Cartel Conduct and Joint Ventures Paul Zawa General Manager Enforcement Operations, Victoria Australian Competition & Cons...
“ Copyright  © 2011 Commonwealth of Australia  All material in this presentation was generated by ACCC staff and is copyri...
<ul><ul><li>Outline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cartel conduct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penalties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
What is Cartel Conduct? It is a breach of the law for competitors to make a contract, arrangement or understanding (CAU) c...
<ul><li>A cartel provision is one that has the  purpose  or  effect  of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fixing, controlling or main...
Price Fixing Price fixing occurs when competitors agree on pricing rather than competing against each other. The CCA refer...
<ul><li>Price Fixing </li></ul><ul><li>This may be in the form of: </li></ul><ul><li>agreed selling or buying prices (this...
<ul><li>Allocating customers, suppliers or territories </li></ul><ul><li>When competitors agree to divide or allocate cust...
<ul><li>Allocation of Spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>It would be unlawful for competitors to agree to allocate: </li></ul><ul>...
Bid Rigging Bid rigging refers to agreements between competitors in order to ensure that bids for a tender are submitted (...
Types of Bid Rigging Cover bidding:  competing businesses choose a winner while the others deliberately bid over an agreed...
Types of Bid Rigging Bid suppression:  a business agrees not to tender, thus ensuring that the pre-agreed participant will...
Types of Bid Rigging Bid rotation:  competitors agree to take turns at winning business, while monitoring their market sha...
Types of Bid Rigging Subcontracting:  subcontracting arrangements are often part of bid rigging schemes, where competitors...
<ul><li>Exemptions </li></ul><ul><li>where the ACCC has authorised the conduct because the public  benefit outweighs any p...
The Joint Ventures Exception The joint venture defence to the cartel provisions is a complex legal area. If you are contem...
<ul><li>Must be a “genuine” joint venture </li></ul><ul><li>S. 4J  CCA  requires: </li></ul><ul><li>activity in trade or c...
<ul><li>Must be a “genuine” joint venture </li></ul><ul><li>Explanatory memorandum: </li></ul><ul><li>requires the parties...
<ul><li>Must be a “genuine” joint venture </li></ul><ul><li>requirement that the JV be for the  production and/or supply o...
<ul><li>The cartel provision must be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in a contract; or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>if in an arrangem...
JV management committees Careful drafting and legal advice is needed where the JV has a management committee made up of JV...
Enforcement The ACCC regards fighting the damaging behaviour of cartels—regardless of scale—as a major priority of our enf...
<ul><li>Penalties </li></ul><ul><li>Civil penalties </li></ul><ul><li>For a breach by a corporation of the civil cartel pr...
<ul><li>Penalties </li></ul><ul><li>Accessories to a breach </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts to form or give effect to a cartel ...
Penalties In addition, a penalty of up to $500,000 can be imposed on individual company officers where they are knowingly ...
Penalties Criminal penalties Penalties may include jail sentences of up to 10 years or fines of up to $220,000 for the ind...
Civil or Criminal? The ACCC takes the view that serious cartel conduct should be prosecuted criminally whenever possible. ...
<ul><li>Criminal vs. Civil </li></ul><ul><li>The ACCC will consider factors including whether: </li></ul><ul><li>the condu...
<ul><li>one or more of the alleged participants has previously  been found by a court to have participated in, or has  adm...
Criminal vs. Civil Charge negotiation – no negotiation with the ACCC A person will not be permitted to seek to ‘trade off’...
The only way that an investigation will move from criminal to a civil investigation would be if the ACCC/CDPP determined d...
Investigation Powers of the ACCC The ACCC has extensive powers to investigate cartels. Under s. 155 of the TPA, it may com...
Investigative Powers The ACCC may also seek (from a magistrate) and execute search warrants on company offices and the pre...
Immunity for Cartel Participants The ACCC may grant civil immunity.  Immunity from criminal prosecution can only be grante...
Immunity Only the first person or corporation to bring the matter to the attention of the ACCC may qualify for immunity (t...
Immunity The applicant must cease the applicant’s involvement in the cartel, or agree to cease such conduct An application...
Immunity A person or corporation may request a ‘marker’ for a limited period of time. This will, in effect, preserve first...
Confidentiality Whistleblowers can report to the ACCC on a confidential basis. Investigators will, as far as possible, kee...
<ul><li>CONCLUSION </li></ul><ul><li>Further information can be obtained from the ACCC: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.accc.gov...
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Cartel conduct and joint ventures - Australian Competition and Consumer Commission

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Paul Zawa from the ACCC presents to the ACMA Digital Dividend Tune Up

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Cartel conduct and joint ventures - Australian Competition and Consumer Commission

  1. 1. Cartel Conduct and Joint Ventures Paul Zawa General Manager Enforcement Operations, Victoria Australian Competition & Consumer Commission D11/2332614
  2. 2. “ Copyright © 2011 Commonwealth of Australia All material in this presentation was generated by ACCC staff and is copyrighted. You may use this material for your own personal non-commercial use only. You may not alter, reproduce, re-transmit, distribute, display or commercialise the material in any way without written permission from the Director ACCC Publishing. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be directed to the: Director Publishing Australian Competition and Consumer Commission GPO Box 3131 CANBERRA ACT 2601 Phone: (02) 6243 1148 Fax: (02) 6243 1149 or by emailing: publishing.unit@accc.gov.au Fees for reproduction apply in some instances. Disclaimer The information in this presentation is a broad guide to aspects of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth). It is solely intended to provide a general understanding of the subject matter and to help people assess whether they need more detailed information. The material is not and should not be regarded as legal advice. Users should seek their own legal advice where appropriate. Every effort is made to ensure that the material is accurate and up to date. However, the Commission does not guarantee or warrant the accuracy, completeness or currency of the information provided.”
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>Outline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cartel conduct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penalties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immunity Policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guidance </li></ul></ul>#TuneUp2011
  4. 4. What is Cartel Conduct? It is a breach of the law for competitors to make a contract, arrangement or understanding (CAU) containing a cartel provision, and a further breach to put it into effect. Businesses are considered to be competitors if they or any related companies are, or are likely to be, in competition in any relevant market for the supply or acquisition of goods or services. #TuneUp2011
  5. 5. <ul><li>A cartel provision is one that has the purpose or effect of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fixing, controlling or maintaining prices; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and/or the purpose of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allocating customers, suppliers or territories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>preventing, restricting or limiting output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bid rigging, also referred as to as collusive tendering </li></ul></ul>#TuneUp2011
  6. 6. Price Fixing Price fixing occurs when competitors agree on pricing rather than competing against each other. The CCA refers to the ‘fixing, controlling or maintaining’ of prices. #TuneUp2011
  7. 7. <ul><li>Price Fixing </li></ul><ul><li>This may be in the form of: </li></ul><ul><li>agreed selling or buying prices (this does not necessarily mean that prices are set at the same level by all parties to the agreement) </li></ul><ul><li>agreed minimum prices </li></ul><ul><li>an agreed formula for pricing or discounting goods and services </li></ul><ul><li>agreed rebates, allowances or credit terms. </li></ul><ul><li>Such agreements may be in writing but are often informal and oral. </li></ul>#TuneUp2011
  8. 8. <ul><li>Allocating customers, suppliers or territories </li></ul><ul><li>When competitors agree to divide or allocate customers, suppliers or territories among themselves, they are sheltering from competition, denying consumers the benefit of choice, and engaging in cartel conduct. </li></ul><ul><li>Such actions include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allocating customers by geographic area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dividing contracts within an area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>agreeing not to compete for established customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>agreeing not to produce each other’s products or services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>agreeing not to expand into a competitor’s market. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The key is that competitors agree among themselves how the market will operate, rather than allow competitive market forces to work. </li></ul>#TuneUp2011
  9. 9. <ul><li>Allocation of Spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>It would be unlawful for competitors to agree to allocate: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of frequency and geographic area </li></ul></ul></ul>#TuneUp2011
  10. 10. Bid Rigging Bid rigging refers to agreements between competitors in order to ensure that bids for a tender are submitted (or withheld) in a manner agreed by the participants. Bid rigging is also referred to as collusive tendering. #TuneUp2011
  11. 11. Types of Bid Rigging Cover bidding: competing businesses choose a winner while the others deliberately bid over an agreed amount, which ensures the selected bidder has the lowest tender and also helps to establish the illusion that the lowest bid is indeed competitive. #TuneUp2011
  12. 12. Types of Bid Rigging Bid suppression: a business agrees not to tender, thus ensuring that the pre-agreed participant will win the contract. Bid withdrawal: a business withdraws its winning bid so that a competitor will be successful instead. #TuneUp2011
  13. 13. Types of Bid Rigging Bid rotation: competitors agree to take turns at winning business, while monitoring their market shares to ensure they all have a predetermined slice of the pie. Non-conforming bids: businesses deliberately include terms and conditions that they know will not be acceptable to the purchaser, ensuring that they will not win the bid and that the pre-agreed business will be successful. #TuneUp2011
  14. 14. Types of Bid Rigging Subcontracting: subcontracting arrangements are often part of bid rigging schemes, where competitors agree not to bid or to submit cover bids on the condition that some of the successful bidder’s contract will be subcontracted to them. #TuneUp2011
  15. 15. <ul><li>Exemptions </li></ul><ul><li>where the ACCC has authorised the conduct because the public benefit outweighs any public detriment which would result from the conduct; </li></ul><ul><li>where businesses have formed certain joint ventures; </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct by related corporations, dual listed companies or partnerships; </li></ul><ul><li>Collective bargaining, collective acquisitions, joint advertising; </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-overlap provisions; </li></ul><ul><li>Standard setting; or </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual property. </li></ul>#TuneUp2011
  16. 16. The Joint Ventures Exception The joint venture defence to the cartel provisions is a complex legal area. If you are contemplating a joint venture which may otherwise contravene the cartel provisions, you should seek legal advice. #TuneUp2011
  17. 17. <ul><li>Must be a “genuine” joint venture </li></ul><ul><li>S. 4J CCA requires: </li></ul><ul><li>activity in trade or commerce; </li></ul><ul><li>if unincorporated, carried on jointly by two or more persons: </li></ul><ul><li>if incorporated, carried on by a body corporate formed by two or more persons where the activity is carried on jointly by joint control or by share ownership in the body corporate. </li></ul>#TuneUp2011
  18. 18. <ul><li>Must be a “genuine” joint venture </li></ul><ul><li>Explanatory memorandum: </li></ul><ul><li>requires the parties to demonstrate that the relevant activity is separable from the activities they are individually engaged in and each party’s contribution to that activity </li></ul><ul><li>if the only activity is the activity of making or giving effect to a CAU containing an unlawful provision, then can’t be for the purposes of a JV. </li></ul>#TuneUp2011
  19. 19. <ul><li>Must be a “genuine” joint venture </li></ul><ul><li>requirement that the JV be for the production and/or supply of goods or services. </li></ul>#TuneUp2011
  20. 20. <ul><li>The cartel provision must be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in a contract; or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>if in an arrangement or understanding, intended to be a contract and the parties believed it to be so; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for the purposes of the joint venture </li></ul></ul>#TuneUp2011
  21. 21. JV management committees Careful drafting and legal advice is needed where the JV has a management committee made up of JV members who then make decisions which may be cartel provisions. Is such a cartel provision in the contract or contract proxy? Best that the contract expressly states that such a management committee has decision making power to set prices, for example. (See Supplementary Explanatory Memorandum) #TuneUp2011
  22. 22. Enforcement The ACCC regards fighting the damaging behaviour of cartels—regardless of scale—as a major priority of our enforcement program, both within Australia and as part of a global network of competition agencies detecting and breaking up international cartels. #TuneUp2011
  23. 23. <ul><li>Penalties </li></ul><ul><li>Civil penalties </li></ul><ul><li>For a breach by a corporation of the civil cartel provisions, the court can impose a maximum penalty of one of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$10 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when the value of the illegal benefit to one or more parties can be ascertained, three times the total value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when the value of the illegal benefit cannot be ascertained, 10 per cent of the turnover of the corporate entity (including related corporate bodies) in the preceding 12 months </li></ul></ul>#TuneUp2011
  24. 24. <ul><li>Penalties </li></ul><ul><li>Accessories to a breach </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts to form or give effect to a cartel can have serious consequences for the individuals involved, even if the attempt is unsuccessful. </li></ul><ul><li>Under the CCA the court can penalise those who: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>attempt to engage in cartel conduct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aid, abet, counsel or procure others into engaging in cartel conduct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>induce (or attempt to induce) others into engaging in cartel conduct , whether by threats, promises or otherwise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are party to or are knowingly concerned in cartel conduct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conspire with others to engage in cartel conduct. </li></ul></ul>#TuneUp2011
  25. 25. Penalties In addition, a penalty of up to $500,000 can be imposed on individual company officers where they are knowingly concerned in the conduct. Where proceedings are taken against an individual company officer, the company is prevented from indemnifying the individual for legal costs and any financial penalty. The court may also disqualify directors and officers from managing a company. #TuneUp2011
  26. 26. Penalties Criminal penalties Penalties may include jail sentences of up to 10 years or fines of up to $220,000 for the individuals involved, and other court orders. #TuneUp2011
  27. 27. Civil or Criminal? The ACCC takes the view that serious cartel conduct should be prosecuted criminally whenever possible. We will refer matters involving serious cartel conduct to the CDPP for their assessment and decision. #TuneUp2011
  28. 28. <ul><li>Criminal vs. Civil </li></ul><ul><li>The ACCC will consider factors including whether: </li></ul><ul><li>the conduct was longstanding or had, or could have had, a significant impact on the market in which it occurred </li></ul><ul><li>the conduct caused, or could have caused, significant detriment to the public or a class of the public, or significant loss or damage to one or more customers of the alleged participants </li></ul>#TuneUp2011
  29. 29. <ul><li>one or more of the alleged participants has previously been found by a court to have participated in, or has admitted to participating in, civil or criminal cartel conduct </li></ul><ul><li>the value of the affected commerce exceeded or would have exceeded $1 million within a 12-month period (that is, the combined value for all cartel participants of the specific line of commerce affected by the cartel would exceed $1 million within a 12-month period) </li></ul><ul><li>in the case of bid rigging, the value of the bid or series of bids exceeded $1 million within a 12-month period </li></ul>#TuneUp2011
  30. 30. Criminal vs. Civil Charge negotiation – no negotiation with the ACCC A person will not be permitted to seek to ‘trade off’ a possible criminal prosecution with civil settlement. If the ACCC forms the view that the alleged cartel conduct is serious, the ACCC will refer the matter to the CDPP for consideration. This is not a subject for negotiation. #TuneUp2011
  31. 31. The only way that an investigation will move from criminal to a civil investigation would be if the ACCC/CDPP determined during the course of the investigation that it would not be possible to satisfy both of the CDPP’s criteria – reasonable prospect of prosecution, and it being in the public interest to criminally prosecute. #TuneUp2011
  32. 32. Investigation Powers of the ACCC The ACCC has extensive powers to investigate cartels. Under s. 155 of the TPA, it may compel any person or company to provide information about a suspected breach of the Act, including documents or oral evidence, so long as there is reason to believe they are capable of doing so. #TuneUp2011
  33. 33. Investigative Powers The ACCC may also seek (from a magistrate) and execute search warrants on company offices and the premises of company officers. If the ACCC becomes aware of ongoing cartel conduct that could warrant a criminal prosecution, it may notify the Australian Federal Police, which may in certain circumstances collect evidence using phone taps and other surveillance devices. #TuneUp2011
  34. 34. Immunity for Cartel Participants The ACCC may grant civil immunity. Immunity from criminal prosecution can only be granted by the CDPP (on the recommendation of the ACCC, as outlined in the Memorandum of Understanding between the ACCC and CDPP, and in accordance with the prosecution policy of the Commonwealth). #TuneUp2011
  35. 35. Immunity Only the first person or corporation to bring the matter to the attention of the ACCC may qualify for immunity (those who subsequently cooperate may be offered leniency) The immunity applicant must not have been the clear leader of the cartel or have coerced others to join The applicant must cooperate fully with the ACCC and continue to cooperate, or the immunity may be withdrawn #TuneUp2011
  36. 36. Immunity The applicant must cease the applicant’s involvement in the cartel, or agree to cease such conduct An application for immunity will not be accepted if the ACCC already has written advice that there is sufficient evidence to commence court proceedings #TuneUp2011
  37. 37. Immunity A person or corporation may request a ‘marker’ for a limited period of time. This will, in effect, preserve first place in the queue while the applicant collects information or seeks legal advice. #TuneUp2011
  38. 38. Confidentiality Whistleblowers can report to the ACCC on a confidential basis. Investigators will, as far as possible, keep the identity of whistleblowers confidential. #TuneUp2011
  39. 39. <ul><li>CONCLUSION </li></ul><ul><li>Further information can be obtained from the ACCC: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.accc.gov.au </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publications of particular interest: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cartels: What you need to know, A guide for business </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cartels: Deterrence and detection, A guide for government procurement offices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cartels: Deterrence and detection, A guide for government procurement offices. Purchaser’s checklist </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information centre on 1300 302 502 </li></ul></ul>
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