European network for workplace health promotion presentation
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European network for workplace health promotion presentation European network for workplace health promotion presentation Presentation Transcript

  • EuropeAid/114778/C/SU/UA A. Cerdá Micó 1 The European Network for Workplace Health Promotion (ENWHP) 2001 Report of the Current Status of WHP in Small & Medium Enterprises (SMEs) (19 countries)
  • EuropeAid/114778/C/SU/UA A. Cerdá Micó 2 Objectives: provide overview current practice in workplace OHS pro-motion in SMEs in the European Union We will analyse:  I - general economic and health conditions  II - current procedures and regulations  III - conditions which inhibit or promote practice in both fields
  • EuropeAid/114778/C/SU/UA A. Cerdá Micó 3
  • EuropeAid/114778/C/SU/UA A. Cerdá Micó 4 Special features of SMEs The role of the enterprise owner  regard themselves as independent/enjoy personal autonomy to make decisions.  very sceptical about formal legal require-ments.  If health-related strategies are implemented, they tend to be of a short-term nature.  Longer-term strategic and conceptional  programmes, required for preventive action, are therefore less developed or not promoted.
  • EuropeAid/114778/C/SU/UA A. Cerdá Micó 5 Social relationships in enterprise  strong family atmosphere = tend to be family owned  employees tend to feel trust and loyalty towards the owner  owner shows consideration/understanding towards staff  Not surpris-ing institutionalised representatives – e.g. works councils – have little significance than in large companies
  • EuropeAid/114778/C/SU/UA A. Cerdá Micó 6 Work requirements  characterised by simple organisational structures  Fewer routine activities  significant degree of direct communication  Ad-hoc decisions & improvisation are common than rigid regulations laid down in writing.
  • EuropeAid/114778/C/SU/UA A. Cerdá Micó 7 I General economic conditions  SMEs play a key role in the economic development of Europe  almost 20 million companies within the 19 European states * employ fewer than 250 peo-ple  That is more than 99% of all companies  77 million people work in SMEs
  • EuropeAid/114778/C/SU/UA A. Cerdá Micó 8
  • EuropeAid/114778/C/SU/UA A. Cerdá Micó 9
  • EuropeAid/114778/C/SU/UA A. Cerdá Micó 10 % = Ireland 49; UK 55; Finland 59 Italy & Portugal 80; Spain 79; Greece 78 Regarding turnover and productivity (value added per employee): larger enterprise / higher two indicators
  • EuropeAid/114778/C/SU/UA A. Cerdá Micó 11  risk of accident is much higher in SMEs than in large companies  fatal occupational accidents: are twice in enterprises with fewer than 50 employees than in companies with more than 250 employees  minor accidents in medium-sized and large enterprises are more rigorously documented (makes that Austria, Denmark and Sweeden higher accident rates in larger companies)  sector of the economy plays major role in accident situation: most accidents occur in the building industry.  Industrial production processes (e.g. metal-working & wood processing n) & agriculture are almost as dangerous  Accident risk traditionally lowest in service sectors  Most occupational diseases are reported in building companies, metal-working sector, health services & agriculture.
  • EuropeAid/114778/C/SU/UA A. Cerdá Micó 12 II Structures occupational health and safety for SMEs  Legislative framework  Labour inspection  Occupational health & safety services  Employees representation
  • EuropeAid/114778/C/SU/UA A. Cerdá Micó 13 a) Legislative framework (modified by the Nice Treaty) Social Policy The Community will support and will complete the activities of the Member States in: a) the improvement of the work environment to protect the workers’ health and safety b) improving of working conditions Art. 137.1 (before 118)
  • EuropeAid/114778/C/SU/UA A. Cerdá Micó 14 Art. 137 (ex 118)  To such an end, the Council will: adopt directives as minimum dispositions that will apply progressively, taking into account the conditions and existent technical regulations in each one of the States members...
  • EuropeAid/114778/C/SU/UA A. Cerdá Micó 15 Framework Directive 89/391/EEC Implementation of Measures to Improve the Health and Safety of Employees at Work: Changes  definition of OHS = more comprehensive and geared to prevention  The focus is now on cause-oriented to - risk avoidance -adapta-tion of the working conditions to people (not vice versa) - com-prehensive OHS policy not solely aimed to prevent accidents and paying compensation  the responsibility of the employer has been redefined = jobs have to be assessed for any risks and appropriate action taken  Include civil servants under scope of directive.
  • EuropeAid/114778/C/SU/UA A. Cerdá Micó 16 b) Labour inspection  despite differ-ent structures, qualifications, skills and responsibilities of the labour inspectors, their OHS strategies show more and more similarities  The inspection mandate has been extended to include consultancy and information. The employers are to be advised and informed by the inspectors as to how they should carry out their obligations.  Although inspection and monitoring, linked with action in the case of blatant infringements are still relevant, a new, revised understand-ing of a labour inspector’s role can be seen
  • EuropeAid/114778/C/SU/UA A. Cerdá Micó 17 b) Labour inspection  the aim is no longer short-term, one-off elimination of all acute deficiencies, but the detection of underlying (frequently organisational) shortcomings  the labour inspector more as a mediator and advisor on OHS and less as an inspector  Remaining Problems: subject to restrictions in terms of resources (few staff and insufficient funds)
  • EuropeAid/114778/C/SU/UA A. Cerdá Micó 18
  • EuropeAid/114778/C/SU/UA A. Cerdá Micó 19 The smaller the enterprise/the less chances inspected  Swedend: typical situation in SMEs: labour inspec-torate visits 15,000 of the 160,000 enterprises with fewer than 10 employees annually - 75% of visits made to small enterprises - However the largest companies are contacted on average almost three times a year - the smallest enterprises see a labour inspector once in ten years.  Problems: - Labour inspectorate perceived by SMEs as costly and time-consuming - regulations imposed by the authorities limit their entrepreneurial autonomy - small enterprises have structures which are less hierarchical
  • EuropeAid/114778/C/SU/UA A. Cerdá Micó 20 - lot of proceedings work through oral communication - bureaucratic structures are less pronounced than in large companies - formalised statutory procedures for occupational health and safety represent a major burden = need for documentation, identification, self- monitoring - limited resources = labour inspection is concentrated on high-risk work sites
  • EuropeAid/114778/C/SU/UA A. Cerdá Micó 21
  • EuropeAid/114778/C/SU/UA A. Cerdá Micó 22 c) Occupational health and safety services  the employers are legally obliged to provide care through OHS services  size of the enterprise = the smaller the enterprise, the less favourable the situation is - Although risk assessment is obligatory, it only takes place in 30 to 50 % of small enterprises (< 50 employees) - whereas in larger companies (> 100 employees) the proportion is roughly 90%.
  • EuropeAid/114778/C/SU/UA A. Cerdá Micó 23 c) Occupational health and safety services OHS Preventive services: minimum requirement  only permitted or approved if at least four different disciplines are represented: - occupational medicine (normally externalized), - safety speciality - occupational hygiene - psycho-sociology and ergonomics
  • EuropeAid/114778/C/SU/UA A. Cerdá Micó 24 MICRO ENTRERPRISES: employer takes himself care of prevention  Austria (< 26 employees), Belgium (< 20 employees), Germany (< 50 employees), Portugal (< 10 employees) and Spain (< 6 employees)  employers must learn about risk assessment, cost- efficiency, responsibility, organisation, hazardous substances, etc.  employer is also obliged to take part in regular further training programes (Germany)  employer works personally at worksite (Spain)  Practice: very few. Normal to get external preventive services advise
  • EuropeAid/114778/C/SU/UA A. Cerdá Micó 25
  • EuropeAid/114778/C/SU/UA A. Cerdá Micó 26 c) Occupational health and safety services  In Sweden there are 700 preventive service units with 7,000 doctors, nurses, psychologists, ergonomists, and physiotherapists working in joint private and branch ser-vices  In Spain more than 1000 (Accident non profitable Funds and Private Services  In Finland the municipal model is the most important  The “Good Neighbour Scheme” is a programme (Irish) to encourage OHS in SMEs: - large enterprises with a good occupa-tional health and safety infrastructure - act as mentors for small enterprises in their region - they help and advise local SMEs, support them with their OHS services (including training)
  • EuropeAid/114778/C/SU/UA A. Cerdá Micó 27 d) Health and safety committees and representatives  health and safety representatives are frequently closely linked to the trade unions. They are either nominated directly by the trade unions (UK) or approved by trade unions following an election by the workforce (DK) or simply elected by workers (Spain)  countries where trade union membership has declined (Fr) or (UK), the connection between enterprise occupation-al health and safety representatives and the trade unions is weaker or getting weaker (Spain)
  • EuropeAid/114778/C/SU/UA A. Cerdá Micó 28 d) Health and safety committees and representatives  they present a forum for employers’ and employees’ delegates to discuss OHS and together to find solutions  the committees also play important role in monitoring OHS measures and holding training courses and information events  they are useful tool to implement OHS in practice  their establishment only obligatory for businesses of a certain size upwards. The limit is between 20 and 50 employees, depending on the country.
  • EuropeAid/114778/C/SU/UA A. Cerdá Micó 29
  • EuropeAid/114778/C/SU/UA A. Cerdá Micó 30 III Consequences and need for action 1) Awareness-raising, marketing and communication  traditional OHS, with its formality and bureaucracy, is not suited to SMEs.  must be focused more on motivation, co-operation and consultancy as well as on interest and acceptance  there is a need for positive and pragmatic OHS philosophies which are geared to everyday life in small enterprises integrating OHSin quality and normal productive process  public relations work is essential
  • EuropeAid/114778/C/SU/UA A. Cerdá Micó 31 2) Setting up infrastructures (building supportive environments)  SMEs can only be achieved collectively = co-operation all those involved  political level = developing new policies and integrating existing ones: - reinforcing OHS institutes - establishing dialogue between interested parties - developing policy documents - providing subsidies to organisations undertaking OHS Preventive Services or employing OHS professionals  improve and adapt vocational and long life training concepts in OHS to meet new targets
  • EuropeAid/114778/C/SU/UA A. Cerdá Micó 32 3) WHP service management  develop tailor-made quality-assured preventive services for SMEs  how these services can reach considerably more SMEs = services and measures must: - be closely related to practical problems and experiences of SMEs - they become part of everyday working life (integration) - be readily accessible, i.e. as local as possible.