HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF :	<br />SUBMITTED BY:<br />NEERAJ MEHTA<br />                                      NEETU MEHRA<br...
HISTORICALBACKGROUND<br />                                  PART I  -THOUSAND YEARS AGO <br /><ul><li>  ORGANIZED ENDEAVOR...
   THE EGYPTIAN PYRAMIDS AND THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA</li></ul>                                         PART 2  - IN EARLY ...
  FOR INSTANCE – AT THE ARSENAL OF VENICE, WARSHIPS WERE FLOATED</li></ul>   ALONG THE CANAL .                            ...
INDUSTRIAL  REVOLUTION -  GUIDED THE REQUIREMENT OF MANAGERIAL
SKILLS.  </li></li></ul><li>
SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT PRESENT ERA<br />FORMER  ERA CHALLENGES<br />MODERN SOLUTIONS<br />WORKER INSUFFICIENCY<br />TAKE IT...
DIVISION OF WORK<br />AUTHORITY<br />ESPRIT DE CORPS<br />DICIPLINE<br />INITIATIVE<br />FAYOL’S PRINCIPLE OF MANAGEMENT<b...
SIMPLE-ROUTINE-WELL DEFINED TASKS<br />POSITION ORGANIZED-CLEAR CHAIN OF COMMANDS<br />MANAGERS NOT OWNERS<br />DIVISION O...
QUANTITATIVE  APPROACH  TO  MANAGEMENT  (OPERATIONS RESEARCH / MANAGEMENT  SCIENCE )<br /><ul><li>EVOLUTION – Quantitative...
Techniques used to solve military problems were applied to business.
Robert McNamara and Charles  “Tex” Thornton used statistical and quantitative models.
 It involves in improvement in decision making.</li></li></ul><li>APPLICATION OF THE QUANTITATIVE MODEL<br />STATISTICS<br...
ORGANIZATIONALBEHAVIOR<br /><ul><li>The field of study concerned with the behavior of people at work is called asorganizat...
Behavioral problems are more widespread and visible.
Easy to relate to real, day to day people problem than to more abstract of constructing quantitative  models.</li></ul>OUT...
Contemporary views on :</li></ul>                                  a)  Motivation<br />                                   ...
<ul><li> deplorable working conditions.
 idealistic workplace
 smart investment.
Created field of industrial psychology – Scientific study of people at work.
Suggested using psychological tests for employee selection, learning theory concepts for employee training, and study of h...
communicate and simulate employees high levels of effort.
 Organizations were open systems.
 Organizations could be viewed from perspective of individual and group behavior.
Proposed more people – oriented ideas than scientific management followers.
Thought organizastions should be based on group ethic.`</li></li></ul><li>THE  HAWTHORNE STUDIES<br /><ul><li>AIM – To exa...
METHOD – It encompass numerous experiments in the  redesign of jobs  and includes changes in --</li></ul>          a )work...
USE OF THE BEHAVIORAL APPROACH  IN ORGANIZATIONS –</li></ul>                                               #  designing mo...
The systems approach<br />Definition: <br />System is a set of interrelatedand interdependent parts arranged in a manner t...
Open</li></li></ul><li>Organisation as an open system<br />        ENVIRONMENT<br />FEEDBACK<br />      ENVIRONMENT<br />
 The systems approach and managers<br /><ul><li>An organization is made up of “interdependent factor, including individual...
Managers coordinate the work activities of various  parts of organization and ensure all parts are working together so tha...
It implies that decisions and action taken in one organizational area will affect others and vice versa.
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Chapter 2 historical background of management

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Chapter 2 historical background of management

  1. 1. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF : <br />SUBMITTED BY:<br />NEERAJ MEHTA<br /> NEETU MEHRA<br /> NEHA ARORA<br /> NEHA ASIJA <br /> NEHA BHALLA<br />NEHA GUPTA <br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3. HISTORICALBACKGROUND<br /> PART I -THOUSAND YEARS AGO <br /><ul><li> ORGANIZED ENDEAVORS HAVE EXISTED FOR THOUSAND OF YEARS
  4. 4. THE EGYPTIAN PYRAMIDS AND THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA</li></ul> PART 2 - IN EARLY 1400s<br /><ul><li> VENETIANS DEVELOPED AN EARLY FORM OF BUSINESS ENTERPRISE .
  5. 5. FOR INSTANCE – AT THE ARSENAL OF VENICE, WARSHIPS WERE FLOATED</li></ul> ALONG THE CANAL . <br /> PART 3 - PRE- TWENTIETH CENTURY EVENTS <br /><ul><li>ADAM SMITH – PROPOSED DIVISION OF LABOUR .
  6. 6. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - GUIDED THE REQUIREMENT OF MANAGERIAL
  7. 7. SKILLS. </li></li></ul><li>
  8. 8. SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT PRESENT ERA<br />FORMER ERA CHALLENGES<br />MODERN SOLUTIONS<br />WORKER INSUFFICIENCY<br />TAKE IT EASY <br />NO WORK STANDARDS<br />NO MATCHING ABILITY/APTITUDE<br />TIME-MOTION STUDY<br />DESIGN INCENTIVE SYSTEM<br />ANALYZE BASIC WORK TASK<br />HIRE BEST QUALIFIED WORKER<br />
  9. 9. DIVISION OF WORK<br />AUTHORITY<br />ESPRIT DE CORPS<br />DICIPLINE<br />INITIATIVE<br />FAYOL’S PRINCIPLE OF MANAGEMENT<br />UNITY OF COMMAND<br />STABILITY<br />UNITY OF DIRECTION<br />EQUITY<br />INDIVIDUAL-GENERAL INTEREST<br />ORDER<br />REMUNERATION<br />SCALAR CHAIN<br />CENTRALIZATION<br />
  10. 10. SIMPLE-ROUTINE-WELL DEFINED TASKS<br />POSITION ORGANIZED-CLEAR CHAIN OF COMMANDS<br />MANAGERS NOT OWNERS<br />DIVISION OF LABOUR<br />AUTHORITY HIERARCHY<br />CAREER ORIENTATION<br />WEBER’S BUREAUCRACY<br />FORMAL SELECTION<br />IMPERSONALITY<br />FORMAL RULES AND REGULATIONS<br />SELECTION ON TECHNICAL QUALIFICATION<br />UNIFORM APPLICATIONS<br />WRITTEN RULES-STANDARD OP PROCEDURES<br />
  11. 11. QUANTITATIVE APPROACH TO MANAGEMENT (OPERATIONS RESEARCH / MANAGEMENT SCIENCE )<br /><ul><li>EVOLUTION – Quantitative approach developed out of mathematical and statistical solutions to military problems during world war II.
  12. 12. Techniques used to solve military problems were applied to business.
  13. 13. Robert McNamara and Charles “Tex” Thornton used statistical and quantitative models.
  14. 14. It involves in improvement in decision making.</li></li></ul><li>APPLICATION OF THE QUANTITATIVE MODEL<br />STATISTICS<br />INFORMATION MODELS<br />OPTIMIZATION MODELS<br />COMPUTER SIMULATIONS<br />MANAGEMENTOFACTIVITIES<br />
  15. 15. ORGANIZATIONALBEHAVIOR<br /><ul><li>The field of study concerned with the behavior of people at work is called asorganizationalbehavior(OB).
  16. 16. Behavioral problems are more widespread and visible.
  17. 17. Easy to relate to real, day to day people problem than to more abstract of constructing quantitative models.</li></ul>OUTCOME<br /><ul><li>Human resource management
  18. 18. Contemporary views on :</li></ul> a) Motivation<br /> b)leadership<br /> c) trust<br /> d) teamwork<br /> e) conflict management <br />
  19. 19. <ul><li> deplorable working conditions.
  20. 20. idealistic workplace
  21. 21. smart investment.
  22. 22. Created field of industrial psychology – Scientific study of people at work.
  23. 23. Suggested using psychological tests for employee selection, learning theory concepts for employee training, and study of human behaviour for employee motivation.</li></ul>Robert Owen Late 1700s<br />Early advocates of OB<br />Chester Bernard 1930s<br />Mary Parker Follett<br />Early 1900s <br />Hugo Munsterberg<br />Early 1900s<br /><ul><li> Cooperation.
  24. 24. communicate and simulate employees high levels of effort.
  25. 25. Organizations were open systems.
  26. 26. Organizations could be viewed from perspective of individual and group behavior.
  27. 27. Proposed more people – oriented ideas than scientific management followers.
  28. 28. Thought organizastions should be based on group ethic.`</li></li></ul><li>THE HAWTHORNE STUDIES<br /><ul><li>AIM – To examine the effect of various illuminations levels on worker productivity.
  29. 29. METHOD – It encompass numerous experiments in the redesign of jobs and includes changes in --</li></ul> a )workday<br /> b) workweek length<br /> c) introduction of rest periods<br /> d) individual versus group wage plans <br /><ul><li>CONCLUSION -- Social norms or groups standards were the key determinants of individual work behavior. Organization is more than a formal arrangement of functions but is also a social system.
  30. 30. USE OF THE BEHAVIORAL APPROACH IN ORGANIZATIONS –</li></ul> # designing motivating jobs<br /> # teamwork<br /> # open communication<br />
  31. 31. The systems approach<br />Definition: <br />System is a set of interrelatedand interdependent parts arranged in a manner that produces a unified whole.<br />Two types:<br /><ul><li>Closed
  32. 32. Open</li></li></ul><li>Organisation as an open system<br /> ENVIRONMENT<br />FEEDBACK<br /> ENVIRONMENT<br />
  33. 33. The systems approach and managers<br /><ul><li>An organization is made up of “interdependent factor, including individuals, groups, attitudes, motives, formal structures, interactions, goals, status and authority.
  34. 34. Managers coordinate the work activities of various parts of organization and ensure all parts are working together so that goals are achieved.
  35. 35. It implies that decisions and action taken in one organizational area will affect others and vice versa.
  36. 36. It recognizes that organisations are not self contained.
  37. 37. They rely on their environments for essential inputs and as sources to absorb their outputs.</li></li></ul><li>The Contingency Approach<br /><ul><li>Sometimes called situational approach.
  38. 38. Organisations are different, face different situations(contingencies), and require different ways of managing.
  39. 39. But surprisingly some management rules are universally applicable that would work in all situations.</li></li></ul><li>Popular Contingency Variables<br /><ul><li>Organization size: </li></ul> As size increases, so do the problems of coordination.<br /><ul><li>Routineness of task technology:</li></ul> It requires organizational structures, leadership style and control systems that differ from customized technology.<br /><ul><li>Environmental uncertainty:</li></ul> Environmental changes influence the management process, it being rapidly changing and unpredictable.<br /><ul><li>Individual differences:</li></ul> Each one is different in terms of their desire for growth, autonomy, tolerance of ambiguity and expectation and accordingly managers select motivation techniques style and designs<br />
  40. 40. Current Trends and Issues<br /><ul><li> Globalization
  41. 41. Ethics
  42. 42. Workforce diversity
  43. 43. Entrepreneurship
  44. 44. Managing in an E – Business World
  45. 45. Knowledge Management and Learning Organizations
  46. 46. Quality Management</li></li></ul><li>Globalization<br /><ul><li>Working with people from different Cultures
  47. 47. Coping with Anticapitalist Backlash
  48. 48. Movement of jobs to countries with Low – cost Labor</li></li></ul><li>Ethics<br />Process of addressing ethical delimas<br />Step 1: What is the ethical dilemma?<br />Step 2: Who are the affected stakeholders?<br />Step 3: What personal, organizational, and external factors are important to my decision?<br />Step 4: What are possible alternatives?<br />Step 5: Make a decision and act on it.<br />
  49. 49. Workforce Diversity<br />A workforce that’s heterogeneous in terms of gender, race, ethnicity, age, and other characteristics that reflect differences<br /><ul><li>Broad range of view points
  50. 50. Problem solving skills
  51. 51. Better understanding of diverse customer base</li></li></ul><li>Enterpreunership <br />It is the process of starting new businesses, generally in response to opportunities.<br />Pursuit of opportunities<br />Innovation <br />Growth <br />
  52. 52. Managing in an E-Business World<br /> E-Business<br /> The way the organization does work by using electronic(Internet based)linkages with its key constituents to efficiently & effectively achieve the goals including the e-commerce.<br />
  53. 53. Categories of e-business involvement<br />
  54. 54. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT<br />Cultivating a learning culture where organizational members systematically gather knowledge & share it with others in the organization to achieve better performance.<br />
  55. 55. Learning Organizations<br />Organizations must be dynamic & learning i.e continuously learn, adapt & change.<br />Create learning capabilities throughout the organization.<br />Manage the base of knowledge for good decision making.<br />
  56. 56. Learning Organization v/s Traditional organization<br />
  57. 57. Quality Management<br />A philosophy of management driven by continual improvement & responding to customer needs & expectations.<br />Committed to continuous improvement in work processes.<br />Departure from earlier management theories.<br />TQM started during 1980’s & 1990’s<br />Inspired by W.Edwards & Joseph M.Juranmin 1950’<br />
  58. 58. Cont..<br />Customer focused<br />Process focused<br />Accurate Measurements<br />Empowerment of employees <br />
  59. 59. Summary<br />Historical Background<br />Early management examples<br />Adam Smith<br />Industrial Revolution<br /> Major Management Theories<br />Scientific management(Taylor’s principles, Frank, use in today’s management)<br />General Administrative theories (Fayol’s principles, Max Weber)<br />Quantitative approach(Robert McNamera,Charles Thornton)<br />
  60. 60. Cont…<br />Organizational Behavior (Early Advocates, Hawthorne studies)<br />Systems Approach<br />Contingency Approach<br />Current Trends & Issues<br />Globalization<br />Ethics<br />Workforce Diversity<br />Entrepreneurship<br />E-business <br />Knowledge & learning Organizations<br />Quality Management<br />
  61. 61. Questions<br />Discuss the development of major management theories.<br />Write short notes on:-<br />Globalization <br />Quality management<br />A philosophy of management that is driven by continual improvement and responding to customer needs and expectations is:<br />Contingency approach<br />Quality management<br />System approach<br />Scientific management<br />
  62. 62. A theory of management that is focused on describing what managers do and what constitutes good management practice is the general administrative theory.<br />Correct<br />Incorrect<br />Quantitative techniques are used to improve:-<br />Decision making<br />Leadership qualities<br />Open systems are those which do not interact with the environment.<br />Correct<br />Incorrect<br />
  63. 63. Workforce diversity is heterogeneous in terms of gender, race, ethnicity, age, and other characteristics that reflect similarities.<br />Correct<br />incorrect<br />
  64. 64. THANK YOU<br />
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