Unit one AQA A Psychology Attachmet Key Studies to know


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Unit one AQA A Psychology Attachmet Key Studies to know

  1. 1. Unit one AQA A psychology Attachment key study summary revision
  2. 2. Attachment key study summaries The two theories of attachment to learn are  Bowlby’s evolutionary theory  Dollard and Miller’s learning theory
  3. 3. Bowlby His theory consists of 4 main points  That attachments are innate  That there is a critical / sensitive period  Continuity  Monotropy
  4. 4. Bowlby  Innate is proven by Lorenz’s imprinting geese, that followed and formed an attachment with Lorenz from birth, proving that attachment is in fact innate (we are born with it)  Although this was carried out on animals which could be tricky to generalise to humans
  5. 5. Bowlby  The critical period is under the age of 2 years old  It is proven in Rutter's Romanian Orphans study, in which the neglected children in the orphanage had problems forming attachments with their new adopted families if they were over the age of 2
  6. 6. Bowlby  Continuity is proven in Hazan and Shaver’s Love quiz  It showed that those whom had secure relationships with their parents when they were younger were able to create new relationships far more easier later in their adult lives, proving that childhood attachments do matter
  7. 7. Bowlby  Monotropy is putting attachments into a hierarchy with having one primary attachment (mum) and several others  This was proven in the study of Tronick’s Efe Tribe in Congo where all of the women breast fed each others children, but despite this the children still only formed on primary attachment, this disproves the learning theory of Dollard and Miller
  8. 8. Dollard and Miller Learning theory consisted of two types of conditioning  Operant conditioning  Classical conditioning
  9. 9. Dollard and Miller Classical conditioning can be seen in the example of Pavalov's Dogs  Dog is hungry  Salivates when sees food  Bell is run each time before food arrives  Take food out of the equation  And the dog still salivates when bell rings Continued on next slide
  10. 10. Dollard and Miller … so if a baby (like the dog) learns to associate Mother (like the bell) with food the baby will form an attachment to mother
  11. 11. Dollard and Miller Operant conditioning is the association between a behaviour and a consequence to teach children how to behave through either reward or punishment
  12. 12. The next part of attachment is Privation Deprivation studies:  Genie and Rutter’s Romanian Orphans (you’ll find some studies can be related to more than one part of attachment, chose those ones to learn as you wont have as many to memorise)
  13. 13. Genie  She was kept in a room from being a baby  Her parents neglected her, wouldn’t talk or communicate with her  She was taped to a commode for most of her younger years  She was beaten if she made noises  Her younger brother was told to feed her baby food as her diet
  14. 14. Genie  When she was found by social services it was reported that she looked like a 6 year old when her actual age was 13  She could only communicate through animalistic grunts  When taught how to speak by psychologists she couldn’t form whole sentences as she just didn’t understand how to
  15. 15. Genie  When se was found she started to form attachments with the psychologists as they spent a lot of time with her helping her  But when they were finished she was moved around short term foster families in which she was abused further  She was unable to form attachments in foster care
  16. 16. Genie  Unfortunately further research was cut off when genie’s mother regained custody of her, they moved away and nobody has heard of them since
  17. 17. Rutter’s Romanian Orphans  In an over crowded orphanage in Romania children were taken away and adopted into English families  The children were kept fed, clothed and warm in the orphanage but due to overcrowding it meant that thee children were unable to get attention from adults, or form attachments
  18. 18. Rutter’s Romanian Orphans  It was found that the children that were adopted under the age of 2 years settled in lovely into their new homes and formed attachments with their new parents with no problems  But those that were over the age of 2 were resistant and angry about moving, they had problems forming attachments
  19. 19. Short evaluation of the two  In the case of Genie, she is a case study, case studies are individual and unique therefore cannot be generalised or applied to other situations  The two studies are observations, meaning high validity as the experimenter did not manipulate any variables
  20. 20. The next section of attachment is Deprivation Use the case studies of Robertson and Robertson The first case study is of a 2 year old girl who was in hospital for 2 weeks  Her moods swung from being calm and being distressed, she would beg to go home, but in the end came to terms with staying
  21. 21. Robertson and Robertson The next case study is of John  While his mother was giving birth to his sibling he was sent to stay at a 9 day nursery  The nurses were too busy to give him the amount of attention that he wanted  So he cried and began to refuse food  Once her went home her became very resistant to his mother, he would kick and shout when she picked him up and reject her cuddles
  22. 22. Robertson and Robertson Finally is the case study of Jane, Kate, Lucy and Thomas  They went into foster care for 2 weeks  Their dad visits regularly  They showed signs of distress at first, being disobedient, crying, anger  But when it was time to go home they seemed to have formed a bond with the foster mother, and once home rejected cuddles from parents
  23. 23. The next part of attachment is Types  For this you will have to learn Ainsworth and Bell’s Strange Situation  They took 100 middle class American infants  They then put them in a room with their mothers, then observed their reactions when their mother left the room and when she came back  They observed how the child reacted when a stranger made contact with them both with and without their mother in the room with them  They also observed whether the baby was comfortable to explore the room using mum as a safe base to come back to if they get scared
  24. 24. Ainsworth and Bell’s Strange Situation  They then came up with 3 groups of attachment to put the infants into  A) Insecure- Avoidant  B) Secure  C) Insecure- Resistant
  25. 25. Ainsworth and Bell’s Strange Situation  They said that two things could effect the attachment type of the infant Care giver sensitivity hypothesis Or Temperament hypothesis
  26. 26. Ainsworth and Bells Strange Situation  It isn’t ethically correct to make babies cry, it may cause them psychological distress  They only used Mothers in the experiment, assuming that not all primary care givers to children are their mothers this makes for less generalisability  This is a controlled laboratory observation, which as you will know lowers ecological validity
  27. 27. The last part of attachment is Cultural Variations The studies you will need for this part are:  Van and Kroonenburg  Ainsworth and Bell  Tronick
  28. 28. Van and Kroonenburg  They carried out a meta analysis of 32 studies in different cultures  They found that over all Secure was the most common attachment type  But in Japan Insecure-Resistant seemed to be particularly high  And is Germany it was Insecure-Avoidant  This is because in Japan infants rarely leave their mothers sides and in Germany the children are more likely to be taught to be independent  Therefore, American attachment type groups cannot be generalised to other cultures as the ‘norm’ in one country may be different in another
  29. 29. Ainsworth  Ainsworth carried out a naturalistic observation in Uganda  Where she found that if a mother acts in a sensitive caring manner towards the infant then the attachment that will be formed is Secure
  30. 30. Tronick  Tronick observed the Efe tribe in Congo  He found that despite every woman breast feeding everyone's child, primary attachments were still made with the biological mother, which disproves the learning theory of attachment
  31. 31. Finally You will be required to evaluate each of the key studies so consider:  Ethical issues  Generalisability  Reliability  Validity  Any bias