How green was my valley


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How green was my valley

  1. 1. How green was my valley?? Group-2
  2. 2. Group MembersDr. Prakati MathurPriti JainRashmi MehtaDr. Ravi MaggoDr. Saloni KapadiaVyoma Rankawat
  3. 3. OVERVIEWWho is an adolescent?CharacteristicsWhy should we focus on adolescence?ChangesFactsValley of our classPrograms for adolescenceStrategiesConclusion
  4. 4. WHO IS AN ADOLESCENT ? The term adolescence is derived from the Latin word “adolescere” meaning to grow and mature. It is characterized by rapid physical, biological and hormonal changes resulting in to psychological, behavioral and sexual maturation Age group 10-19 years
  5. 5. There are about 1.2 billion adolescents worldwide, 22.8%adolescents all over India. Proportion of adolescents in Total Population of India Adolescent Rest of the population Adolescent 22.8% Rest of the population 77.2%
  6. 6. Distribution of population by ageand sex in INDIA in 2004
  7. 7. ADOLESCENCE Transition Childhood Adulthood Experience of adolescents would vary according to :• Cultural values• Social values
  9. 9. CHARACTERISTICS A - Aggressive, Anaemic, Abortion D - Dynamic, Developing, Depressed O - Overconfident, Overindulging, Obese L - Loud but lonely and lacking information E - Enthusiastic, Explorations, Experimenting
  10. 10. CHARACTERISTICSS - Social, Sexual and SpiritualC - Courageous, Cheerful, and ConcernE - Emotional, Eager, EmulatingN - NervousT - Temperamental, Teenage Pregnancy
  11. 11. Why should we focus on adolescence? Constitute 22.8% of the total population . Future of the country . Habits picked up during adolescence have life-long impact . Adolescence is a learning phase and important for a person’s career .
  12. 12. Focus on adolescence contd….. Adolescence sexuality leads to :  Pregnancy  unsafe abortion  STI/HIV Lack of "connectedness" with parents
  13. 13. CHANGES DURING ADOLESCENT  Physical Changes Behavioral Changes  Psychological Changes
  14. 14. PHYSICAL CHANGESEARLY (10-14) MIDDLE(14-16) LATE ( 16 - 19)•Pubertal •Puberty - •Young women – changes completed fully developed•Tremendo •Physical •Young men us physical growth continue to growth slows for gain•Greater girls, conti height, weight, sexual nues for muscle mass interest boys
  15. 15. Behavioral changesInteraction with outside worldThinkIndependenceRenegotiate family rules and degree of supervisionIntrovert/ ExtrovertGreat StressHigh Risk Behavior
  16. 16. Psychological changes
  17. 17. cognitive Psychological Changesattitudinal emotional
  18. 18. 1. Cognitive changes Identity Moral thinking Future Experiences Goals
  19. 19. 2. Socio-emotional changes Tendency to return to “childish” behavior Privacy Emotional stability Friends and popularity Moodiness
  20. 20. Suicides Suicides among adolescents is on the rise Causeso family conflictso domestic violenceo academic failureso unfulfilled romanceo mental illness
  21. 21. Suicides: Signs and Symptoms  Sleepless nights  Food  Extremely talkative or silent  Friends or relatives  Speak philosophically
  22. 22. Suicides: Signs and Symptoms  Lack of interest  Lack of concentration  Secretive storage of pills.  Lack of self-confidence  Life is waste.
  23. 23. Prevention and precautionssuicides professional advice Parents’ behavior Should be encouraged
  24. 24. Facts of adolescent health  The state of adolescent health  Early pregnancy and childbirth  Malnutrition  Unintentional Injuries  Mental health  Juvenile delinquency  HIV and adolescent  Drug abuse and violence  Tobacco use  Consumption of alcohol
  25. 25. The State of Adolescent HealthOne in every five people inthe world is an adolescent2/3 rd : premature deaths1/3 rd : total disease burdenare associated withconditions or behavioursthat began duringadolescence
  26. 26. Early pregnancy and childbirth 16 million girls deliver 11% of total births Majority from developing countries Increased risk of maternal mortality/ morbidity Increased child mortality/ morbidity
  27. 27. Malnutrition Undernourished adolescent more vulnerable to diseases and early deaths. Obesity and overweight forms a foundation for lifestyle diseases.
  28. 28. A Snapshot of Nutritional StatusDuring Adolescence in India50% adult weight, 20% adult height and 50% adult skeletal massacquired during adolescence.In India 37.2% boys and 41% girls have stunted growth.60% adolescent girls suffer from anaemia. (NFHS 3)Anaemic adolescent mothers are at high risk ofmiscarriage, maternal mortality, still birth and low birth weightbabies. (Bhat and Kumara 1996)
  29. 29. Unintentional Injuries• Road traffic injuries, drowning and burns are the most common types of injuries causing death and disability in adolescents.• Injury rates among adolescents are highest in developing countries mostly in adolescents from poorer families
  30. 30. Mental Health 20% adolescents worldwide experience mental illness like: Depression Mood disturbances Substance abuse Suicidal behaviours Eating disorders Family conflicts
  31. 31. Juvenile delinquencyAn act of crime conducted by a juvenile.Juvenile justice act 1986, amended in 2000both male and female juveniles below age 18. CAUSESFamily relationshipNeighborhood conditionsSocioeconomic conditionsEducationLack of recreational activities
  32. 32. Some facts 34527 -2007(32671 M+1856 F). Out of these, 7926 illiterate 12659 had education up to primary level (both 59.6%) 32173 (93.2%) Children living with parents and guardians Homeless –(6.8%) 68.4%-poor families 9.8%-middle income families (0.3%+0.4%)-> upper middle +upper income. (source:NCRB)
  33. 33. NCRB
  34. 34. A Snapshot of ReproductiveHealth During Adolescence inIndia 20-30% adolescent boys are sexually active 10% adolescent girls are sexually active 59% adolescents know about condoms 49% know about contraceptives Source – NFHS 3 (2005-06)
  35. 35. A Snapshot of Reproductive Health During Adolescence in IndiaNFHS-3 shows that 27% young women and 3% young men in theage group of 15-19 year were married at the time of the survey(2005-06)30% women in the age group of 15-19 years have had a live birth bythe age of 19 years(Source: NFHS 3)7% married and 9% unmarried girls reported current use of moderncontraceptive methods (Source: NFHS 3)1-4.4 million adolescent abortions reported in India in the year2005-06 (Source: WHO )
  36. 36. HIV and Adolescence 45% of new HIVinfections occursin adolescentsworldwide
  37. 37. HIV and Adolescence Contributing Factors- Lack of Information on safer sex Gender discrimination/lack of decision making power Lack of access to methods of protection Sexual abuse, violence and exploitation Poverty (leads to trans-sactional or intergenerational sex Multiple sexual partners
  38. 38. HIV and Adolescents in India Adolescents account for 31% of AIDS burden in the country (Source:NACO, 2007) 50% of all new HIV infections occur in adolescents.(Source: NACO, 2007)
  39. 39. Drug Abuse and Violence AgainstAdolescents Largest proportion of estimated 3 million drug abusers and 0.6 million drug dependents in India are in the age group 16 -35 (Source: UNODC and Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, 2004) Extreme poverty, low status of women and lack of law enforcement has led to an increase in sex work. Human trafficking and clandestine movement of young girls has also increased within the country and across international borders.
  40. 40. Tobacco Use Majority tobacco users began during adolescence Nicotine is the most addictive substance Impact on personal health Due to:  Peer pressure  Stress  Media  Adventure  Depression
  41. 41. Tobacco Use Among Adolescentsin India Prevalence of Tobacco Use 20.00% 18.00% 16.00% 14.00% 12.00% 10.00% Prevalence of 8.00% Tobacco Use 6.00% 4.00% 2.00% Source: Global 0.00% youth tobacco Survey Boys Girls Total
  42. 42. Consumption of Alcohol Reduces self-control Highly Addictive Social impact Increases risky behaviours: Domestic violence Theft and Loot Rape Road traffic accidents Breaking laws Premature deaths
  43. 43. Alcohol Use Among Adolescents In India % Females Consuming % Males Consuming Alcohol Alcohol3.50% 35.00%3.00% 30.00%2.50% 25.00%2.00% 20.00% % Females 15.00% % Males1.50% Consuming Consuming 10.00%1.00% Alcohol Alcohol0.50% 5.00%0.00% 0.00% Source: NFHS-3
  44. 44. Valley of our class
  45. 45. SMOKING18 % started smoking during adolescenceReasons / Observations: maximum were males most of them started it just for adventure stress, peer pressure, movies were another reasons
  46. 46. Alcohol consumption17 % started drinkingmaximum were malesmost of them did it just forthe thrill of itpeer pressure was anothersignificant factormost of the smokers weredrinkers too
  47. 47. 67% had a crush or relationship And 35 % had some form of stress due to the same reason 42% knew some one personally with teenage pregnancy And 25% knew someone who had aborted due to teen age pregnancy 78 % had conflicts with their parents career choice was the major reasonother reasons were : relationships family matters
  48. 48. 17% of girls experienced gender bias from there family Whereas 15% of total experienced neglect from their family 37% did something due to peer pressure 36% suffered from major health ailments Major reasons Infections Anemia among girls Hypertension and obesity Menstrual disorders Asthma ,gastritis many others were mentioned
  49. 49. 56% had some form of accidents(carelessness was the major reason followed by rash driving) 20% broke some traffic rule 15% consulted psychologist due to depression or stress 35% experienced personality changes 25% claimed that they had come across some form of adolescent sexual abuse.
  50. 50. Programmes for Adolescents Kishori Shakti Yojana - To Improve health and nutritional status of girls Balika Samridhi Yojana - To delay the age of marrige Nehru Yuva Kendra - Act as the Awareness Unit - Through active participation of youth
  51. 51. Programmes for Adolescents Mahila Samakhya Programme - Equal access to educational facilities for adolescent girls and young women School AIDS education University Talks AIDS Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment Reproductive and Child Health Programme
  52. 52. Strategies for promotion ofadolescent health A = Adoption Of Healthy Life style D= Develop Appropriate Strategy Discourage Early Marriage Teenage Pregnancy O= Organize Adolecent/ Youth Friendly Clinic L= Life Skill Training, Legal Support, Liaision With Peers , Parents E= Educate About Sexuality, Safe Sex, Spirituality, Responsible Parenthood
  53. 53. Strategies Contd……S= Safe, Secure And Supportive Environment To Be ProvidedC= Counselling / Curriculm In School Inclusive Of FamilyLife EducationE= Enable & Empower For Responsible CitizenshipN= Networking For Experience SharingT= Training For Income Generation, Teen Clubs
  54. 54. Parent’s role in improvingadolescence health Parents’ roles are organized into five dimensions : connection – love behavior control – limit respect for individuality – respect modeling of appropriate behavior – model provision and protection – provide.
  55. 55. CONCLUSION Adolescent period - hazardous - adolescent health proper guidance and counseling required Family plays crucial role in shaping the adolescents behaviorENSURE safe secure supportive environment for the adolescents
  56. 56. CONCLUSION CONTD….. Information and education to family members Inculcate positive and encouraging attitude Training programs
  57. 57. Questions