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  • 1. Lack Direction? Evaluate YourBrains C.E.O.By RICHARD C. SALTUSPublished: August 26, 2003You can be truly smart and still struggle in life if you lack the ability to plan, organizetime and space, initiate projects and see them through to completion, and you cannotresist immediate temptations in favor of later better rewards.When those capacities are damaged or underdeveloped, even people with intelligenceand talent may flounder. They are often misunderstood as being willfully disorganizedor lazy, possessing a bad attitude or, from a parental viewpoint, doing this on purposeto drive me crazy.More and more, however, neuroscientists are saying such puzzling underachievers maysuffer from neurological abnormalities affecting the brains C.E.O. This control center,really an array of executive functions, orchestrates resources like memory, languageand attention to achieve a goal, be it a fraction of a second or five years from now.Executive functions enable you to maintain a mental image of destination, said Dr.Anthony Bashir, a specialist in communications disorders at Emerson College in Boston.A person lacking the functions, another researcher said, behaves in a way that isconsidered future-blind.10 Strategies to Enhance Students MemoryBy Glenda Thorne, Ph.D.The memory demands for school-age children are much greater than they are for adults. Asadults, we have already acquired much of the knowledge and skills we need to function day today. Although the knowledge base for some fields such as technology changes rapidly, the newinformation is generally highly specific and builds on existing knowledge. On the other hand,school children are constantly bombarded with new knowledge in multiple topic areas in whichthey may or may not be interested. Additionally, they are expected to both learn and demonstratethe mastery of this knowledge on a weekly basis. Thus, an effective and efficient memory iscritical for school success.Many students have memory problems. Students who have deficits in registering information inshort-term memory often have difficulty remembering instructions or directions they have justbeen given, what was just said during conversations and class lectures and discussions, and whatthey just read. Students who have difficulty with working memory often forget what they are
  • 2. doing while doing it. For example, they may understand the three-step direction they were justgiven, but forget the second and third steps while carrying out the first step. If they are trying tosolve a math problem that has several steps, they might forget the steps while trying to solve theproblem. When they are reading a paragraph, they may forget what was at the beginning of theparagraph by the time they get to the end of the paragraph. These students will look like theyhave difficulty with reading comprehension. In facts, they do; but the comprehension problem isdue to a failure of the memory system rather than the language system.Students who have deficits in the storage and retrieval of information from long-term memorymay study for tests, but not be able to recall the information they studied when taking the tests.They frequently have difficulty recalling specific factual information such as dates or rules ofgrammar. They have a poor memory of material they earlier in the school year or last year. Theymay also be unable to answer specific questions asked of them in class even when their parentsand/or teachers think they really know the information.The following ten general strategies are offered to help students develop a more efficient andeffective memory.1. Give Directions in Multiple Formats: Students benefit from being given directions in bothvisual and verbal formats. In addition, their understanding and memorizing of instructions couldbe checked by encouraging them to repeat the directions given and explain the meaning of thesedirections. Examples of what needs to be done are also often helpful for enhancing memory ofdirections.2. Teach Students to Over-learn Material: Students should be taught the necessity of "over-learning" new information. Often they practice only until they are able to perform one error-freerepetition of the material. However, several error-free repetitions are needed to solidify theinformation.3. Teach Students to Use Visual Images and Other Memory Strategies: Another memorystrategy that makes use of a cue is one called word substitution. The substitute word system canbe used for information that is hard to visualize, for example, for the word occipital or parietal.These words can be converted into words that sound familiar that can be visualized. The wordoccipital can be converted to exhibit hall (because it sounds like exhibit hall). The student canthen make a visual image of walking into an art museum and seeing a big painting of a brainwith big bulging eyes (occipital is the region of the brain that controls vision). With this system,the vocabulary word the student is trying to remember actually becomes the cue for the visualimage that then cues the definition of the word.4. Give Teacher-Prepared Handouts Prior to Class Lectures: Class lectures and series of oraldirections should be reinforced by teacher-prepared handouts. The handouts for class lecturescould consist of a brief outline or a partially completed graphic organizer that the student wouldcomplete during the lecture. Having this information both enables students to identify the salientinformation that is given during the lectures and to correctly organize the information in theirnotes. Both of these activities enhance memory of the information as well. The use of Post-Its tojot information down on is helpful for remembering directions.
  • 3. 5. Teach Students to Be Active Readers: To enhance short-term memory registration and/orworking memory when reading, students should underline, highlight, or jot key words down inthe margin when reading chapters. They can then go back and read what is underlined,highlighted, or written in the margins. To consolidate this information in long-term memory,they can make outlines or use graphic organizers. Research has shown that the use of graphicorganizers increases academic achievement for all students.6. Write Down Steps in Math Problems: Students who have a weakness in working memoryshould not rely on mental computations when solving math problems. For example, if they areperforming long division problems, they should write down every step including carryingnumbers. When solving word problems, they should always have a scratch piece of paper handyand write down the steps in their calculations. This will help prevent them from losing their placeand forgetting what they are doing.7. Provide Retrieval Practice for Students: Research has shown that long-term memory isenhanced when students engage in retrieval practice. Taking a test is a retrieval practice, i.e., theact of recalling information that has been studied from long-term memory. Thus, it can be veryhelpful for students to take practice tests. When teachers are reviewing information prior to testsand exams, they could ask the students questions or have the students make up questions foreveryone to answer rather than just retelling students the to-be-learned information. Also, ifstudents are required or encouraged to make up their own tests and take them, it will give theirparents and/or teachers information about whether they know the most important information orare instead focused on details that are less important.8. Help Students Develop Cues When Storing Information: According to the memoryresearch, information is easier retrieved when it is stored using a cue and that cue should bepresent at the time the information is being retrieved. For example, the acronym HOMES can beused to represent the names of the Great Lakes – Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie and Superior.The acronym is a cue that is used when the information is being learned, and recalling the cuewhen taking a test will help the student recall the information.9. Prime the Memory Prior to Teaching/Learning: Cues that prepare students for the task tobe presented are helpful. This is often referred to as priming the memory. For instance, when areading comprehension task is given, students will get an idea of what is expected by discussingthe vocabulary and the overall topic beforehand. This will allow them to focus on the salientinformation and engage in more effective depth of processing. Advance organizers also servethis purpose. For older students, Clif Notes for pieces of literature are often helpful aids forpriming the memory.10. Review Material Before Going to Sleep: It should be helpful for students to review materialright before going to sleep at night. Research has shown that information studied this way isbetter remembered. Any other task that is performed after reviewing and prior to sleeping (suchas getting a snack, brushing teeth, listening to music) interferes with consolidation of informationin memory.
  • 4. The following are strategies teachers can employ to assist children struggling with long and short-term memory retention:Mnemonics – Is a learning strategy where students associate familiar words, rhyming wordsor phrases, or songs with terms they’re struggling to remember. Listed below are common mnemonic devices: The ABC song popular among young children learning to read •  before E except after C FANBOYS to remember the 7 coordinating conjunctions: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, soRote Practice Exercises – Repetition is one of the best ways to learn and retain newinformation, so teachers should constantly review concepts with students struggling withmemory loss problems. Teachers can create drills students can complete on their own, orconduct drills with the entire class. Whatever strategies teachers employ, if they repetitivelyreview curriculum in their classrooms, students will retain more information.Hands-on learning – After students become familiar with a concept, they can further theirknowledge through hands-on learning. For example, students can learn about an insect andthen conduct a dissection to study its anatomy. Students can also learn about a historicalevent that occurred in their community and then tour a historical site associated with it.