Group MembersDr. Prakati MathurPriti JainRashmi MehtaDr. Ravi MaggoDr. Saloni KapadiaVyoma Rankawat
OVERVIEWWho is an adolescent?CharacteristicsWhy should we focus on adolescence?ChangesFactsValley of our classPrograms for adolescenceStrategiesConclusion
WHO IS AN ADOLESCENT ? The term adolescence is derived from the Latin word “adolescere” meaning to grow and mature. It is characterized by rapid physical, biological and hormonal changes resulting in to psychological, behavioral and sexual maturation Age group 10-19 years
There are about 1.2 billion adolescents worldwide, 22.8%adolescents all over India. Proportion of adolescents in Total Population of India Adolescent Rest of the population Adolescent 22.8% Rest of the population 77.2%
Distribution of population by ageand sex in INDIA in 2004
ADOLESCENCE Transition Childhood Adulthood Experience of adolescents would vary according to :• Cultural values• Social values
STAGES OF ADOLESCENCEEARLY ADOLESCENCE (10-14)MIDDLE ADOLESCENCE (14-16)LATE ADOLESECENCE (16-19)
CHARACTERISTICS A - Aggressive, Anaemic, Abortion D - Dynamic, Developing, Depressed O - Overconfident, Overindulging, Obese L - Loud but lonely and lacking information E - Enthusiastic, Explorations, Experimenting
CHARACTERISTICSS - Social, Sexual and SpiritualC - Courageous, Cheerful, and ConcernE - Emotional, Eager, EmulatingN - NervousT - Temperamental, Teenage Pregnancy
Why should we focus on adolescence? Constitute 22.8% of the total population . Future of the country . Habits picked up during adolescence have life-long impact . Adolescence is a learning phase and important for a person’s career .
Focus on adolescence contd….. Adolescence sexuality leads to : Pregnancy unsafe abortion STI/HIV Lack of "connectedness" with parents
PHYSICAL CHANGESEARLY (10-14) MIDDLE(14-16) LATE ( 16 - 19)•Pubertal •Puberty - •Young women – changes completed fully developed•Tremendo •Physical •Young men us physical growth continue to growth slows for gain•Greater girls, conti height, weight, sexual nues for muscle mass interest boys
Behavioral changesInteraction with outside worldThinkIndependenceRenegotiate family rules and degree of supervisionIntrovert/ ExtrovertGreat StressHigh Risk Behavior
1. Cognitive changes Identity Moral thinking Future Experiences Goals
2. Socio-emotional changes Tendency to return to “childish” behavior Privacy Emotional stability Friends and popularity Moodiness
Suicides Suicides among adolescents is on the rise Causeso family conflictso domestic violenceo academic failureso unfulfilled romanceo mental illness
Suicides: Signs and Symptoms Sleepless nights Food Extremely talkative or silent Friends or relatives Speak philosophically
Suicides: Signs and Symptoms Lack of interest Lack of concentration Secretive storage of pills. Lack of self-confidence Life is waste.
Prevention and precautionssuicides professional advice Parents’ behavior Should be encouraged
Facts of adolescent health The state of adolescent health Early pregnancy and childbirth Malnutrition Unintentional Injuries Mental health Juvenile delinquency HIV and adolescent Drug abuse and violence Tobacco use Consumption of alcohol
The State of Adolescent HealthOne in every five people inthe world is an adolescent2/3 rd : premature deaths1/3 rd : total disease burdenare associated withconditions or behavioursthat began duringadolescence
Early pregnancy and childbirth 16 million girls deliver 11% of total births Majority from developing countries Increased risk of maternal mortality/ morbidity Increased child mortality/ morbidity
Malnutrition Undernourished adolescent more vulnerable to diseases and early deaths. Obesity and overweight forms a foundation for lifestyle diseases.
A Snapshot of Nutritional StatusDuring Adolescence in India50% adult weight, 20% adult height and 50% adult skeletal massacquired during adolescence.In India 37.2% boys and 41% girls have stunted growth.60% adolescent girls suffer from anaemia. (NFHS 3)Anaemic adolescent mothers are at high risk ofmiscarriage, maternal mortality, still birth and low birth weightbabies. (Bhat and Kumara 1996)
Unintentional Injuries• Road traffic injuries, drowning and burns are the most common types of injuries causing death and disability in adolescents.• Injury rates among adolescents are highest in developing countries mostly in adolescents from poorer families
Juvenile delinquencyAn act of crime conducted by a juvenile.Juvenile justice act 1986, amended in 2000both male and female juveniles below age 18. CAUSESFamily relationshipNeighborhood conditionsSocioeconomic conditionsEducationLack of recreational activities
Some facts 34527 -2007(32671 M+1856 F). Out of these, 7926 illiterate 12659 had education up to primary level (both 59.6%) 32173 (93.2%) Children living with parents and guardians Homeless –(6.8%) 68.4%-poor families 9.8%-middle income families (0.3%+0.4%)-> upper middle +upper income. (source:NCRB)
A Snapshot of ReproductiveHealth During Adolescence inIndia 20-30% adolescent boys are sexually active 10% adolescent girls are sexually active 59% adolescents know about condoms 49% know about contraceptives Source – NFHS 3 (2005-06)
A Snapshot of Reproductive Health During Adolescence in IndiaNFHS-3 shows that 27% young women and 3% young men in theage group of 15-19 year were married at the time of the survey(2005-06)30% women in the age group of 15-19 years have had a live birth bythe age of 19 years(Source: NFHS 3)7% married and 9% unmarried girls reported current use of moderncontraceptive methods (Source: NFHS 3)1-4.4 million adolescent abortions reported in India in the year2005-06 (Source: WHO )
HIV and Adolescence 45% of new HIVinfections occursin adolescentsworldwide
HIV and Adolescence Contributing Factors- Lack of Information on safer sex Gender discrimination/lack of decision making power Lack of access to methods of protection Sexual abuse, violence and exploitation Poverty (leads to trans-sactional or intergenerational sex Multiple sexual partners
HIV and Adolescents in India Adolescents account for 31% of AIDS burden in the country (Source:NACO, 2007) 50% of all new HIV infections occur in adolescents.(Source: NACO, 2007)
Drug Abuse and Violence AgainstAdolescents Largest proportion of estimated 3 million drug abusers and 0.6 million drug dependents in India are in the age group 16 -35 (Source: UNODC and Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, 2004) Extreme poverty, low status of women and lack of law enforcement has led to an increase in sex work. Human trafficking and clandestine movement of young girls has also increased within the country and across international borders.
Tobacco Use Majority tobacco users began during adolescence Nicotine is the most addictive substance Impact on personal health Due to: Peer pressure Stress Media Adventure Depression
Tobacco Use Among Adolescentsin India Prevalence of Tobacco Use 20.00% 18.00% 16.00% 14.00% 12.00% 10.00% Prevalence of 8.00% Tobacco Use 6.00% 4.00% 2.00% Source: Global 0.00% youth tobacco Survey Boys Girls Total
Consumption of Alcohol Reduces self-control Highly Addictive Social impact Increases risky behaviours: Domestic violence Theft and Loot Rape Road traffic accidents Breaking laws Premature deaths
Alcohol Use Among Adolescents In India % Females Consuming % Males Consuming Alcohol Alcohol3.50% 35.00%3.00% 30.00%2.50% 25.00%2.00% 20.00% % Females 15.00% % Males1.50% Consuming Consuming 10.00%1.00% Alcohol Alcohol0.50% 5.00%0.00% 0.00% Source: NFHS-3
SMOKING18 % started smoking during adolescenceReasons / Observations: maximum were males most of them started it just for adventure stress, peer pressure, movies were another reasons
Alcohol consumption17 % started drinkingmaximum were malesmost of them did it just forthe thrill of itpeer pressure was anothersignificant factormost of the smokers weredrinkers too
67% had a crush or relationship And 35 % had some form of stress due to the same reason 42% knew some one personally with teenage pregnancy And 25% knew someone who had aborted due to teen age pregnancy 78 % had conflicts with their parents career choice was the major reasonother reasons were : relationships family matters
17% of girls experienced gender bias from there family Whereas 15% of total experienced neglect from their family 37% did something due to peer pressure 36% suffered from major health ailments Major reasons Infections Anemia among girls Hypertension and obesity Menstrual disorders Asthma ,gastritis many others were mentioned
56% had some form of accidents(carelessness was the major reason followed by rash driving) 20% broke some traffic rule 15% consulted psychologist due to depression or stress 35% experienced personality changes 25% claimed that they had come across some form of adolescent sexual abuse.
Programmes for Adolescents Kishori Shakti Yojana - To Improve health and nutritional status of girls Balika Samridhi Yojana - To delay the age of marrige Nehru Yuva Kendra - Act as the Awareness Unit - Through active participation of youth
Programmes for Adolescents Mahila Samakhya Programme - Equal access to educational facilities for adolescent girls and young women School AIDS education University Talks AIDS Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment Reproductive and Child Health Programme
Strategies for promotion ofadolescent health A = Adoption Of Healthy Life style D= Develop Appropriate Strategy Discourage Early Marriage Teenage Pregnancy O= Organize Adolecent/ Youth Friendly Clinic L= Life Skill Training, Legal Support, Liaision With Peers , Parents E= Educate About Sexuality, Safe Sex, Spirituality, Responsible Parenthood
Strategies Contd……S= Safe, Secure And Supportive Environment To Be ProvidedC= Counselling / Curriculm In School Inclusive Of FamilyLife EducationE= Enable & Empower For Responsible CitizenshipN= Networking For Experience SharingT= Training For Income Generation, Teen Clubs
Parent’s role in improvingadolescence health Parents’ roles are organized into five dimensions : connection – love behavior control – limit respect for individuality – respect modeling of appropriate behavior – model provision and protection – provide.
CONCLUSION Adolescent period - hazardous - adolescent health proper guidance and counseling required Family plays crucial role in shaping the adolescents behaviorENSURE safe secure supportive environment for the adolescents
CONCLUSION CONTD….. Information and education to family members Inculcate positive and encouraging attitude Training programs