DIAGNOSES                        Kudremukh Iron Ore Company     presents analyses of the                                  ...
regime (1974-76), which suppressed normal democratic           was illogical. Such an extension would have flown theavenue...
Although somewhat clouded by its own verbosity, the              this trend was the final stand of the Karnataka Govern-fi...
panies. Blocking the expansion essentially meant that           groups to challenge KIOCL which could readily hire theKIOC...
wastage of public funds. The same has been the case with        tion arguments on science rather than on sentiments andthe...
located in the Western Ghats, in a mountainous and            Being conscious of the damage it was inflicting on thedensel...
posed limits on pollution. The Supreme Court has estab-      lease, and side-stepping regulations by getting the min-   li...
will establish 11 new rights for Nature, including the right          using raw material from other suppliers who areto co...
tions of any business plan at regular intervals is an abso-      tion era was upon us. Hence, the foreign currency brought...
• Improper handling of the waste by KIOCL – An illegal        No Future Plans  solution of raising the height of the Lakya...
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KIOCL - Sustainability and Business Ethics (Vikalpa analysis)


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Please see Case Analysis II - an analysis of sustainability, ethics and green business strategy issues pertaining to an iron ore mine located in an area of rich biodiversity in south India.

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KIOCL - Sustainability and Business Ethics (Vikalpa analysis)

  1. 1. DIAGNOSES Kudremukh Iron Ore Company presents analyses of the Limited (KIOCL): The Death Knell and Beyond management case by academicians and practitioners K N Murthy and D V R Seshadri Case Analysis I K Ullas Karanth Senior Conservation Scientist Wildlife Conservation Society, New York Director, Centre for Wildlife Studies, Bangalore e-mail: ukaranth@gmail.com T he case study of export-led iron ore mining with its attendant social, legal, eco- nomic, and environmental dimensions is increasingly relevant as many similar cases are unfolding across India, pitting “development” against “conservation”. This analysis presents my perspective as a practising conservation scientist, who hap- pened to play a long-term role beyond mere observation in this case as it unfolded over four decades. In the interest of full disclosure, I would like to state: (1) From 1966 onwards, I have hiked in these mountains as a young naturalist, and a student of engineering at what is now the National Institute of Technology, Surathkal; (2) In 1982-84, I had conducted an ecological survey of the endangered lion-tailed macaque discovering new populations in Kudremukh, eventually leading to the notification of the National Park in 1987 by the Government of Karnataka; (3) I have also been ac- tively involved in the wildlife conservation advocacy in Kudremukh from the 1970s, and provided scientific advice to NGOs that finally litigated the issue in the Supreme Court of India, leading to the 2002 Judgment ordering closure of these mines by 2005. I believe the following issues are critical to understand the implications of this case for the wider ‘conservation vs development’ debate that is unfolding as the nation pur- sues often conflicting goals of achieving economic growth and social equity without undermining environmental sustainability. The current issue of Vikalpa SCIENTIFIC, ECOLOGICAL, ENVIORONMENTAL ISSUES has published a case titled, “Kudremukh Iron Ore As far back as in the 1970s, the need for ‘preservation of biodiversity’ (visualized as Company Limited (KIOCL): interacting plant and animal communities, some with great potential economic value) The Death Knell and Beyond” by KN Murthy was recognized as an international and national developmental priority, over and and DVR Seshadri. above the traditional concerns of economic growth and equity. Furthermore, the ‘eco- This Diagnoses features system services’ value of a mountainous forested area like Kudremukh for watershed analyses of the case by K Ullas Karanth, protection was well-recognized by forestry and wildlife sciences and the laws already Achal Raghavan and in place. None of these considerations appeared to have weighed in when this export- Rajiv Motwani. led iron ore mining was jump-started in Kudremukh during the emergency politicalVIKALPA • VOLUME 36 • NO 2 • APRIL - JUNE 2011 133
  2. 2. regime (1974-76), which suppressed normal democratic was illogical. Such an extension would have flown theavenues for questioning the decision. Regardless of the face of a major global societal shift in favour of environ-broader issue of the rate at which India’s iron ore re- mental sustainability, reflected in the country’s govern-sources should be mined, either for domestic use or ex- ance and legal systems. Following the National Parkport, it was well known even then that iron ore was a notification, these conservation concerns only multipliedcommon mineral found all over the country existing in with emergence of new knowledge about impacts of habi-higher concentrations elsewhere. On the other hand, it tat fragmentation on natural ecosystems through the newwas already known that Kudremukh site forms the larg- science of landscape ecology, as well as from scientificest block of biodiversity-rich tropical rainforests in the studies of endangered species and environmental impactsWestern Ghats and it plays a crucial watershed role for in Kudremukh.major rivers originating in this steep terrain with a rain-fall exceeding 7,000 mm per year. These ecological fac- Therefore, it cannot be reasonably claimed that there wastors were simply not considered in the initial decision to a time lag between KIOCL’s corporate attitudes and so- cial shifts. The company in fact recognized these socialsite the mine at Malleswara. To my knowledge, no open- shifts. It spent enormous amounts of money on ‘environ-cast mine of this size is sited anywhere in the erosion- mental protection measures’ attempting to arrest the mas-prone tropical rainforest regions of the world on suchsteep terrain, at such a high altitude under such an inten- sive soil erosion generated by its mines. However, most ofsive rainfall regime. As the putative guardian of local these measures were ineffective at best and cosmetic atpeople’s interest, even the then Deputy Commissioner in worst. They did not mitigate siltation of Bhadra RiverChikmagalur, as well as some of the wildlife conserva- and the irrigation system, which sustained 100,000 hec-tionists like us, had raised these issues when the tares of productive agriculture. In addition to the Karnataka Irrigation Department’s 1982 study, whichdecision was made. These arguments were not against pointed out 20 times higher silt loads, subsequent rigor-mining per se, but against the decision to site this mine at ous studies by reputed hydrologists and geologists 1-4Kudremukh. conclusively confirmed this problem. These studiesThe second often ignored issue is the impact of not only showed that the sub-catchment around Kudremukh,the mining, but of its ancillary activities on the surround- which occupies only 6 per cent of the overall catchmenting forests and wildlife. The Border Roads Organization of Bhadra River, contributed 60 per cent of the silt load.of the Indian Army, which carved out the highway to By 2004, this siltation was estimated to have led to loss ofMangalore through virtually untouched wilderness not storage capacity of nearly 1-tmcft in Bhadra reservoir.only caused immense damage to forest habitat in the proc-ess, but also to the wildlife from unfettered hunting by Against all this scientific evidence, the company couldarmy personnel. Several new public access roads were only produce studies conducted by its own hired con-also cleaved into this wilderness, particularly between sultants, which showed no silt loads in the river. ThisKalasa-Malleswara-Karkala and from Sringeri to SK bor- was not hard to explain: whereas scientific studies had shown that the soil erosion was episodic and occurredder, opening up these remote areas to illegal hunting, tim- during monsoon, the consultant’s studies were conductedber smuggling and other undesirable human impacts. in the dry season when there was no erosion or silt in theEven the ill-conceived attempts of KIOCL and the ForestDepartment to ‘green’ the natural shola-grasslands by river. In fact, the Irrigation Department’s studies thatplanting exotic trees led to further expansion of road net- pointed at high silt loads were discontinued by the Gov-works. ernment, possibly to protect the company’s ‘green’ cre- dentials. However, this problem was belatedly acknowle-Advancing scientific knowledge actually led to the en- dged even by the State Government by its own rejection ofactment of the Wildlife Protection Act in 1972, the Forest the proposed expansion of mining into Nellibeedu andConservation Act in 1980, and the Environmental Protec- Gangadikal areas in 1995 (the former would have dis-tion Act in 1986. With the notification of the 600 sq km charged even more silt into Bhadra river and the latterKudremukh National Park in 1987 around the 48 sq km would have opened up a fresh source for silting of Rivermining lease area, it should have been obvious to the com- Tunga).pany that expectation of its lease extension beyond 1999134 DIAGNOSES
  3. 3. Although somewhat clouded by its own verbosity, the this trend was the final stand of the Karnataka Govern-final 46-page judgment of the Supreme Court (All India ment before the Supreme Court in 2002 as a result of pub-Judicial Reporter 2002: SC 724) is thus solidly backed by lic campaigns against mine. Notably, heads of severalhydrological, geological, and ecological evidences that Hindu temples in the region around Kudremukh consist-were cogently presented by conservation advocacy ently and publicly opposed the mine.groups, which the company could not counter effectively. Numerically, the largest constituency affected by the min-SOCIAL, POLITICAL AND CONSERVATION ing operation, is the farming community along the banksADVOCACY ISSUES and in the command area of Bhadra River (and Tunga River if Gangadikal were to be mined). The commandFrom a social and political perspective, there were sev- area farmers, a well-organized pressure group, were ba-eral distinct interest groups affected by the mining project, sically unaware of the scientific issue of siltation that af-all of which tried to influence the final outcome. These fected the dam, and were brought in to campaign only inare listed below in somewhat crude, practical categories, 2000-2001, largely because of advocacy groups thatwhich I believe are sufficient for this analysis. reached out to educate them.1. The company’s executives, board members, officials The advocacy groups which prioritized human interests in the Ministry of Steel, and company employees in- locally in Kudremukh came in two flavours: some were cluding their local dependencies in Kudremukh influenced by the ‘Maoist ideology’ and others by the2. Business associates of the company including power- ‘Hindutva’ ideology. Both groups claimed to speak for ful commercial interests in Mangalore, Port workers’ inhabitants of remote settlements located within the unions, foreign and local collaborators, contractors, Kudremukh National Park. While both these groups op- and suppliers posed the mining company strongly and publicly, they3. Other government departments, particularly in the also simultaneously demanded the abolition of the district of Chikmagalur, Mangalore, and Bangalore Kudremukh National Park and relevant wildlife protec- city where the company has a major presence tion laws, which they termed as ‘anti-people’. Their early4. Farmers along the Bhadra River banks and in the com- efforts at litigation against mining in the High Court of mand area of Bhadra Dam Karnataka were weakened by such inconsistent stances.5. The State Forest Department with a mandate to en- Most arguments they made against mining were sweep- force conservation policies and law ing and emotional, and failed to convince the Courts.6. Advocacy groups primarily promoting immediate in- These failed attempts also made it difficult for others to terests of people living in enclaves within the National litigate in the same Courts. Allied to such local groups Park were the varied and ephemeral agitations proclaimed by7. Advocacy groups with a priority for wildlife conser- writers and intellectuals of various hues in the State Capi- vation interests, who were also surrogates for inter- tal. These demanded, impractically, that all mining should ests of wild plants and animals bearing the full nega- stop instantly. However, during 2001-2002, all these so- tive impact of the project. cial movements played a role in shaping broader publicBasically, interest groups listed at 1-3 above were strongly opinion against the mining and pushed the Karnatakain support of continued mining operations because all of Government to file the crucial revised affidavit in the Su-them perceived large material gains from the presence preme Court asking for a termination of mining by 2005.and activities of the company. All of them employed their The State Forest Department’s role throughout thesesocial clout to support and favour the company through- events has been somewhat vacillating, depending on in-out the period from 1970s to the present day. Political dividual officials and political pressures they had to bear.leadership of all political parties at both state and na- The Chief Wildlife Warden and the State Forest Depart-tional levels strongly supported the continuation of the ment boldly rejected the permission to extend mining tomining in Kudremukh, even while protesting loudly Nellibeedu and Gangadikal in 1995, a step that provedabout mining in eastern Karnataka region with much crucial in stopping the mine expansion, which was to belower rainfall, flat terrain, little biodiversity, which holds followed by major investments by multinational steel com-iron ore of much higher quality. The only exception toVIKALPA • VOLUME 36 • NO 2 • APRIL - JUNE 2011 135
  4. 4. panies. Blocking the expansion essentially meant that groups to challenge KIOCL which could readily hire theKIOCL did not enjoy the support of these multinational highest priced legal talent in the country at public cost. Inpartners in influencing subsequent government decisions. the absence of WP-202 related factors mentioned above, the conservation advocacy groups lacked resources toAs the company continually violated forest laws until obtain legal relief in the Supreme Court. However well-2004, local forest officials generally recognized and intentioned and well-equipped they were to make theirbooked these individual offences, resisting pressures from case, they were unlikely to have been able to do so beforeabove. However, after 2004, they appear to have turned the highest court in the land.friendly to the company, ignored its violations of forestlaws, and even began harassing the conservation advo- CORPORATE GOVERNANCE ISSUEScacy groups that tried to monitor the mining company’scompliance with the Supreme Court’s final judgment. To There are several serious issues of corporate governancethis day, this mining-friendly attitude persists, as evi- involved in the Kudremukh case which need deeper ex-denced by the lack of concrete action to evict the company amination. The original mining plan envisaged that thefrom the national park and deemed forests as mandated company would operate only for 30 years ending in 1999.by the court judgment and to recover losses estimated at The notification of the national park and enactment ofRs. 156 crore caused by the company, as estimated by the tough Forest Conservation and Environmental laws inComptroller and Auditor General of India. 1980s should have made it amply clear to the company executives that the lease was unlikely to continue. TheOf all the above named interest groups, advocacy groups state and central governments also repeatedly warnedbelieving in the primacy of wildlife conservation were the company to look for ore deposits elsewhere as thenumerically the smallest. However, their ability marshal lease ran out. Despite this, the company went ahead andthe evidence against the mine in the public arena through invested several million rupees in a pelletization planta powerful video documentary* that was aired on local tailored specifically to process Kudremukh ore — aboutcable networks and presented as evidence in the Supreme Rs.330 crore in a ductile and spun pipe project and aboutCourt; more importantly, evidence in the form of hard Rs.120 crore in refurbishing the slurry pipe line even asscientific data1-4 countering the company’s consultants, the mining lease ran out.was vital to the final outcome. A key element of their suc-cess was sourcing evidence from diverse scientific do- Furthermore, the company (despite being owned by themains ranging from ecology to hydrology and meticulous Central Government or perhaps because of it) committeddocumentation of legal violations by the company. They clearly in violation of the Forest and Environmental laws.did not rely on rhetoric and religious sentiments, as is These violations included increasing the height of Lakyasometimes the case with environmental advocacy litiga- Dam by 35 meters leading to submergence of a nationaltion in India. park area of 340 hectares; illegal formation of roads while prospecting in 1994-95; illegal road formation for repair-However, my personal view is that even this success of ing the slurry pipe line in 2000; and after the mine closureconservation advocacy groups in the Kudremukh case in 2005, diversion of water from Lakya Dam to Mangaloredepended on a crucial step taken by the Supreme Court via the slurry pipeline in contravention of laws prevent-in constituting a ‘Green Bench’ backed up by a Central ing intra-basin transfer of river waters. It is manifested toEmpowered Committee with several ‘green’ members. the present day in continued retention of company’sThis step arose from the ongoing ‘Godvarman Writ Peti- equipment and personnel from areas from which it hastion 202’ of 1995, which enabled many conservation ad- been evicted by the Supreme Court’s judgment.vocacy groups in India to seek remedies for violation offorest and wildlife laws directly in the Supreme Court It is also noteworthy that even after the Supreme Court’sthrough Amicus Curiae, an eminent senior counsel. This final judgment, the company has spent large sums offactor levelled the legal playing field at a crucial stage in money in filing repeated ‘curative petitions’ and encour-the chain of events enabling the conservation advocacy aged its labour unions to do the same, relying on some of the most expensive legal talent in the country. All these* http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bmGDj5xn9Ik attempts have predictably failed, leading to substantial136 DIAGNOSES
  5. 5. wastage of public funds. The same has been the case with tion arguments on science rather than on sentiments andthe company’s massive advertising campaigns promot- of using democratic processes of an open society to ad-ing its own ‘greenness’ while buying media support, in a dress environmental problems.social context where such ‘quid pro quos’ are consideredundesirable. ENDNOTES 1. For more background on this case visit http://www.youWith this background in view, the question of corporate tube.com/watch?v=bmGDj5xn9Ik and http://www.governance involved is simple: Would the board of a well- indiatogether.org/2005/oct/env-kudremukh-orig.htm 2. The scientific evidence about soil erosion presented in thisgoverned private sector company have allowed its senior case is published in the following peer-reviewed articles:executives to take such risky commercial gambles, to break Shankar, R; Thompson, R and Galloway, R B (1994). “Sedi-conservation and inter-state river laws and blithely go on ment Source Modeling: Unmixing of Artificial Magnetisation and Natural Radioactivity Measurements,”wasting tax payer’s money in litigation and seeking pub- Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 126, 411-420.licity in this manner? I suspect not, and, submit that only 3. Krishnaswamy, J; Bunyan, M; Mehta, V K; Patil, N;a public sector undertaking with ample political patron- Naveenkumar, S and Karanth, K U (2006). “Impact of Iron Ore Mining in Kudremukh on the Bhadra River Ecosys-age and broad social and financial support like KIOCL tem,” In Krishnaswamy, J; Lele, S and Jayakumar, R (Eds.),could do this. Hydrology and Watershed Services in the Western Ghats, India, New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill, pp. 193-211.Overall, the Kudremukh case is an important milestone 4. Krishnaswamy, J; Bunyan, M; Mehta, V K; Jain, N; andin the ‘development vs conservation’ debate that keeps Karanth, K U (2006). “Impact of Iron Ore Mining on Sus- pended Sediment Response in a Tropical Catchment inbeing replayed across India. It holds valuable lessons for Kudremukh, Western Ghats, India,” Forest Ecology andthose fighting on both sides of this divide. In the govern- Management, 224, 187-198.ance context, it shows that being a public sector company 5. Sandeep, K; Shankar, R and Krishnaswamy, J (2011). “As- sessment of Suspended Particulate Pollution in the Bhadradoes not automatically guarantee responsible social be- River Catchment, Southern India: An Environmentalhaviour. Within the domain of environmental advocacy, Magnetic Approach,” Environmental Earth Sciences, 62, 625-this case highlights the importance of basing conserva- 637.Case Analysis IIAchal RaghavanStrategy & Business Excellence ConsultantBangaloree-mail: achalraghavan@yahoo.co.inIntroduction usual” manner, or do they involve principles of ethicsT he KIOCL case, set in 2002, represents an early ex- that deserve serious consideration? ample of an increasingly familiar and recurrent chal- Recent developments—such as the conditional environ-lenge in today’s business world: mental clearance given for the POSCO steel plant project• How does a corporation achieve a sustainable and fair in Orissa involving forest land of over 1,250 hectares, and balance between business interests (such as growth and the Lavasa township project in Maharashtra – have profit) and environmental concerns? brought this subject to prominence even more strongly.• Is it at all possible to evolve a “green business strategy” which is good for the world and also good for the The Crisis company’s bottom line? Hari Prasad, Managing Director, KIOCL, is struggling to• How does one balance the conflicting interests of vari- come to terms with the October 2002 Supreme Court rul- ous stakeholders in such a situation? ing that gives the organization a grace period of three• Are such issues to be dealt with in a “business as years to wind up its mining operations at Kudremukh,VIKALPA • VOLUME 36 • NO 2 • APRIL - JUNE 2011 137
  6. 6. located in the Western Ghats, in a mountainous and Being conscious of the damage it was inflicting on thedensely forested area, classified as a “global biodiversity environment and the local communities, KIOCL did im-hotspot”. The area is blessed with tremendous variety of plement several measures to minimize the harmful im-rare flora and fauna. It is a pilgrimage spot for the local pact. A quarter of its capital costs was spent on environ-population, and also popular with tourists due to its sce- ment-related amelioration measures. Noise and dust lev-nic beauty. els were minimized; afforestation was carried out to re- place a part of the green cover that was lost; and neigh-The “wind up” ruling has come as an abrupt shock to bouring villages were extended developmental aid.Hari Prasad and his senior executives. The “Green Bench”of the Supreme Court, which is a special entity created in However, the company faced persistent opposition from1995 to deal with environmental issues, has based its environmental activists and NGOs, who maintained thatverdict on the following “green” considerations: these actions were merely “lip-service,” designed to cover up the harm being done to the overall ecosystem. More-• By destroying nature and the environment, man is over, the company did not have a blemish-free record with committing matricide, having in a way killed Mother the law – having illegally raised the height of the Lakya Earth. Dam in order to contain the ever-increasing burden of• The seminal issue involved is whether the approach “tailings.” This also resulted in 340 hectares of forest get- should be ‘dollar-friendly’ or ‘eco-friendly.’ ting submerged. Additionally, attempts by the company• Environmental protection is big in terms of the size of to expand its area of operation – in a designated “na- the problem faced and the solutions required. tional park” area – were stalled owing to fierce opposi-• Global warming, destruction of the ozone layer, acid tion. rain, deforestation, overpopulation, and toxic waste are all global issues which require an appropriate glo- Regulatory Changes bal response. From the time of KIOCL’s inception in the ‘70s, to the timeThe Supreme Court has also turned down the company’s it was served the “wind up” notice in 2002, the regula-appeal to be allowed to continue mining in the already tory and legislative mechanisms in India pertaining tobroken up area in Kudremukh. The Court did not accept environment protection and forest/wildlife conservationKIOCL’s argument that such a concession would help had undergone significant changes.smoothen the winding-up process of the company. In chronological order, the following new laws and meas-The Track Record ures were enacted, showing the Government’s increas-Set up as a 100 per cent export-oriented Public Sector Unit ing awareness of the need to marry economic develop-(PSU), KIOCL had established a consistent track record ment with conservation and other “green” considerations:for sales and profit – so much so that it had earned for • Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 – which was designed toitself the “Mini Ratna” rating from the Government. How- mandate better protection to biodiversity rich areas suchever, the mining and beneficiation process for extracting as the Western Ghats. A consequence of this Act wasthe iron ore was inherently damaging to the environment. the formal notification of the Kudremukh NationalLarge expanses of forest land have had to make way for Park (KNP) in 2001 – which had a direct (and nega-drilling, blasting, excavation (using heavy machinery), tive) impact on KIOCL’s attempts to expand its min-enrichment, and subsequent pelletization. The process ing activities in Kudremukh.also gave rise to a large amount of waste, called “tail- • Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 – which placed the pow-ings,” which consists of silica and water. This waste was ers regarding use of forest lands solely in the hands ofpumped into the Lakya Dam, where the solids settled the Central Government. The formation of the Greendown at the bottom. This meant that there was a continu- Bench in the Supreme Court, which ultimately orderedous and inevitable accumulation of waste product at the the closure of KIOCL’s mining, was a consequence ofdam site, as long as the mining activity continued. Dur- this Act.ing monsoons, the river Bhadra was also subjected to • Environmental (Protection) Act, 1986 – which fixedpollution by mined soil. standards for ambient environmental factors and im-138 DIAGNOSES
  7. 7. posed limits on pollution. The Supreme Court has estab- lease, and side-stepping regulations by getting the min- lished a track record of coming down heavily on com- ing area excluded from the designated national park panies which violate the letter and spirit of this law. area • Basing arguments for renewal of the mining lease onManagement’s Mind-set the premise that the original lease has over-riding pri-Sooner or later, every one of the above important mile- ority over laws that were enacted subsequently; andstones in the environmental regulatory framework of In- that significant sums of money invested in the projectdia has had a significant impact on the operations of so far would go to waste if the mining activities wereKIOCL; however, the management of the company seems to be shut down.to have been less than sensitive to the strategic and op- At the same time, from a motivational and morale point oferational implications of such laws. view, it must be conceded that Hari Prasad and his team are only going through normal human reactions – whenVirtually, every decision (and action) of the management they see an entity (i.e., KIOCL) on which they have in-appears to have been dictated by business and bottom- vested hard work and commitment for long years beingline considerations; the ethical implications pertaining forced to shut down by an apparently uncaring legal au-to the current and future damage to the ecosystem ap- thority (i.e., the Supreme Court).pears to have been given very little weightage. The factthat KIOCL was a profit-earning “Mini Ratna” PSU seems Changing Timesto have bred a sense of entitlement (for special treatment)amongst the top management. In the decades that have passed since KIOCL’s inception, the rules of the game have changed dramatically. Gov-The overall “business/profit/entitlement” mind-set of the ernments and societies the world over have become in-management team can be gauged from the following state- creasingly aware of (and concerned with) issues such asments and actions: global warming, pollution, sustainability, and the fragil- ity of the global ecosystem. Stringent laws have been en-• “Finding a new mine site would be very difficult…a acted in recent years, and an increasingly aggressive band very expensive proposition…that we can ill afford…” of “green” activists and the media lose no time in point-• “It is unbelievable that the Supreme Court has been so ing out what they see as questionable environmental be- harsh on a public sector company” – as if PSUs were haviour on the part of corporations. KIOCL cannot remain entitled to special privileges and exemptions from law. insulated from such developments.• “This judgment does not make any economic sense”• Attempts to expand the mining to the Nellibeedu area, Dealing with environmental issues now requires going which fell under a designated national park region, beyond mere compliance to legal requirements. Compa- in order to cater to increasing global demand nies need to consider the higher standards of ethics. The• Unilateral (and illegal) raising of the Lakya Dam height principle of “ecological ethics” or “deep ecology” takes the in order to continue to accommodate the ever-increa- view that “non-human parts of the environment deserve sing mass of tailings to be preserved for their own sake, regardless of whether• Dropping the (technically feasible) projects for con- this benefits human beings.” This principle is eminently verting the tailings to clay tiles, and the surplus water applicable in KIOCL’s case. to packaged drinking water, on the grounds that the In a similar vein, according to noted American philoso- market for such products was saturated – whereas pher, John Rawls, “What justice demands of us is merely going ahead with the projects would have been a neat that we hand over to the next generation a world no worse solution to the tailings accumulation problem, which than we received from the generation before us.” This is an environmental time-bomb in the making. view is equally appropriate in this situation.• Attempts to build another dam at another site, since Lakya Dam was full – thereby spreading the hitherto Taking this philosophy one step further, Bolivia is set to unresolved tailings pollution issue to yet another site pass the world’s first series of laws which will grant rights• Using the Prime Minister’s office to apply pressure on to Mother Nature which are equal to the rights of hu- the Karnataka government for renewal of the mining mans. Called “The Law of Mother Earth,” this legislationVIKALPA • VOLUME 36 • NO 2 • APRIL - JUNE 2011 139
  8. 8. will establish 11 new rights for Nature, including the right using raw material from other suppliers who areto continue vital processes free from human alteration, carefully vetted for “green” practices. This willthe right to pure water and clean air, the right not to be keep the cash-flow going.polluted, and so on. It remains to be seen whether other o Execute the clay tiles project on a war footing, not-countries will follow this lead taken by Bolivia. withstanding its apparently doubtful profit poten- tial. This will result in a permanent “clean-up” ofThe Way Forward the vast accumulated mass of process waste atHaving been presented with a fait accompli by the Supreme Lakya Dam. This is a moral and ethical obligationCourt, Hari Prasad and the other senior managers at that KIOCL needs to discharge on priority. GivenKIOCL need to do the following: the increasing awareness of society in general about such issues, and the spread of green build-• Accept the new reality — that KIOCL exists as a part ing techniques, there is a possibility that KIOCL of an overall ecosystem, where actions of one entity could charge a small premium on the pricing of impact all the other parts. the tiles, by appropriate positioning.• Look at KIOCL’s future goals as a combination of o Co-opt the state Government and the green activ- profit-making, and discharging ethical obligations to ists, as also other stakeholders such as the workers “spaceship earth” – the total ecological system. The and the local population, in developing the Kudre- two goals are not mutually exclusive. mukh area into an ecotourism and pilgrimage cen-• Recognize that the basis on which the company was tre. This will give a boost to the local economy. given a lease in the ‘70s is no longer relevant now. o Draw up a plan with the central government for KIOCL has to fall in line with current norms and think- re-greening the entire area that has been stripped ing as far as ecology is concerned. of forest cover by KIOCL’s activities over the years.• Get rid of the “why are we getting singled out” men- Ensure that the trees so chosen are appropriate for tality. The need of the hour is an aggressive outward- the ecosystem in that area. Set a timeline for return- looking focus. ing the forest area to its former glory. Seek govern-• Apply the principle of “sunk costs” – literally — to all ment aid for this initiative, if needed. the money that has been invested in the project and its o Convert the entire Kudremukh mining experience surroundings. In other words, the past should not dic- —with all its twists and turns—into a business tate future decisions. opportunity for KIOCL. Capture all the do’s and• Evolve a “green business strategy” for the company, don’ts through a knowledge management process, which could be a combination of the following initia- and offer the knowhow as strategic consulting serv- tives: ices to other mining companies which are faced o In the short term, expand the pelletization activity, with similar situations worldwide.Case Analysis IIIRajiv MotwaniSenior Manager, IT CompanySecurity Evangeliste-mail: Rajiv.motwani@gmail.com“ T he mine site and the Lakya Dam look like fresh wounds to a sea of greenery” – This one sentencefrom the case sums it all up adequately. hence could not take adequate measures to keep itself afloat in the new environment. The core competence of KIOCL was exclusive access to a mine in the Kudremukh National Park and when that core competence was takenThe case illustrates an example of an organization that away, they were not at all prepared with Plan B. Environ-did not sense that the world around it was changing and ment sensing and re-evaluating the go/no-go assump-140 DIAGNOSES
  9. 9. tions of any business plan at regular intervals is an abso- tion era was upon us. Hence, the foreign currency broughtlute must and failure to do so is likely to result in a disas- in by KIOCL was not as attractive as it used to be.ter. In this specific context, the assumptions made aboutthe environment, core competence, and the mission (to Influence with the Governmentsome extent) in the present and for the future by various The era of liberalization and privatization had broughtstakeholders of the KIOCL organization were all out of an end to the License Raj and hence KIOCL’s lobbyingdate and hence the fate of the organization was doomed with the Government had a smaller impact than before.since the problem identification happened too late in theday. Misplaced Facts?How The Environment Changed Significantly • An initial study in the 1960’s revealed that deposits atsince the 1960’s? Aroli had 5 million tonnes of ore that was mineable. Yet, investments were made that indicated that thereMore Emphasis on “Green” was significantly larger amount of ore available —Kudremukh was recognized as one of the global Contract with the Shah of Iran was for 150 millionbiodiversity hotspots of the world with a lot of rich flora tonnes and capacity of the mining plant was 22.5 mil-and fauna some of which are still being discovered. lion tonnes a year.Power, irrigation, and drinking water supplied in the re- • “The economic loss to the country is pegged at $75gion were also affected as a result of the activities of million annually.” However, this loss did not con-KIOCL. Forest cover had reduced dramatically (barely sider the damage to the environment and other intan-20% left) over the last 20 years. The common man was gibles like loss in productivity/efficiency, irrigation,beginning to get smarter about the environment and hence power, and drinking water supply apart from irrevo-it was not just the ecologists who were increasingly con- cable damage to the environment. By 2000, $75 mil-cerned about the activities of KIOCL. Opencast mining is lion was considered small for India.a very destructive activity causing virtually irreparable • The other investment of $1.25 billion (made initiallydamage. The difference between abandoned and currently for the infrastructure) was anyway going to be lostmined areas and the adjoining natural grasslands and because the withered ore extraction was almost com-forests is very stark even to the common man. plete and to mine primary ore (300 million tonnes of it), new technology and methods of transport wereIncrease in Conservation Consciousness required. This implied a significant amount of newIn general, conservation consciousness across all strata infrastructure expenditure.of society had increased. A Green Bench was constituted Political Angleby the Supreme Court to deal with cases of the nature ofKIOCL. There were stricter rules and laws — Wildlife • As is evident from the case, KIOCL’s battle was highlyProtection Act, 1972, Forest Conservation Act, 1980, En- politicized and hence several parties on either sidevironment Protection Act, 1986 and the laws for estab- had their own vested interests. An example is the li-lishing national parks, etc. Hence, the operating cense for Gangrikal deposits, which was first grantedenvironment had changed over the years and Kudremukh and then revoked.had done little to adapt to the changing environment apart • The case talks about a thought – “Are the days of thefrom making sure that it “complied” with the new norms PSU over?” – this also indicates the presence of a po-from a legal point of view while failing to analyse the litical angle.long-term impact of each of these changes. Other ProblemsInflow of $$$ into the Country KIOCL’s case got further (directly or indirectly) weakenedOne of the primary objectives of KIOCL was to bring for- by the following:eign exchange into the country. In the 1990’s, this was no • Kudremukh township attracted others who en-longer such a major consideration since the liberaliza- croached on forest land.VIKALPA • VOLUME 36 • NO 2 • APRIL - JUNE 2011 141
  10. 10. • Improper handling of the waste by KIOCL – An illegal No Future Plans solution of raising the height of the Lakya Dam was KIOCL completely relied on the Kudremukh mine. All resorted to. technology and infrastructure were based on magnetite• Loose soil during the monsoon season led to the silt ore only rather than the more abundantly available load below the dam being 10 times more than the per- haematite ore. Hence, the organization was unable to pro- missible limit which affected the storage of irrigation cure raw materials from other sites. water in the Bhadra reservoir. Studies Arrived at Different Conclusions• On several instances, KIOCL was accused of lobbying with the Government to get special favours. Several studies on the environment initiated by different parties were inconclusive or had radically different con-Did KIOCL Do Enough? clusions thereby making it difficult to get a clear picture of the situation. NGOs claimed that KIOCL was insensi-KIOCL did reduce water, noise, and air pollution, but tive to the environment and were not forthcoming withthat was not enough. It did a lot to reduce usage of chemi- details of compliance with the environment policies andcals and produce as little waste as possible. However, norms.because of the nature of the ore and the content of iron init as well as the requirement of the beneficiation process, Alternatives: What KIOCL Could Have Done?a lot of waste was produced and the Lakya Dam wasflooded. The timing of the environmental award (in 2002) • Re-evaluate the assumptions it made at regular inter-also raised eyebrows. vals to enable early problem identification. • Sense the environment, competition, and market better.Following are some Instances of KIOCL’s arrogance: • Think about what value it provides to customers. The company could have scaled more in terms of revenue• It conducted prospect work at Nellibeedu for $10 mil- and profits if it had done some value analysis. If it lion without a proper approval. It also constructed 40 would have been a $500 million organization as com- kms of new roads. pared to the $75 million in terms of the taxes it paid to• It increased the height of the Lakya Dam without ap- the government, perhaps things might have been dif- proval (in 1994).This led to the submersion of 340 hec- ferent. tares of dense forests. • Think about alternatives to its single core competence.• It violated the condition of not breaking into new for- • Introduce carbon credit like system. Could the organi- est areas when the temporary extension was granted zation have made up the loss to environment by other in 1999 (proven to be overshot by 58 hectares). initiatives to compensate for the damage at the Kudremukh site?• Bursting of the slurry pipe resulted in scattering of a • One of the main losers were the employees of the com- large amount of slurry and extensive damage. pany although they were offered the VRS scheme.• It had a sense of ownership of the mine. Could anything else have been done for them?• It believed that renewal of the license was obligatory REFERENCES on the part of the government. Hence, it even went ahead with a project to replace slurry pipelines cost- http://www.clarklabs.org/applications/upload/CS_NRM_ Sediment1-6.pdf ing $40 million. http://www.flonnet.com/fl2301/stories/20060127003 403400.htm• It made infrastructure-related investments even before http://www.angelfire.com/journal/nagini/kudreport. licenses were given. html142 DIAGNOSES