Osh prevention in eu

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Osh prevention in eu

  1. 1. GTZ - Progress Social & Environmental Standarts. Alberto Cerda MicoGTZ - Progress Social & Environmental Standarts. Alberto Cerda Mico 11 The European Network forThe European Network for Workplace Health PromotionWorkplace Health Promotion (ENWHP) 2001(ENWHP) 2001 Report of the Current Status ofReport of the Current Status of WHP in Small & MediumWHP in Small & Medium Enterprises (SMEs)Enterprises (SMEs) (19 countries)(19 countries)
  2. 2. GTZ - Progress Social & Environmental Standarts. Alberto2 Objectives:Objectives: provide overview currentprovide overview current practice in workplace OHS pro-motionpractice in workplace OHS pro-motion in SMEsin SMEs in the European Unionin the European Union We will analyse:We will analyse:  I - general economic and health conditionsI - general economic and health conditions  II - current procedures and regulationsII - current procedures and regulations  III - conditions which inhibit or promoteIII - conditions which inhibit or promote practice in both fieldspractice in both fields
  3. 3. GTZ - Progress Social & Environmental Standarts. Alberto3 SpecialSpecial features of SMEsfeatures of SMEs The role of the enterprise ownerThe role of the enterprise owner  regard themselves as independent/enjoyregard themselves as independent/enjoy personal autonomy to make decisions.personal autonomy to make decisions.  very sceptical about formal legal require-ments.very sceptical about formal legal require-ments.  If health-related strategies are implemented,If health-related strategies are implemented, they tend to be of a short-term nature.they tend to be of a short-term nature.  Longer-term strategic and conceptionalLonger-term strategic and conceptional  programmes, required for preventive action, areprogrammes, required for preventive action, are therefore less developed or not promoted.therefore less developed or not promoted.
  4. 4. GTZ - Progress Social & Environmental Standarts. Alberto4 Social relationships inSocial relationships in enterpriseenterprise  strong family atmosphere = tend to be familystrong family atmosphere = tend to be family ownedowned  employees tend to feel trust and loyalty towardsemployees tend to feel trust and loyalty towards the ownerthe owner  owner shows consideration/understandingowner shows consideration/understanding towards stafftowards staff  Not surpris-ingNot surpris-ing institutionalised representatives –institutionalised representatives – e.g. works councils – have little significance thane.g. works councils – have little significance than in large companiesin large companies
  5. 5. GTZ - Progress Social & Environmental Standarts. Alberto5 Work requirementsWork requirements  characterised by simple organisationalcharacterised by simple organisational structuresstructures  Fewer routine activitiesFewer routine activities  significant degree of direct communicationsignificant degree of direct communication  Ad-hoc decisions &Ad-hoc decisions & improvisation areimprovisation are common than rigid regulations laid downcommon than rigid regulations laid down in writing.in writing.
  6. 6. GTZ - Progress Social & Environmental Standarts. Alberto6 I General economicI General economic conditionsconditions  SMEs play a key role in the economicSMEs play a key role in the economic development of Europedevelopment of Europe  almost 20 million companies within the 19almost 20 million companies within the 19 European states * employ fewer than 250European states * employ fewer than 250 peo-plepeo-ple  That is more than 99% of all companiesThat is more than 99% of all companies  77 million people work in SMEs77 million people work in SMEs
  7. 7. GTZ - Progress Social & Environmental Standarts. Alberto7 II StructuresII Structures occupationaloccupational health and safety for SMEshealth and safety for SMEs  Legislative frameworkLegislative framework  Labour inspectionLabour inspection  Occupational health & safety servicesOccupational health & safety services  Employees representationEmployees representation
  8. 8. GTZ - Progress Social & Environmental Standarts. Alberto8 b) Labour inspectionb) Labour inspection  despite different structures, qualifications, skills anddespite different structures, qualifications, skills and responsibilities of the labour inspectors, their OHSresponsibilities of the labour inspectors, their OHS strategies show more and more similaritiesstrategies show more and more similarities  The inspection mandate has been extended to includeThe inspection mandate has been extended to include consultancy and information. The employers are to beconsultancy and information. The employers are to be advised and informed by the inspectors as to how theyadvised and informed by the inspectors as to how they should carry out their obligations.should carry out their obligations.  Although inspection and monitoring, linked with action inAlthough inspection and monitoring, linked with action in the case of blatant infringements are still relevant, a new,the case of blatant infringements are still relevant, a new, revised understand-ing of a labour inspector’s role canrevised understand-ing of a labour inspector’s role can be seenbe seen
  9. 9. GTZ - Progress Social & Environmental Standarts. Alberto9 b) Labour inspectionb) Labour inspection  the aim is no longer short-term, one-offthe aim is no longer short-term, one-off elimination of all acute deficiencies, but theelimination of all acute deficiencies, but the detection of underlying (frequentlydetection of underlying (frequently organisational) shortcomingsorganisational) shortcomings  the labour inspector more as a mediator andthe labour inspector more as a mediator and advisor on OHS and less as an inspectoradvisor on OHS and less as an inspector  Remaining Problems: subject to restrictions inRemaining Problems: subject to restrictions in terms of resources (few staff and insufficientterms of resources (few staff and insufficient funds)funds)
  10. 10. GTZ - Progress Social & Environmental Standarts. Alberto10
  11. 11. GTZ - Progress Social & Environmental Standarts. Alberto11 The smaller the enterprise/the less chancesThe smaller the enterprise/the less chances inspectedinspected  Swedend: typical situation in SMEs: labour inspec-torate visits 15,000Swedend: typical situation in SMEs: labour inspec-torate visits 15,000 of the 160,000 enterprises with fewer than 10 employees annuallyof the 160,000 enterprises with fewer than 10 employees annually - 75% of visits made to small enterprises- 75% of visits made to small enterprises - However the largest companies are contacted on average almost- However the largest companies are contacted on average almost three times a yearthree times a year - the smallest enterprises see a labour inspector once in ten years.- the smallest enterprises see a labour inspector once in ten years.  Problems:Problems: - Labour inspectorate perceived by SMEs as costly and time-- Labour inspectorate perceived by SMEs as costly and time- consumingconsuming
  12. 12. GTZ - Progress Social & Environmental Standarts. Alberto12 - bureaucratic structures are less pronounced than in- bureaucratic structures are less pronounced than in large companieslarge companies - formalised statutory procedures for occupational health- formalised statutory procedures for occupational health and safety represent a majorand safety represent a major burden = need for documentation, identification, self-burden = need for documentation, identification, self- monitoringmonitoring - limited resources = labour inspection is concentrated- limited resources = labour inspection is concentrated on high-risk work siteson high-risk work sites
  13. 13. GTZ - Progress Social & Environmental Standarts. Alberto13 c) Occupational health andc) Occupational health and safety servicessafety services  the employers are legally obliged to provide carethe employers are legally obliged to provide care through OHS servicesthrough OHS services  size of the enterprise = the smaller thesize of the enterprise = the smaller the enterprise, the less favourable the situation isenterprise, the less favourable the situation is - Although risk assessment is obligatory, it only- Although risk assessment is obligatory, it only takes place in 30 to 50 % of small enterprises (<takes place in 30 to 50 % of small enterprises (< 50 employees)50 employees) - whereas in larger companies (> 100- whereas in larger companies (> 100 employees) the proportion isemployees) the proportion is roughly 90%.roughly 90%.
  14. 14. GTZ - Progress Social & Environmental Standarts. Alberto14 c) Occupational health andc) Occupational health and safety servicessafety services OHS Preventive services: minimum requirementOHS Preventive services: minimum requirement  only permitted or approved if at least fouronly permitted or approved if at least four different disciplines are represented:different disciplines are represented: - occupational medicine (normally externalized),- occupational medicine (normally externalized), - safety speciality- safety speciality - occupational hygiene- occupational hygiene - psycho-sociology and ergonomics- psycho-sociology and ergonomics
  15. 15. GTZ - Progress Social & Environmental Standarts. Alberto15
  16. 16. GTZ - Progress Social & Environmental Standarts. Alberto16 c) Occupational health and safety servicesc) Occupational health and safety services  In Sweden there are 700 preventive service units with 7,000In Sweden there are 700 preventive service units with 7,000 doctors, nurses,doctors, nurses, psychologists, ergonomists, and physiotherapists working in jointpsychologists, ergonomists, and physiotherapists working in joint private and branch ser-vicesprivate and branch ser-vices  In Spain more than 1000 (Accident non profitable Funds and PrivateIn Spain more than 1000 (Accident non profitable Funds and Private ServicesServices  In Finland the municipal model is the most importantIn Finland the municipal model is the most important  The “Good Neighbour Scheme” is a programme (Irish) to encourageThe “Good Neighbour Scheme” is a programme (Irish) to encourage OHS in SMEs:OHS in SMEs: - large enterprises with a good occupa-tional health and safety- large enterprises with a good occupa-tional health and safety infrastructureinfrastructure - act as mentors for small enterprises in their region- act as mentors for small enterprises in their region - they help and advise local SMEs, support them with their OHS- they help and advise local SMEs, support them with their OHS services (including training)services (including training)
  17. 17. GTZ - Progress Social & Environmental Standarts. Alberto17 d) Health and safety committees andd) Health and safety committees and representativesrepresentatives  health and safety representatives are frequently closelyhealth and safety representatives are frequently closely linked to the trade unions. They are either nominatedlinked to the trade unions. They are either nominated directly by the trade unions (UK) or approved bydirectly by the trade unions (UK) or approved by trade unions following an election by the workforce (DK)trade unions following an election by the workforce (DK) or simply elected by workers (Spain)or simply elected by workers (Spain)
  18. 18. GTZ - Progress Social & Environmental Standarts. Alberto18 d) Health and safety committeesd) Health and safety committees and representativesand representatives  they present a forum for employers’ and employees’they present a forum for employers’ and employees’ delegates to discuss OHS and together to find solutionsdelegates to discuss OHS and together to find solutions  the committees also play important role in monitoringthe committees also play important role in monitoring OHS measures and holding training courses andOHS measures and holding training courses and information eventsinformation events  they are useful tool to implement OHS in practicethey are useful tool to implement OHS in practice  their establishment only obligatory for businesses of atheir establishment only obligatory for businesses of a certain size upwards. The limit is between 20 and 50certain size upwards. The limit is between 20 and 50 employees, depending on the country.employees, depending on the country.
  19. 19. GTZ - Progress Social & Environmental Standarts. Alberto19

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