAPS were further clarified.159 In the 28 GHz band, the HAPS downlinksegment was reduced to the 27.9–28.2 GHz band. For both the 28 GHz and 31 GHzHAPS bands, it was determined that interference mitigation techniques andprotection criteria would need to be determined to minimise interference to theterrestrial fixed and mobile services. Both the 28 GHz and 31 GHz bands arespectrum licensed and lightly used in Australia. They were intended for systemsoptimised for BWA.WRC-12 agenda item 1.20 is to identify spectrum for gateway links for HAPS in therange 5850–7075 MHz for systems in support of fixed and mobile services. Suchlinks could support, for example, the provision of broadband services to rural areas.This band is currently used by fixed point-to-point services and other services thatwill require the development of coordination criteria and operating parameters forsharing between these services and HAPS to occur. The 5850–5925 MHz band isintended to support Intelligent Transport Systems. The devices operated under anITS network are likely to be ubiquitous, therefore this may cause difficulties incoordinating between HAPS and ITS networks.5.10.5 Home networkThe home network is an example of smart infrastructure that is used to interconnecta wide variety of digital devices predominantly designed for use in the homeenvironment. The home network environment includes entertainment,telecommunications and home automation systems, and provides connectivitybetween system devices and associated services. It has a critical role in realisingconsumer and provider opportunities resulting from recent advances in accessnetworks, multimedia services, content, availability and devices.Home network infrastructure is increasingly based on IP technology solutions thathave extended into the home network environment providing improved connectivity,quality of service, device interoperability and higher speeds over a unified IPplatform. A variety of fixed and wireless technology solutions is available to providethe infrastructure within the home environment. The ITU TelecommunicationStandardization Sector (ITU-T) has set a global wired home networking standard(G.hn) to ensure higher data rates over legacy cabling systems.WiFi technology is increasingly used in the provision of home networks. The releaseof the IEEE 802.11n standard permits wider channels for high-bandwidth servicessuch as streaming high-definition video.160 Not all services delivered via the homenetwork will require high speed and capacity. Smart energy, home automation andhealthcare monitoring services require relatively narrowband transmissions totransfer small amounts of control and measurement data. The ZigBee Alliance is alarge group of companies that includes semiconductors, electronics devices,consumer products and energy distribution that promotes a set of low-powerwireless home networking technologies based on the IEEE 802.15.4 WPANstandard for wireless personal area networks.161Generally, ZigBee is applicable to small devices such as light switches, thermostats,electricity meters, remote controls, as well as more complex sensor devices used inhealthcare, or for commercial building and industrial automation sensors.162 ZigBee159 These provisions for HAPS were made at WRC-03.160 www.ruckuswireless.com/products/mediaflex-home-products/7000-series161 See www.zigbee.org/About/OurMission.aspx and IEEE, IEEE 802.15 Working Group for WPAN, IEEE,viewed 18 October 2010, www.ieee802.org/15/.162 Zigbee Alliance, 2010, Zigbee Home Automation, viewed 5 October 2010,www.zigbee.org/Markets/ZigBeeHomeAutomation/Overview.aspx.
121. RF specification RF4CE,163 released in July 2009, provides another publicapplication profile that can be used to create multivendor interoperable solutions foruse within the home, particularly by defining commands and procedures to enableconsumer electronic devices such as TVs, DVD or CD players to be controlled byremote control devices.164 As for WiFi, ZigBee is designed to utilise class-licensedbands and is generally used in the 2.4 GHz band (although it is also designed foroperation at 915 MHz).The WiGig™ Alliance is an association of manufacturers of semiconductors,consumer electronics, personal computers and handheld entertainment devices. 165 Itwas established to develop a unified specification for 60 GHz spectrum use insupport of high bandwidth, short-range, wireless connectivity at gigabit/sec speedsbetween computing, communications and entertainment devices. WiGig is intendedto support bandwidth-intensive and latency-sensitive applications such as streaminghigh-definition video for interconnected consumer devices in the home at speeds upto 7 Gbps as well as maintaining compatibility with existing Wi-Fi devices operatingat 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz.166 WiGig is designed to utilise the 60 GHz class-licensedband.The WirelessHD is an electronics and communications equipment manufacturersconsortium tasked with defining a worldwide standard for the next generationwireless digital network interface for consumer electronics and personal computingproducts. For consumers, eliminating cables for audio and video dramaticallysimplifies home theatre establishment and eliminates the need to locate sourcedevices in the proximity of the display. The WirelessHD specification 1.0 is optimisedfor wireless display connectivity, achieving high-speed data rates of up to 4Gbits/s at10 metres, where its core technology is designed to operate in the 60GHz class-licensed band.NICTA (Australia’s Information and Communications Technology (ICT) ResearchCentre of Excellence) held the first public demonstration of a prototype system usingits world-first 60 GHz Gigabit wireless (GiFi) chip technology in February 2008.167This is the world’s first transceiver integrated on a single chip that operates at 60GHz on the CMOS (complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor) process, the mostcommon semiconductor technology. As the integrated transceiver is extremely small,it can be embedded into devices allowing the networking of office and homeequipment without wires. A NICTA spin-off company has been formed tocommercialise the GiFi technology and products are reportedly planned for market in2011.168The ACMA recognises the emerging role and importance that home networks havein the digital home and will continue to monitor the existing and proposedtechnologies that utilise spectrum for device interconnection and the delivery ofservices.163 ZigBee Alliance, Understanding ZigBee RF4CE, White Paper, July 2009, viewed 4 October 2010,www.zigbee.org/imwp/idms/popups/pop_download.asp?contentID=16212.164 ZigBee Alliance, July 2009, Understanding ZigBee RF4CE, White Paper, viewed 4 October 2010,www.zigbee.org/imwp/idms/popups/pop_download.asp?contentID=16212.165 The Wireless Gigabit Alliance, What is the Wireless Gigabit Alliance, viewed 21 December 2009,http://wirelessgigabitalliance.org/about/.166 Wireless Gigabit Alliance, May 2010, WiGig Alliance Publishes Multi-Gigabit Wireless Specification andLaunches Adopter Program, viewed 4 October 2010, http://wirelessgigabitalliance.org/news/wigig-alliance-publishes-multi-gigabit-wireless-specification-and-launches-adopter-program/.167 NICTA, Ultra-high speed wireless networks, viewed 18 January 2010..168 A Colley, Nicta spin-off plans to build a super-high speed wireless chip, February 2010, viewed 25October 2010, www.theaustralian.com.au/australian-it/nicta-spin-off-plans-to-build-super-high-speed-wireless-chip/story-e6frgakx-1225825680182.
122. 5.10.6 Future television broadcasting standardsFuture developments in broadcast technology standards have the potential toenhance the delivery of digital terrestrial television services and can assist inachieving greater spectral efficiency. In 2001, Australia introduced digital terrestrialtelevision using the DVB-T transmission standard and MPEG-2 video compressionstandard. Since then, newer broadcast technology standards, MPEG-4 AVC andDVB-T2, have been developed and deployed in other countries.169 These standardsallow more services or program streams to be transmitted in each television channel.MPEG-4 AVC is a more efficient video compression standard, potentially allowingthe same content to be delivered with up to half the bit rate of an equivalent MPEG-2service. Alternatively, the same bit rate can be used for much improved videoquality.DVB-T2 is a transmission standard similar to DVB-T. However, compared to DVB-T,it allows a higher bit-rate to be transmitted for a given transmission power andcoverage level. Under such conditions, the transmitted bit rate can be increased byup to 67 per cent. Alternatively, the same bit-rate and coverage can be achieved withreduced transmission power.Over the last few years, MPEG-4 AVC has been used with DVB-T to providestandard definition (SD) and/or high definition (HD) content on digital terrestrialtelevision networks in many countries, particularly in Europe. More recently, a DVB-T2 network using MPEG¬4 AVC has been launched in the UK and trialed in Spainand Germany. In the UK, purchasing a DVB-T2 set-top box or new DVB-T2-capabletelevision is the only terrestrial source of HD programming.MPEG-4 AVC has been used in Australia to improve the efficiency of satellite andcable broadcasting services. During 2010, MPEG-4 AVC was used to provide 3Dterrestrial test transmissions in metropolitan markets of the Football World Cup,State of Origin Rugby League series and AFL and NRL grand finals.The ACMA approved the Australian trials, which were reportedly the first free-to-airtrials of 3D broadcast technology in the world, under a policy for testing newradiocommunications technology. The trials appear to have provided valuableinformation to industry on the application of the new ‘frame compatible’ method of 3Dtransmission. The ACMA’s Temporary trials of 3D TV and other emergingtechnologies discussion paper was released in September 2010 (IFC 22/2010) Thedevelopment of 3D TV as a viable broadcast technology comes at a time when alimited amount of the BSB is available for use on a temporary basis.Transitioning to newer standards such as MPEG-4 AVC and/or DVB-T2 enablesmore efficient spectrum usage. However, there are significant legacy issues forviewers and broadcasters.While some digital television receivers in Australia are now MPEG-4 AVC capable,particularly those compliant with Freeview standards, most are not compliant andwould need to be replaced. Even viewers with sets that are compliant would mostlikely need to initiate a rescan of the set to receive MPEG-4 AVC transmissions.There are few, if any, DVB-T2-compliant receivers in Australia and transitioning toDVB-T2 would require the replacement of all current digital television receivers.However, it might be possible to introduce new services using DVB-T2 if an unusedtelevision channel is available. Only viewers wanting to access the new contentwould need a new set-top box or television receiver.169 Also known as MPEG-4 Part 10 or H.264. (AVC stands for Advanced Video Coding).
123. The ACMA does not propose to move to a new standard in the near future, at leastnot prior to digital switchover being completed. However, looking to the future, if free-to-air television broadcasting is to take advantage of these new standards, therewould need to be a migration path mapped out for both broadcasters’ transmissionequipment and viewers’ receivers through consultation.Further into the future, consideration may be given to emerging televisionbroadcasting technological advancements, such as more advanced coding schemes(for example, MPEG-4) and second generation digital television (for example, DVB-T2). Such developments and the associated spectrum requirements will bemonitored by the ACMA, but the potential implementation of these would need to beconsidered in the light of their merit relative to other competing uses of the spectrumand the practicalities of any migration strategies.WRC-12The following WRC-12 agenda items are relevant to emerging technologies: Agenda item 1.19—enable the introduction of software-defined radio and cognitive radio systems Agenda item 1.20—spectrum identification for gateway links for high altitude platform stations (HAPS) in the range 5 850–7 075 MHz Agenda item 1.22—effect of emissions from short-range devices on radiocommunication services.The ACMA does not support regulatory changes to the ITU Radio Regulations forWRC-12 agenda items 1.19 and 1.22. For agenda item 1.20, assuming suitableallocations are found and incumbent services are not adversely affected by theintroduction of HAPS, an allocation should be supported.The latest information on Australia’s preliminary view on WRC-12 agenda items is onthe ACMA website.
124. 6. Indicative work programs6.1 Developing the work programsThis year, the ACMA’s spectrum management work program is set out in threetables: Short-term Program—work the ACMA expects to commence or to continue to progress in the next 12 months (Table 6.1) Outlook Program—issues the ACMA considers will likely require attention within the 2011—2015 period, by project (Table 6.2) Outlook Program: band-by band—band-by-band work for the 2011–2015 period (Table 6.3).The work programs contained in these tables have been informed by submissionsthat the ACMA received on its 2010–2014 Outlook (which closed on 31 August2010). The ACMA received 17 submissions from both industry and governmentbodies about their respective spectrum needs. Several submitters provided viewsabout bands that underwent review throughout 2010—the 2.5 GHz and the 400 MHzbands—that were supported by separate consultations undertaken by the ACMA.In the ACMA’s experience, developments impacting on spectrum management canoccur quickly and are difficult to predict or prepare for, yet require a quick response.Accordingly, it is difficult to accurately predict required spectrum management workat the commencement of the Outlook cycle. To address this, the ACMA adopted anevidence-informed regulation approach. For further information about how the ACMAuses evidence, see its February 2010 publication, Evidence-informed regulation—The ACMA approach.170Work programs, and the priorities given to their different elements, are based on theavailable evidence at the time the Outlook is updated each year. In making decisionsabout changing priorities for its spectrum management work, the ACMA commits toundertaking work in those areas that will best enable it to fulfil government policy, itslegislative objectives and its Principles for spectrum management, in the broaderpublic interest.The programs set out in this chapter contain ongoing work that has resulted fromcompleted and current significant spectrum projects (as mentioned in Chapter 4) inthe 2010–2014 cycle, as well as spectrum management decisions made in the2009–2013 cycle.6.2 How the work programs relate to each otherThe Short-term Program (Table 6.1) provides information about the work the ACMAintends to commence or continue to progress in the next 12 months.The Outlook Program in Table 6.2 lists the issues of which the ACMA considers arelikely to affect the management of spectrum within the five-year scope of theOutlook. The table indicates those factors that are likely to affect how each issue willdevelop as well as the ACMA’s current approach. The way in which the issuesdevelop, and whether they will ultimately require the ACMA to undertake relatedwork, will be influenced by government policy decisions, projected spectrumdemand, and industry and international developments, such as outcomes fromWRC-12.170 www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD/pc=PC_312051.
125. All tables include an indication of when the ACMA currently expects to commencework for each task. The Outlook Program focuses on the medium-term (work may berequired within one to three years) and the long-term (work may be required withinfive years). The Short-term Program focuses on current work or work alreadyscheduled for commencement in 2011.The ACMA’s spectrum work programs distinguish between its current work andanticipated future work. The indicative work program tables provided in previouseditions of the Outlook have been reformatted in response to industry’s need to moreclearly understand how the Outlook work evolves from year to year. With theaddition of a summary of completed spectrum management work in Chapter 4,readers can now: better understand how the ACMA first identifies spectrum management issues and work better understand how work becomes part of the ACMA’s Short-term Program track the overall progress of spectrum management work across editions of the Outlook.6.3 Setting work programs in a dynamic policy environmentA rapidly changing communications and spectrum environment will affect theACMA’s planned spectrum management work in two ways.First, developments may produce the need for new and urgent work, requiring theACMA to adjust its Short-term Program and to either delay or defer work in areasthat are of lower priority. New spectrum needs and new government policies thatemerge during the life of this Outlook will require the ACMA to adjust the timing ofelements of each task, and add to or remove work tasks from each work program. Insome circumstances, work projected to start in the 2011–12 period may be allocateda later commencement date or its progression may be delayed.Second, the ACMA will need to take account of new issues and changes affecting itslonger-term predictions and adjust the Outlook Program. This program will alsochange as more becomes known about spectrum demand and government policy.Significant changes will be evident through relevant discussion papers and decisionspublished by the ACMA and will be summarised in subsequent editions of theOutlook.Third, the ACMA may need to adjust its spectrum management workplan ifcompeting demands for resources develop through the Outlook period. Like allagencies of government, the ACMA works from a constrained resource base. Thereality of sustained funding pressures means that during the life of the Outlook, theACMA will be actively reviewing the portfolio of activities presented and theirassociated priorities, with the aim of ensuring that the agency maximises benefit tothe public interest consistent with sound financial governance.6.4 Consultation for spectrum management changesThe ACMA has published the Outlook work programs to give sufficient information toindustry, government and community groups about planned spectrum managementactivity in the short-term and to ventilate its views about likely future pressures onspectrum management over the 2011–2015 period. The ACMA stresses thatconsultation with interested parties about planned spectrum management work andrelated changes will be an ongoing feature of its regulatory functions.
126. Work task Proposed work Start date Priority Frequency Band rangeDigital Tasks to assist the Q1 2010–11 High priority 45–52 MHz VHFswitchover government’s and 56–70 MHz switch-off of analog (VHF Band I) television in VHF 87.5–108 MHz Bands I and II, as (VHF Band II) part of transition to digital television broadcasting in Australia.Digital dividend Tasks to support the 2008 High priority 694–820 MHz UHF government that are Note: related to options for Government the future use of decision about digital dividend spectrum. size and location of digital dividend made in June 2010.New services: Planning work to 2008 Medium priority 174–230 MHz VHFDigital radio assess need to (VHF Band III) Note: Regional accommodate digital review underway. radio technologies in both metropolitan and regional areas, which will include consultation with industry.Digital Tasks to assist the Q1 2010–11 High priority 174–230 MHz VHFswitchover government’s digital (VHF Band III) switchover, including coverage testing and monitoring infrastructure rollout.Digital dividend Tasks to support the July 2010 High priority 694–820 MHz UHF government that are Note: related to options for Government the future use of decision on size digital dividend spectrum. and location of digital dividend made in June 2010.Band review: Review of spectrum Q2 2009–10 High priority 403–520 MHz UHF400 MHz access in the (400 MHz band) 400 MHz band. Implementation phase beginning early 2011.Digital Tasks to assist the Q1 2010–11 High priority 520–820 MHz UHFswitchover government’s digital (UHF Band IV switchover, including and Band V) coverage evaluation and monitoring infrastructure rollout.
127. Digital dividend Tasks to support the Q2 2009–10 High priority 698–820 MHz UHF government that are Note: related to options for Government the future use of decision about digital dividend spectrum. This size and location includes the of the digital replanning of digital dividend made in television channels June 2010. to facilitate the restack of digital television services currently operating in the digital dividend band. Preliminary restack planning commences Q3 2010.Digital dividend The ACMA released July 2010 High priority 694–820 MHzallocation a public discussion paper in October 2010 setting out the process, planning and allocation issues, and options for the allocation of new spectrum licences. It is expected a priced- based allocation process will allocate new spectrum licences in the band.Band review: Review the band to Q1 2011 Medium priority 820–960 MHz UHF900 MHz ease spectrum (900 MHz band) congestion and consider spectrum planning options for either PMTS or land mobile services. Possible extension of 850 MHz band.Band review: Spectrum is available Q1 2011 Medium priority 2025–2110 S- 2025–2110 for several regional MHz bandMHz areas. 2200–2300 2200–2300 Spectrum licensed MHzMHz Australia-wide subject to expiry in 2015.Service Review options to 2011 Medium priority 2302–2400 MHz S-planning: expand the band band2.3 GHz from 98 MHz to 100 MHz bandwidth (2300–2400 MHz).
128. Band review: The ACMA 2008 High priority 2500–2690 S-2.5 GHz commenced MHz band implementation of (2.5 GHz band) review findings for Alternate the 2.5 GHz band in October 2010. In bands: particular, 2025–2110 consultation on MHz licensing 2200–2300 arrangements in MHz alternative bands for 2010–2025 ENG services is to MHz occur in 2011. 1980–2010 MHz / 2170– Decision to 2200 MHz re-plan part of the Caveats apply. band as a result of review announced October 2010. Implementation of review findings scheduled to be completed mid-2014 to include: reallocation conversion alternative band arrangements relocation of ENG to identified alternative bands.Service Consultation on the July 09 Medium priority 4940–4990 MHz C-planning: use of the 4.9 GHz (4.9 GHz band) band4.9 GHz band for public protection and disaster relief. Discussion paper scheduled for targeted release in the first half of 2011.Service Development of Oct 09 Medium priority 5850–5925 MHz C-planning: spectrum access and (5.9 GHz band) bandIntelligent licensingtransportation arrangements tosystems (ITS) facilitate the introduction of intelligent transportation systems (ITS).
129. Service Building on the April 10 Medium priority TBA UHFplanning: government’s smartSmart infrastructureinfrastructure initiative. Identification of suitable spectrum underway; consultation anticipated in mid 2011.Service Consultation on Commenced Medium priority 3.6–4.8 GHz N/Aplanning: proposed technical 2008 6.0–8.5 GHzUWB devices and licensing arrangements for low-power indoor UWB devices concluded in June 2010. Implementation of licensing regime underway. Further consultation and/or implementation of arrangements in 2011.Service Extension of Q3 2010 Medium priority 3442.4–3475 / C-planning: arrangements under 3542.5–3575 band Work on hold asWAS in 3.4 RALI FX14 to MHz resources haveGHz support WAS in (3.4 GHz band) been applied to regional and remote higher priority areas not subject to work. spectrum licensing. Explore options for the use of 3492.5– 3542.5 MHz.Service Review of planning Q4 2007–08 Medium priority 1.5–60 GHz Manyplanning: arrangements forMicrowave-fixed microwave-fixedservices bands services bands. Consultation on bands in the range 1.5–3.8 GHz concluded December 2010. Bands above 5 GHz to be considered in 2011.
130. Service Discussion papers Q3 2011 Medium priority All shared N/Aplanning: will be released satellite bandsEarth station about proposedsiting arrangements for satellite Earth station siting in the third quarter of 2011. The ACMA supports the deployment of Earth stations in less- populated areas where spectrum demand is low, but recognises that this needs to be balanced against issues such as the cost to Earth station operators. Extensive consultation with stakeholders is required to address this issue.Regulatory The ACMA will Q3 2011 Medium priority All shared N/Aframework: address the issue of satellite bandsEarth receive non-compliance withstation licensing the current earthregime receive station licensing regime by undertaking a policy/regulatory review. The aim is to develop a new policy framework that will enable full compliance.Regulatory The review Q4 2010 Medium All satellite N/Aframework: includes presentation bandsReview of of a new model forsatellite filing those who wish toand request access tocoordination frequencies forpolicies and satelliteprocedures communications through the ACMA in the future. Submissions, which were due in December 2010, are currently being considered.
131. Regulatory The existing LIPD Q2–Q3 2011 Medium priority Various N/Aframework: class licence wasLIPD class made in July 2000.licence The ACMA considers that it is timely to review the licence and conditions for operation, frequency bands and radiated power limits.Technical Work closely with 2008 High priority 825–845 MHz Manyframework: and assist the 1710–1785/Expiring DBCDE to ensure all 1805–1880 MHzspectrum relevant issues are 27.5–28.35/licences considered. 31–31.3 GHz Examine options 2.3–2.4 GHz for pricing and licensing 3.4 GHz arrangements and 26.5–27.5 allocation GHz methodologies 1900–1980/ Initiate timely 2110–2170 MHz review of each band 20 and 30 where there are GHz expiring spectrum licences Consult with a wide range of stakeholders to promote transparency and accountability of decision-making; Inform incumbent licensees of the processes and criteria well ahead of expiry of the licences Take into account all relevant factors, including approaches adopted by other leading spectrum regulators managing expiring spectrum licences. Views sought through Five-year Spectrum Outlook 2010–2014. Planning currently underway for further work to provide assistance to the DBCDE.
132. Service High-frequency fixed- 2011 Medium priority 15-18 GHz Ku-planning: link (15–18 GHz): band15–18 GHz assess justification for spectrum needs and spectrum availability.Service Planning activity to 2010 Medium priority Various up to Aplanning: identify potential <4.2 GHz rangeMobile frequency bands tobroadband accommodate future mobile broadband services, consult with industry and develop a forward work plan. First in a series of discussion papers to be released in 2011.Regulatory Developing an Ongoing High priority A range Aframework: Australian position rangeWRC-12 on WRC-12 agendaoutcomes items leading up toimplementation the meeting in January/February 2012. Work ongoing to support development of Australian position for WRC-12.Regulatory In January 2010, the Q4 2010 High priority A range N/Aframework: ACMA decided toDevelop consider the use ofmethodology for opportunity costimplementing pricing for annualopportunity cost fees forpricing in administrativelyappropriate allocated spectrum.bands Work has begun to develop a methodology for introducing opportunity cost pricing into various bands.Regulatory Provide input to 2009 High priority A range N/Aframework: treaty negotiation.Renegotiationof treatybetweenAustralianGovernmentand EuropeanSpace Agency(ESA)
133. Spectrum Dependencies Proposed ACMA approach Time frame/management priorityissueService Outcome of consultation The ACMA developed a public Short/mediumplanning: The process. discussion paper seeking comments onproposed use of proposed regulatory arrangements for Sharing studies.low-power UWB indoor short-range ubiquitous UWBtechnology by Other bands. applications.short-rangeapplications The proposed arrangements aregenerally for consistent with international technicalindoors and and regulatory arrangements.concerns aboutthe interferencepotentialService International standards, The ACMA will review RALI FX14 and Medium/planning: technologies and investigate the use of the 3.4–3.59 GHz mediumReview existing protocols. band to support TDD technologies.arrangements Industry demand. The ACMA will review arrangementsfor the 3.4–3.59GHz band in the 3442.5–3475 / 3542.5–3575 MHz bands to support WAS in those regional and remote areas not subject to spectrum licensing. The ACMA will review the 3492.5– 3542.5 MHz bands as a part of a wider review into spectrum for WAS.Band review. The ACMA proposes to Monitor developments and prepare for Medium/380–400 MHz undertaken a review of review. medium band usage in Q2, 2012.Service Defence developments. In the short to medium term, the Medium/planning: ACMA will investigate the demand for medium Development of civilianIncreased use of military and civilian UAVs as it arises. applications.UAVs is WRC-12 outcomes. Agenda item 1.3 of WRC-12 is toexpected overthe next decade determine allocations for remote flight command and control and ATC communications relay. The introduction of satellite communications systems for UAVs in the band 5000–5150 MHz is one area of studyService Continued support for Monitoring work has been underway Medium/lowplanning: Global the introduction and since 2008. Galileo is expected tonavigation growth of GNSS. launch in 2014.satellite system Facilitate(GNSS) communications between Defence and the EC to resolve potential interference issues between JTIDS and Galileo.
134. Frequency band Spectrum Current status ACMA issue management Outlook management approach timeframe issue and priorityMF 526.5– Band Monitoring The ACMA supports Long/low 1606.5 congestion. digital radio trials to assess kHz the potential for DRM digital (MF–AM radio to alleviate band) congestion in this band. If successful, the ACMA may re-plan this channel to accommodate DRM services. The ACMA will monitor digital radio technologies and the development of markets for their deployment.HF 25670– Industry Monitoring Spectrum Embargo 44 is Medium/low 26100 proposals to intended to preserve kHz introduce DRM planning options. The into this band. ACMA will consult with industry to canvass interest in the possible use of DRM technology. The ACMA will monitor digital radio technologies and the development of markets for their deployment. Projected Monitoring The ACMA will continue Medium/low increases in the to monitor the progress of use of digital HF data services and maritime HF relevant technology data services developments. may require additional Options for planning spectrum arrangements will be allocations for assessed when spectrum future use. requirements are known. This issue will be influenced by outcomes of WRC-12 Agenda item: 1.9. HF surface Monitoring The ACMA will continue Medium/ wave radars are to facilitate HF surface medium being trialled wave radars through and these types temporary arrangements of applications and awaits WRC-12 may require outcomes to guide access to permanent arrangements. spectrum. The ACMA anticipates that work may be required to assess compatibility with existing services. WRC-12 Agenda item:
135. 1.15 will consider proposed frequency bands and so will directly influence the development of this issue.VHF 45-–52 Introduction of Monitoring The ACMA will continue Long/ MHz and digital radio to monitor the development medium 56–70 broadcasting in of different digital radio MHz VHF Bands I technologies. (VHF or II. The ACMA will continue Band I) This issue to support digital radio trials 87.5– awaits and assist government 108 MHz government where appropriate in its (VHF policy policy formulation (as Band II) formulation. above). The ACMA will continue to monitor demand for non- commercial and regional radio broadcasting services. 45–52 Digital Monitoring To assist the government in Short/high MHz and switch-off. the transition to digital 56–70 television broadcasting in MHz Australia, the ACMA is (VHF carrying out tasks for the Band I) switch-off of analog television. 87.5–108 Congestion in Monitoring Although congestion may Long/low MHz the VHF-FM be alleviated as a result of (VHF-FM band. the digital switchover, the band) ACMA is monitoring the development of related issues that are likely to impact demand for this band, such as the introduction of digital radio (DAB+) services in other bands. Consideration is also being given to the future reduction of channel spacing.VHF 108– This band The ACMA will continue to Medium/low 117.975 was allocated to consider the impact of the MHz the aeronautical introduction of AM(R)S on mobile service existing services by: (AM(R)S) on a sharing studies between primary basis at AM(R)S and VHF-FM band WRC-07 radio broadcasting services for LOS assessing compatibility applications, between GBAS/GRAS including RNSS correction signals and FM signal broadcasting. corrections. This affects existing services in this band. This band is
136. also undergoing work as part of the digital switch-off (as above). 117.975– Congestion Monitoring the Additional primary Long/low 137 MHz experienced in international allocations made to the VHF environment. AM(R)S at WRC-07 are aeronautical intended to alleviate Sharing studies mobile bands at congestion. However, the the international underway. ACMA first needs to level. Deploying consider the impact of the technology. introduction of AM(R)S on existing services.VHF 174–230 Spectrum Monitoring VHF channel 9A is Short/high MHz availability to available in mainland state (VHF support the capital cities, but there is Band III) introduction of limited spectrum availability DAB+. for regional areas, particularly those close to capital cities. Channel plans and frameworks for licensing of initial digital radio multiplexes and transmitters have been determined. The ACMA will continue to facilitate DAB+ trials. Deployment of DAB+ in regional areas requires further consideration by the ACMA and government, following a government review to occur by 2011. Digital television switchover may create opportunities for DAB+. Where appropriate, the ACMA will assist government in the formulation of relevant policy. 174–230 Digital Ongoing work to Final decisions about digital Medium/high MHz dividend— assist television switchover and (VHF benefits and future use of the spectrum Band III) opportunities once vacant are made by are expected to the minister. However, the arise following ACMA will assist with this the conversion work, where appropriate. from analog to digital television. Analog switch- off will leave significant amounts of spectrum vacant in this range.
137. Furthermore, planning work is underway to assess the need to accommodate digital radio technologies in both metropolitan and regional areas.VHF 380–400 Review of band Defence has exclusive Medium/ MHz usage. use under footnote AUS1. medium Competing demands for access to spectrum from government users and incumbent users. Review the existing arrangements in the 380– 400 MHz band as part of the ongoing monitoring of government spectrum use and mobile issues in the 400 MHz band. Review the 380–400 MHz band with a view to determine effective sharing/coordination arrangements.UHF 403–520 Review of band Implementation Review began in early Short/high MHz use to alleviate phase beginning 2008, final outcomes of (400 MHz congestion. early 2011. review announced in April band) 2010 and implementation begins in early 2011. Review of band will minimise the need for ongoing intervention by the ACMA. 448–450 Indication of Monitoring The ACMA will liaise with Long/low MHz BoM plans for the BoM on future increased use requirements for wind of wind profiler profiler radars. radars. 520–820 Channels A and Channel B is now Channel B has been rolled Medium/ MHz B—planned but part of the into the digital dividend. medium currently ACMA’s digital unassigned dividend work. television
138. broadcasting channels. 520–820 Switchover from Ongoing work The minister has Short/high MHz analog to digital announced a switch-off of (UHF television analog services in a staged Bands IV broadcasting. process from 2010–2013. and V) The ACMA is currently involved in assessing digital coverage to ensure an equivalent level of service post switchover and is monitoring the nationwide rollout of digital television infrastructure. Digital Ongoing A regional band Medium/high dividend— arrangement has been put benefits and in place. opportunities In October 2010, the are expected to arise following ACMA released a the conversion discussion paper– from analog to Spectrum reallocation in digital-only the 700 MHz digital television. dividend band. Analog switch- off will leave significant amounts of spectrum vacant in this range.UHF 698–820 Work in this Restack planning The ACMA is undertaking Short/high MHz band also commenced in work for the replanning of (UHF relates to 2010. digital television channels Bands IV options for to facilitate restack of digital and V) future use of television services currently digital dividend operating in the digital spectrum. dividend band. 820–960 Band review to Monitoring This band is undergoing Short/ MHz ease review to ease spectrum medium (900 MHz congestion. congestion and consider band) spectrum planning options for either PMTS or land mobile services. This includes possible extension of the 850 MHz band. 960–1164 Allocated to the Monitoring The ACMA will consider the Long/low MHz AM(R)S on a impact of the introduction of primary basis at AM(R)S on existing WRC-07 for services. In particular, LOS sharing studies between communications AM(R)S and ARNS and adjacent band GNSS are needed. No AM(R)S systems (apart from UAT) may operate prior to their completion.
139. L-band 1164– Growth of Ongoing work The ACMA plans to Medium/ 1610 MHz GNSS— continue to accommodate medium introduction of GNSS in this spectrum and Galileo, QZSS believes that GNSS should and Compass, not be constrained by other along with other services in this band. The regional ACMA will continue to positioning monitor international policy systems and and technological augmentation developments. systems. 1164– Interference Ongoing work The ACMA is working to Medium/ 1610 MHz concerns facilitate communications medium between between Defence and the Defence’s EC to resolve potential JTIDS and interference issues. Work Galileo. dependent on deployment of Galileo. 1452– Review band Work subject to The ACMA may revise Medium/ 1492 MHz arrangements to government the 1.5 GHz Band Plan to medium consider highest decisions on determine whether the value use of the digital radio and existing technical and band for either the 1.5 GHz Band licensing arrangements terrestrial digital Plan. reflect the most efficient radio (DAB+) for use of spectrum. The in-fill ACMA will consider transmissions whether the current and regional allocation for terrestrial coverage or DAB+ services should mobile remain. broadband. Planning in the band will also consider potential future use by satellite digital radio and other services. The ACMA will continue to facilitate DAB+ trials. L-band 1518– Possible Ongoing work Introduction of MSS Medium/ 1544 introduction of would require revision of medium MHz/ MSS systems, the 1.5 GHz Band Plan to 1626.5– in particular for permit MSS systems and 1675 MHz the satellite clearing of incumbent users (L-band component of in the 1525–1535 MHz extension IMT (identified band. bands171) at WRC-07). The ACMA plans to continue to protect DRCS/HCRC in the 1518– 1525 MHz band, and the protection of 1660– 1670 MHz RAS and 1668– 1668.4 MHz SRS will be considered. The ACMA will monitor demand in these bands for MSS. 1980– Increased International The ACMA will continue to Medium/low 2010 interest in MSS satellites monitor national and171 [1518–1525 MHz/1668–1675 MHz] and MSS down/uplink [1525–1544 MHz/ 1626.5–1660.5 MHz]
140. MHz/ mobile planned to cover international demand for 2170– television and Australia. MSS systems and satellite 2200 MHz MSS systems delivery of mobile Introduction of (possibly television. In the case that 1610– Australian MSS including ATC). an MSS system is 1626.5 systems. introduced, the effects of MHz/ Compatibility such a system on co- and 2483.5– with existing and adjacent-band services will 2500 MHz potential future need to be considered. services.S- 1980–2010 Re-plan the Introduction of ENG Short/highband MHz / 2170– band providing for arrangements in parallel 2200 MHz to be operation of ENG with arrangements in 2010– made available in the interim with 2025 MHz, 2025–2110 for electronic further MHz and 2200–2300 MHz news-gathering investigation into bands. (ENG). long-term use by Re-planning of the 2.5 Interest in ENG. GHz band. MSS systems This will include International MSS (possibly developing a satellites planned to cover including ATC). legislative band Australia. Overseas plan providing for operation of ENG, Introduction of Australian (e.g. US) use of MSS systems. parts of the amending RALI bands by FX3 and revising Interest in use of the terrestrial Mobile-Satellite bands by terrestrial mobile mobile Service (2 GHz) broadband services. broadband Frequency Band Compatibility with existing services. Plan 2002 (the and potential future MSS Band Plan) services. to support ENG operation. If proposals for use of the bands by other services (including MSS) arise in the future, the ACMA would commence the normal consultation process on options for future use. The ACMA will continue to monitor national and international demand for use of the bands. If the introduction of an MSS system is considered, the ACMA would investigate the viability of long- term sharing
141. between ENG and MSS. 2025– Band review Monitoring Spectrum licences are due Short/ 2011 MHz to expire in 2015. Spectrum medium / 2200– is available for several 2300 MHz regional areas. 2302– Service Commencing in The ACMA will review Short/ 2400 MHz planning 2011 options to expand the band medium (2.3 GHz) from 98 MHz to 100 MHz bandwidth. 2500– This band is Review processes Implementation of Short/high 2690 MHz also under commenced in consultation/review findings (2.5 GHz consultation for 2008 and are due scheduled to be completed band) licensing for completion in mid-2014 to include: arrangements mid-2014. reallocation, conversion, for alternative alternative band bands for ENG arrangements, and services in relocation of ENG to 2011. identified alternative bands.S- 2700– Assignment Ongoing work The ACMA will work with Medium/band 2900 MHz coordination Defence, Airservices medium difficulties Australia and the BoM to between radar establish spectrum-sharing operators. agreements. The ACMA will investigate the need to develop further spectrum planning guidelines for future use of the band by radars. 2900– Increased use Monitoring The ACMA will monitor the Long/low 3100 MHz of S-band deployment of maritime maritime radar radars and the and possible development of non- replacement of magnetron radars, and will racon consult with AMSA on the technology. continuation of racons after 2013.C- 3442.5– Introduction of Work to The ACMA will review the Short/lowBand 3475 / WAS in regional commence shortly band to ascertain if it is 3542.5– and remote suitable for WAS 3575 MHz areas not applications. (3.4 GHz) subject to Medium/ spectrum Band review to medium licensing. commence Q1, 2011. 3492.5– Potential use for Monitoring The ACMA will review the Medium/ 3542.5 WAS band to ascertain if it is medium MHz applications suitable for WAS (3.5 GHz) Australia-wide. applications. Potential industry consultation. Introduction of Consultation Licensing and allocation Short/high WAS in regional with potential arrangements for licences and remote WAS operators underway. Australia. and FSS Earth The following needs to be station operators. reviewed: Subsequent Embargo 42 to allow demand for FSS Earth stations in spectrum for WAS regional and rural
142. and FSS when areas one year after embargo is lifted. the band is open to WASC- the status of fixed P-Pband services after two years. Consider when and how to progress further planning work on 3.6 GHz band in metropolitan areas. Existing licensed FSS Earth stations will continue to be protected during this time. 3.6–4.8 Service Implementation of The ACMA consulted on Short/ GHz planning: consultation proposed technical and medium UWB devices outcomes licensing arrangements for 6.0–8.5 underway. Further low-power indoor UWB GHz consultation devices, which concluded and/or in June 2010. In 2011, implementation of implementation of reviewed arrangements in licensing regime will be 2011. underway. 4940– Potential use by Consultation The ACMA will consult to Medium/low 4990 MHz public protection with Defence and assist the development of (4.9 GHz and disaster other the appropriate spectrum band) relief (PPDR) stakeholders. management processes, in organisations order to support use of the for broadband Band/ band by public safety data channelling applications. applications. arrangement options for PPDR. 5091– Allocated to the International The ACMA will consider the Medium/low 5150 MHz AM(R)S on a sharing studies. effect of the introduction of primary basis at AM(R)S on existing International WRC-07 for services, including the deployment of surface impact on Globalstar feeder applications at technology. links. Sharing between airports, Coordination possible future AM(R)S aeronautical with Globalstar systems and the FSS telemetry and Earth stations. should be possible by security-related adhering to the provisions transmissions. of ITU-R Resolutions 418, 419 and 748. 5600– The BoM is Success of The ACMA believes that Medium/ 5650 MHz concerned sharing overseas. sharing between RLANs medium about the and weather radars based Level of introduction of on international proliferation of class-licensed arrangements is possible. RLANs. RLANs and the However, it will proceed potential carefully with the interference to implementation of RLANs its weather sharing this band to radars. minimise the likelihood of interference and will monitor the outcomes of
143. sharing studies overseas.C- 5850– Introduction of Industry Embargo 48 currently Short/band 5925 MHz intelligent submissions. protects options for the medium (5.9 GHz transportation future use of this band. The Monitoring band) systems (ITS). ACMA released a public technological developments. consultation paper in November 2009 outlining Feasibility of possible arrangements for implementation in ITS in the band. automobiles/ infrastructure. Following analysis of submissions, arrangements for ITS will be finalised. 5850– The Requirements The ACMA is currently Medium/low 7075 MHz identification of of gateway monitoring HAPS spectrum for proponents. developments with a view gateway links to forming a position for Sharing studies. for HAPS. WRC-12. WRC-12 agenda item 1.20.X- 9300– Increased use Technology The ACMA will monitor the Long/lowband 9500 MHz of maritime developments deployment of maritime radar and overseas. radars and the possible developments of non- Growth of radar replacement of magnetron radars, and will racon deployment. consult with AMSA on the technology. continuation of racons after 2013. 10.6– Analysis of Outcome of Sharing criteria were Medium/ 10.68 interference to consultation established at WRC-07 to medium GHz the EESS from process. limit potential interference. fixed links. Final arrangements to Possible protect passive services in changes to the band will be technical and documented and formalised operating by the ACMA in the near requirements in future, following the RALI FX3. additional formal consultation required to implement the changes.Ku- 10.7–11.7 Deployment of Discussion paper The ACMA will maintain its N/A/band GHz Earth station scheduled for policy to not support the medium (11 GHz receivers and 2011. ubiquitous, uncoordinated band) protection of deployment of Earth station future options receivers in bands shared for use of this with terrestrial services. band by fixed- service and other terrestrial services. 13.75– Some interest in Monitoring Any consideration of Long/low 14.0 GHz simplified revision to licensing licensing arrangements would first arrangements in require consultation with the band, which interested and affected still satisfies stakeholders in the band. current international
144. sharing arrangements.Ku- 14.40– Introduction of Ongoing The ACMA will work with Medium/band 14.83 Defence Defence and other medium GHz / common data government users to 15.15– link (CDL) identify appropriate whole- 15.35 systems— of-government approaches GHz spectrum is to support use of the band currently used by CDL systems, while extensively by maintaining access for fixed links and existing and future fixed- FSS. and satellite-services. The ACMA will also work with Defence to explore options for customised CDL systems that maintain interoperability with overseas systems but are better suited to Australian spectrum arrangements. 15.7–16.6 Use of this Monitoring The ACMA will continue Long/low GHz band for the to monitor ASDE operation of developments and its ASDE possible future introduction overseas; in Australia. possible interest Any future introduction of for future use in ASDE would require prior Australia. consultation with Defence. AUS1Ka- 21.4–22 Increasing level Monitoring The ACMA will monitor Medium/band GHz of interest international developments medium internationally in in HDTV satellite HDTV satellite broadcasting in this band. It broadcasting at will also monitor demand in Ka-band Australia for this purpose, frequencies. which may involve public and industry consultation. Relevant WRC-12 agenda item: 1.13. 23.6–24 Sharing issues Monitoring Sharing with RAS facilitated Long/low GHz between by separation distances, (24 GHz automotive antenna elevations and band) UWB short- terrain shielding. Exclusion range radar zones have been (SRR), and the established around EESS and RAS. licensed RAS facilities. The ACMA considers the density of SRRs required to cause harmful interference to the EESS will not occur in the short- to medium- term. In addition, a migration to 79 GHz SRRs is expected within the next 10 years.
145. 27.9– Possible Monitoring The ACMA supports the Long/low 28.2 GHz/ introduction of future deployments of 3 –31.3 HAPS. HAPS, provided that work, GHz including detailed sharing 47.2– studies, is undertaken to 47.5 GHz/ ensure the successful 47.9–48.2 cohabitation of HAPS with GHz other services. Review of 28 and 31 GHz bands to commence Q1 2011. Relevant WRC-12 agenda item: 1.20.EHF 77–81 Possible Monitoring The ACMA will monitor Long/low GHz introduction of developments in 79 GHz (79 GHz automotive UWB SRR through band) 79 GHz UWB consultation with peak SRR in groups and will liaise with Australia. potentially affected users as appropriate.
146. Appendix A: Table of frequencybands Frequency band Frequency range VLF 3–30 kHz LF 30–300 kHz MF 300–3000 kHz HF 3–30 MHz VHF 30–300 MHz UHF 300–3000 MHz L-band 1000–2000 MHz S-band 2000–4000 MHz C-band 4–8 GHz SHF 3–30 GHz X-band 8–12 GHz Ku-band 12–18 GHz K-band 18–26 GHz Ka-band 26–40 GHz EHF 30–300 GHzNote: there are variations in the frequency ranges corresponding to the band namesfor the microwave frequency bands (L-band, S-band, etc.). In particular, severalexceptions to the above frequency bands exist for allocations to the satellite servicesand, when referring to the satellite service, Table 5.2 should be used instead (seesection 5.7.1). Similarly, for the definition of frequency bands in relation to spacescience services, Table 5.3 should be used (see section 5.8.1).
147. Appendix B: Acronyms andabbreviationsAcronym Definition2G Second generation mobile telephone services3G Third generation mobile telephone services4G Fourth generation mobile telephone services3GPP Third Generation Partnership ProjectA-SMGCS Advanced Surface Movement and Guidance Control SystemAAD Australian Antarctic DivisionABC Australian Broadcasting CorporationACARS Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting SystemACMA Australian Communications and Media Authoritythe ACMA Act Australian Communications and Media Authority Act 2005ACMI Air Combat Manoeuvring Instrumentationthe Act Radiocommunications Act 1992ADS-B Automatic Dependent Surveillance-BroadcastAEW&C Airborne Early Warning and ControlAFTN Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunications NetworkAIS Automatic Identification SystemAM Amplitude ModulationAMHS Aeronautical Message Handling SystemAM(R)S Aeronautical Mobile (Route) ServiceAMS(R)S Aeronautical Mobile Satellite (Route) ServiceAMSA Australian Maritime Safety AuthorityAMSR Advanced Microwave Scanning RadiometerAMSU Advanced Microwave Sounding UnitAMT Aeronautical Mobile TelemetryAPT Asia-Pacific TelecommunityARNS Aeronautical Radionavigation ServiceARSG Australian Radiocommunications Study GroupASDE Airport Surface Detection EquipmentASTRA Australian Strategic Air Traffic Management GroupATC Air Traffic ControlATM Air Traffic ManagementATN Aeronautical Telecommunications NetworkATPC Automatic Transmitter Power ControlAusSAR Australian Search and RescueAWACS Airborne Warning and Control SystemBGAN Broadband Global Area NetworkBoM Bureau of Meteorologythe BSA Broadcasting Services Act 1992BSB Broadcasting Services BandsBSS Broadcasting-Satellite ServiceBWA Broadband Wireless AccessCASA Civil Aviation Safety AuthorityCB Citizen Band
148. CBRS Citizen Band Radio ServiceCDL Common Data LinkCDMA Code Division Multiple AccessCDSCC Canberra Deep Space Communication ComplexCEPT European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications AdministrationCPDLC Controller Pilot Data Link CommunicationsCRS Cognitive Radio SystemCSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research OrganisationCTS Cordless Telecommunications ServiceDAB Digital Audio BroadcastingDBCDE Department of Broadband, Communications and the Digital EconomyDCITA Department of Communications, Information Technology and the ArtsDECT Digital Enhanced Cordless TelecommunicationsDefence Department of DefenceDMB Digital Multimedia BroadcastDORIS Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by SatelliteDRCS Digital Radio Concentrator SystemDRM Digital Radio MondialeDSC Digital Selective CallingDSL Digital Subscriber LineDSRC Dedicated Short-Range CommunicationsDSRR Digital Short-Range RadioDTH Direct-To-HomeDTTB Digital Terrestrial Television BroadcastingDVB RCS Digital Video Broadcasting-Return Channel Via SatelliteDVB-S Digital Video Broadcasting-SatelliteDVB-S2 Digital Video Broadcasting-Satellite-Second GenerationEC European CommissionECC Electronic Communications Committee (Europe)EDGE Enhanced Data Rates for GSM EvolutionEESS Earth exploration-satellite serviceEHF Extremely High Frequency (30–300 GHz)EIRP Equivalent Isotropically Radiated PowerENG Electronic News-GatheringEPIRB Emergency Position-Indicating Radio BeaconESA European Space AgencyESTRACK ESA Station Tracking NetworkETSI European Telecommunications Standards InstituteFANS Future Air Navigation SystemFCC Federal Communications CommissionFDD Frequency Division DuplexFLO Forward Link OnlyFM Frequency ModulationFSK Frequency Shift KeyingFSS Fixed-Satellite Service
149. FWA Fixed Wireless AccessGA Geoscience AustraliaGBAS Ground-Based Augmentation SystemGBSI Global Broadband Satellite InfrastructureGHz GigahertzGMDSS Global Maritime Distress and Safety SystemGNSS Global Navigation Satellite SystemGOES Geostationary Operational Environmental SatelliteGPRS General Packet Radio ServiceGPS Global Positioning SystemGRAS Ground-Based Regional Augmentation SystemGSM Global System for Mobile communicationsGSM-900 GSM services operating in the 900 MHz bandGSM-1800 GSM services operating in the 1800 MHz bandHAPS High Altitude Platform StationsHCRC High Capacity Radio ConcentratorHD High DefinitionHDTV High Definition TelevisionHF High Frequency (3–30 MHz)HIPERMAN High Performance Radio Metropolitan Area NetworkHPON High Power Open NarrowcastingHSDA High Spectrum Density AreaHSDPA High-Speed Downlink Packet AccessHSPA High-Speed Packet AccessHSUPA High-Speed Uplink Packet AccessICAO International Civil Aviation OrganisationIEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics EngineersILS Instrument Landing SystemIMO International Maritime OrganisationIMT International Mobile TelecommunicationsIP Internet ProtocolIRGSH Independent Review of Government Spectrum HoldingsIRNSS Indian Regional Navigation Satellite SystemISM Industrial, Scientific and MedicalISP Internet Service ProviderITS Intelligent Transportation SystemsITU International Telecommunication UnionITU-R International Telecommunication Union Radiocommunication SectorJTIDS Joint Tactical Information Distribution SystemkHz KilohertzLEOP Launch and Early Orbit PhaseLF Low Frequency (30–300 kHz)the LIPD class Radiocommunications (Low Interference Potential Devices)licence Class Licence 2000LMDS Local Multipoint Distribution SystemLOS Line-Of-SightLPON Low Power Open NarrowcastingLRIT Long Range Identification and TrackingLTE Long-Term Evolution
150. Mbps megabits per secondMBWA mobile broadband wireless accessMCA Mobile Communications Systems on AircraftMDS multipoint distribution systemMetAids meteorological aids serviceMetSat meteorological-satellite serviceMF medium frequency (300–3000 kHz)MHz megahertzMIMO multiple-input and multiple-outputthe minister Minister for Broadband, Communications and the Digital EconomyMLS microwave landing systemMPEG Moving Picture Experts GroupMSDA medium spectrum density areaMSI maritime safety informationMSS mobile-satellite serviceMSS/ATC mobile-satellite service ancillary terrestrial componentMTSAT Multi-Functional Transport SatelliteNAS narrowband area serviceNASA National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNBDP narrow-band direct printingNDB non-directional beaconNMSC National Marine Safety CommitteeNOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationNPOESS National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite SystemNTIA National Telecommunications and Information AdministrationOFDMA orthogonal frequency-division multiple accessOR off-routeP-MP point-to-multipointP-P point-to-pointPDC pre-departure clearancepfd power flux densityPOES Polar Operational Environmental SatellitePPDR public protection and disaster reliefPSR primary surveillance radarPTS Public Telecommunications ServiceQZSS Quasi-Zenith Satellite SystemR routeracon radar beaconRALI Radiocommunications Assignment and Licensing InstructionRAS radio astronomy serviceRCC Radiocommunications Consultative CommitteeRFID radiofrequency identificationRLAN radio local area networkRNSS radionavigation-satellite serviceRQZ radio quiet zoneSAR search and rescueSAR synthetic aperture radar
151. SART search-and-rescue radar transponderSBS Special Broadcasting ServiceSCADA supervisory control and data acquisitionSD standard definitionSDR software-defined radioSFN single frequency networkSHF super high frequency (3–30 GHz)SKA Square Kilometre ArraySMS short message serviceSNG satellite news gatheringSOLAS (International Convention of) Safety of Life at SeaSOS space operations servicethe Spectrum Plan Australian Radiofrequency Spectrum Plan 2009SRD short-range deviceSRR short-range radarSRS space research serviceSSM/I special sensor microwave imagerSSR secondary surveillance radarSTL studio-to-transmitter linkDAB+ digital audio broadcasting plusTACAN tactical air navigationTCDL tactical common data linkTCR telemetry, command and rangingTDD time division duplexTDMA time division multiple accessTETRA Terrestrial Trunked RadioTMI Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission microwave imagerTOB television outside broadcastTRMM Tropical Rainfall Measuring MissionTT&C tracking, telemetry and controlUAV unmanned aerial vehicleUHF ultra high frequency (300–3000 MHz)UK United KingdomUMB ultra-mobile broadbandUMTS universal mobile telecommunications systemUS United States (of America)USB universal service busUSO universal service obligationUWB ultra widebandVHF very high frequency (30–300 MHz)VLF very low frequency (3–30 kHz)VoIP voice over internet protocolVOR VHF omnidirectional rangeVSAT very small aperture terminalWAAS wide area augmentation systemWAS wireless access servicesWCDMA wideband code division multiple accessWi-Fi wireless fidelityWiMAX worldwide interoperability for microwave accessWLL wireless local loop
152. WRC-2000 World Radiocommunication Conference 2000WRC-03 World Radiocommunication Conference 2003WRC-07 World Radiocommunication Conference 2007WRC-12 World Radiocommunication Conference 2012
153. Canberra Melbourne Sydney acma industryPurple Building Level 44 Level 15 Tower 1Benjamin Offices Melbourne Central Tower Darling ParkChan Street 360 Elizabeth Street 201 Sussex StreetBelconnen ACT Melbourne VIC Sydney NSWPO Box 78 PO Box 13112 PO Box Q500Belconnen ACT 2616 Law Courts Queen Victoria Building Melbourne VIC 8010 Sydney NSW 1230T +61 2 6219 5555F +61 2 6219 5353 T +61 3 9963 6800 T +61 2 9334 7700 F +61 3 9963 6899 1800 226 667 TTY 03 9963 6948 F +61 2 9334 7799www.acma.gov.au