Infection control... Protection of those vulnerable to infection Hygiene basic principle (Image taken from Clipart).
Nosocomial infection Acquired in hospital or health-care setting AND: Patient admitted for reason other than that infection Infection was not present or (Image taken from Clipart). incubating at time of admission
Semmelweis (Best & Neuhauser, 2004).
So basically... Contact with Inadequate Transferral an infectious infection of bacteria to patient control next patient
Hand hygiene (WHO, 2009).
20–30% of hospital-acquired infections are considered preventable by utilising hygiene and control programmes!!!! (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, 2011).
The literature... the lack of imperative or precise wording The lack of easily identifiable instructions specific to each profession the lack of concrete performance targets the lack of timely and adequate guidance on personal protective equipment and other safety measures
A little more literature... Skills and curriculum for training of infection- control professionals Ratio of infection-control professionals to workload Strategies for implementation
Where does the responsibilitylie? Management Infection control teams Physicians Microbiologists Pharmacists Nursing staff Sterilization staff Food, laundry and housekeeping services Visitors
References Best, M., & Neuhauser, D. (2004). Ignaz Semmelweis and the b irth of infection control. Quality safety health care, 13, 233-234. Ducel, G., Fabry, J., & Nicolle, L. (Eds.). (2002). Prevention of hospital-acquired infections: A practical guide (2nd ed.). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organisation. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. (2011). Healthcare-associated infections. Retrieved from http://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/healthtopics/Healthcare- associated_infections/Pages/index.aspx Hand Hygiene Australia. (2012). What is hand hygiene? Retrieved from http://hha.org.au/AboutHandHygiene.aspx Macias, A., & Ponce-de-Leon, S. (2005). Infection control: Old problems and new challenges. Archives of medical research,36, 637-645. Timen, A., Hulscher, M., Rust, L., Steenbergen, J., Akkermans, R., Grol, R., & van der Meer, J. (2010). Barriers to implementing infection prevention and control guidelines during crises: Experiences of health care professionals. American journal of infection control, 38(9), 726-733. World Health Organisation. (2008). Core components for infection prevention and control programmes. Retrieved from http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2009/WHO_HSE_EPR_2009.1_eng.pdf World Health Organisation. (2009). WHO guidelines on hand hygiene in health care: First global patient safety challenge clean care is safer care. Geneva, Switzerland: Author. World Health Organisation. (2011). Infection control. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/topics/infection_control/en/ Yokoe, D., & Klassen, D. (2008). Improving patient safety through infection control: A new healthcare imperative. Infection control & hospital epidemiology, 29(1), 3-11.