2004/2005

Study Guide

Music by

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Libretto by

Emanuel Schikaneder
This guide was written by Bosto...
Table of Contents
Using this guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
Drama: Walk Like A… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
So...
Using This Guide
Welcome!
This Boston Lyric Opera/Opera New England (ONE) study guide has been developed to
help you and y...
Prior to the day of performance students should, minimally:
o Know the basic plot line of the opera
o Be able to recognize...
# 5: O zitre nicht, mein leider Sohn! (Oh tremble, not, my son arise)
In this aria the Queen of the Night sings of her gri...
# 15: Papagena!
Papageno and Papagena sing of their life together and building a happy family. “Now I will
be thine foreve...
Connecting This Guide to
Massachusetts Learning Standards
Boston Lyric Opera is proud to create educational materials that...
Page
Number (s)
11

12-14

Title
Mozart and Schikaneder

The Great Opera
Composers

Subject (s)
History

Arts
Language Art...
Page
Number (s)

Title

Subject (s)
Language Arts

42

Music: Birdcatcher’s Song

Arts

43

Opera Crossword

Language Arts...
Page
Number (s)
67-68
69
70-72

Title
Sound Science

Subject (s)
Science

Music and Drawing:
Drawing Music
Styles of Poetr...
Standard 14:
Poetry

Standard 15:
Style and Language

Standard 17:
Dramatic Literature

Standard 18:
Dramatic Reading and
...
Standard 2:
Historical Understanding

Standard 3:
Research, Evidence, and Point
of View
Standard 5:
Interdisciplinary Lear...
FOREIGN LANGUAGE
Learning Standard (K-8)
Standard 5:
Comparison

Description
Students will demonstrate an understanding
of...
The Story Behind The Opera…
The Sevenfold Sun & the magic flute
nce upon a time, there lived in the East a wise King, whos...
Then it came to pass, that the wise King sickened and began to die. As he felt death
approach, he called Sarastro to him. ...
The magic Flute

THE CHARACTERS
Tamino, a prince from a neighboring kingdom .................................................
A young prince named Tamino, out hunting in the forest,
has strayed into the mountains and is being pursued by a
dragon. H...
Monostatos. As he threatens to tie them up, Papageno plays his magic bells, which put such a spell on
Monostatos that he h...
Opera at a Glance: Introduction
What is opera?
Opera is a dramatic story told through song. It is considered by many to be...
The Elements of Opera
_____________________________________________________________________________________

A score is th...
Different Styles of Opera
Grand opera

Bel canto

This Italian phrase means “beautiful
singing.” These operas grew from a
...
Ladies & Gentlemen…
What type of Opera is
The Magic Flute?

Singspiel…A short Introduction
Since the dawn of history, comi...
The Creators
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________...
Mozart and Schikaneder∗
Little Wolfgang Mozart, child prodigy pianist, violinist and composer, was
the darling of most of ...
The Great Opera Composers

_____________________________________________________________________________________

More inf...
Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901)
La traviata, Don Carlos, Nabucco
Verdi was born into a lower middle class family of innkeepers ...
Richard Strauss (1864-1949)
Salome, Elektra
From his early years, the well-educated and financially stable Strauss absorbe...
A little history…
Freemasonry, the founding fathers, & The Magic Flute
Freemasonry is an ancient secret order devoted to t...
The Role of Women
Like many organizations, Freemasonry has largely excluded women. However, controversy had already
begun ...
The Interpreters
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________...
Behind the Scenes
While all the action is happening on stage, some very important people are orchestrating all the action
...
The Performers
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________...
Different Types of singers

Did you know?
Women singers did not appear on
stage until the late 1700s. Until
that time, men...
The Libretto
* The words in BOLD type are sung, and the words in plain type are spoken

SCENE ONE
(Tamino runs in, pursued...
Papageno

I am a man of wide-spread fame,
And Papageno is my name.
To tell you all in simple words
I make my living catchi...
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAHHHHHHHHHH!!!!!!!!
(Papageno runs toward Tamino and jumps into his arms)
Are you sure it’s dead? How did I k...
(They exit)
Tamino

For here is like an angel fair
No mortal image can with thee compare
I feel it, I feel it
This lovely ...
Queen

Don’t be afraid, my dearest son
For you are blameless, noble, strong
So hear a mother’s plea, do not ignore me
A wi...
Papageno
Three Ladies

All

Who will as guide show us the way.
Three spirits young and wise will guide you
And on your jou...
Queen

Do you see this dagger? I have sharpened it for Sarastro. I want you to take it and
kill him!

Pamina

No, Mother! ...
Pamina
Papageno
Both

The man who feels sweet love’s emotion
Will always have a kindly heart.
Each maid must share his dee...
Pamina &
Papageno

Pamina
Papageno
Both

Nothing ventured, nothing won!
To escape them, let us run
Let us to Tamino go, or...
They journey to a better land.
Within this holy dwelling,
In brother-love one lives
Of hatred is no telling
For man his fo...
Sarastro

Hail, Prince! You have succeeded in the trial of silence. You will now enter
the Temple, to pray for strength to...
Pamina
Tamino
Pamina

Both

Pagageno

Three Ladies
Papageno
Three Ladies
Papageno

The path of virtue I have taken
Unlock ...
Three Ladies
Papageno
Papagena
Papageno
Papagena
Papageno
Papagena
Both

Papageno
Papagena
Papageno
Papagena
Papageno

Mag...
Theatre Etiquette
As you enter the theatre you are greeted by an usher who provides you with a program, checks your ticket...
Glossary of Terms
Act

A group of scenes, usually related by a passage of time or unified by location.

Allegory

(ex. The...
Dresser

Production crew member who assists with quick costume changes.

Duet

A musical piece sung by two characters.

Dy...
Mezzo-soprano

Middle female voice.

Music Director

Oversees all musical aspects of an opera company, from providing inpu...
Soprano

A high female voice.

Sound Engineer

Production crew member who operates the microphones and adjusts sound
in th...
ACTIVITIES and worksheets

39
The Age of Enlightenment
Also known as the Age of Reason, the 18th century was a time when ideas had the power to direct t...
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
The Magic Flute: A Study Guide
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The Magic Flute: A Study Guide

  1. 1. 2004/2005 Study Guide Music by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder This guide was written by Boston Lyric Opera/Opera New England’s Education and Community Programs Department © 2004 Boston Lyric Opera
  2. 2. Table of Contents Using this guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i-iv v-xii Connecting to Massachusetts Learning Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PART ONE: What Is Opera? What is The Magic Flute? The Story Behind the Opera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cast of Characters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Synopsis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Opera at a Glance: An Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Elements of Opera. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Different Styles of Opera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . What is Singspiel? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Creators of Opera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mozart and Schikaneder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Great Opera Composers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Freemasonry, the Founding Fathers, and The Magic Flute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Interpreters of Opera: Putting It On the Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Performers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Libretto of The Magic Flute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Theatre Etiquette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossary of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 3 4-5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12-14 15-16 17-18 19-20 21-33 34 35-38 PART TWO: Activities and Worksheets The Age of Enlightenment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Art of Storytelling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Music: Birdcatcher’s Song. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Opera Crossword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magic Math . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Meaning of Storytelling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mozart and the American Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Opera Connoisseurs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quest for Pamina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sevenfold Sun Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Travels With Mozart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Magic Flute Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Questions for Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Words as Imagery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Opera Soup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Project Ideas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 41 42 43 44-47 48 49 50 51 52 53-54 55-56, 5859, 62-63 57 60 61 64-65 a
  3. 3. Drama: Walk Like A… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sound Science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Music and Art: Drawing Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Styles of Poetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Always a Critic! Write Your Own Opera Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Set Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . More Sound Science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 67-68 69 70-72 74-76 77-79 80-81 PART THREE: Educator Resources Books. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video and DVD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Audio recordings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Websites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answer Keys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83-85 85 85 86 87-88 Acknowledgments Special thanks to Kelly Perlick, Education Intern, who assisted with the formatting and organization of this study guide, and to Linda Cabot Black, Boston Lyric Opera board member, who created the original versions of several of the articles featured in this guide. b
  4. 4. Using This Guide Welcome! This Boston Lyric Opera/Opera New England (ONE) study guide has been developed to help you and your students explore the subject of opera, The Magic Flute, and a wide variety of related subjects. The guide approaches these subjects via a wide range of disciplines, including language arts, reading, math, science, problem-solving, and social studies. Part One of the guide, “What Is Opera? What Is The Magic Flute?” will open students’ eyes to opera with basic, accessible introductions to the art of opera in general and to the story and themes of Mozart’s The Magic Flute in particular. The arrangement of pages in Part One is meant to inspire chronological usage; that is, moving through Part One from the beginning will provide you with an ever-widening overview of The Magic Flute and of opera in general. Part Two, a series of informational pages and activity sheets, offers an interdisciplinary approach to educating students about The Magic Flute and related subjects. Many of these pages can be used by the students themselves. Part Three, Educator Resources, provide teachers with additional resources in print, on CD or video, and on the web that can be used in addition to the materials found in the guide. Massachusetts K-8 Curriculum Standards Each activity in this guide can be linked to the Massachusetts K-8 Learning Standards. ONE for all! This study guide is designed for use in grades 2-8. Successful navigation of the informational sheets and activities found within requires varying levels of skill. Some activities appear more or less advanced than others. In using this guide, we hope you will feel free to adapt pages or activities to best meet the needs of your students. A simple activity may be a perfect launching pad for a higher-level lesson, and a complex lesson may contain key points onto which younger students can latch. Please make this guide your own! i
  5. 5. Prior to the day of performance students should, minimally: o Know the basic plot line of the opera o Be able to recognize all the major character names o Know the name of the composer Thorough, creative use of this guide will help your students to know much more, enhancing their enjoyment of the opera even further. CD Recordings of The Magic Flute Boston Lyric Opera/Opera New England is very pleased to provide teachers who have purchased tickets for Boston-area performances with a complimentary CD of The Magic Flute to help you prepare your students for the performance (limit one CD per school). INTRODUCE OPERA: When they hear the word “opera”, most children will not know what to expect. This CD will help. Play highlights of the opera from the compact disc recording we have provided: Die Zauberflöte (highlights). Karl Böhm, conductor; singers: Peters, Fischer-Dieskau, Lear, Wunderlich, Otto, Crass; Berliner Philharmoniker; Deutsche Grammophon 429825-2. # 1: Overture Have students listen for the three chords that are played at the beginning of the overture. Ask them when they hear the three chords again. # 2: Zu Hilfe! Zu Hilfe! (Oh help me! Protect me!) In Tamino’s aria, he sings: “Oh help me, protect me, my power forsake me! The treacherous serpent will soon overtake me. . . . Oh rescue me, protect me, save me, rescue me.” # 3: Der Vogelfänger bin ich ja (I am a man of wide-spread fame) This is Papageno’s famous folk song where he sings: “I am a man of widespread fame, and Papageno is my name. To tell you all in simple words; I make my living catching birds. . . . . I’d like to fill my net with all the pretty girls I’ve met.” Music for this song appears on page 42 of the study guide. Teach your students the melody and English translation of this song – it’s easy to learn! # 4: Dies Bildnis ist bezaubernd schön (O image angel-like and fair!) In this aria by Tamino, he sings of his infatuation with Pamina: “O image angel like and fair! No mortal can with thee compare! I feel it, I feel it how this godly sight pervades my heart with new delight. I can not name this strange desire which burns my heart with glowing fire.” ii
  6. 6. # 5: O zitre nicht, mein leider Sohn! (Oh tremble, not, my son arise) In this aria the Queen of the Night sings of her grief over her daughter Pamina’s capture by the evil Sarastro. “An evil fiend tore her from me. How helpless she cowered, her strength over-powered! What sad consternation! What vain desperation! . . . For all my efforts were too weak.” # 6: Bei Männern, welche Liebe fühlen (The man who feels sweet love’s emotion) In this duet, Papageno and Pamina sing of their desire to find their true loves. “Each maid must share his deep devotion, and from this duty never part. The joys of love shall be our own. We live by love, by love alone.” # 7: O Isis und Osiris (O Isis and Osiris) In this aria and chorus, Sarastro and chorus members sing of their desire that Tamino and Pamina discover the right path to seek The Truth. “O Isis and Osiris favor this noble pair with wisdom light! Grant them your aid in their endeavor. Lead them to find the path of right . Let them be strong against temptation. . . Take them to your abode on high.” # 8: Alles fühlt der Liebe Freuden (All the world is full of lovers) In this aria, Monostatos laments of his loneliness in never having a girlfriend. “All the world is full of lovers, man and maiden, bird and bee. Why am I not like the others? No one ever looks at me!” # 9: Der Hölle Rache kocht in meinem Herzen (The wrath of hell within my breast I cherish) In this classic aria, the Queen of the Night sings of her anger that Tamino has failed and Sarastro still has her daughter. “The wrath of hell within my breast I cherish; death, desperation, death, desperation prompt, the oath I swore. If by your hand Sarastro does not perish . . . then as my child I know you nevermore.” # 10: In deisen heilgen Hallen (Within these holy portals) In this aria, Sarastro sings of Tamino and Pamina’s journey. “Within these holy portals, revenge remains unknown, and to all erring mortals, their way by love is shown.” # 11: Seid uns zum zweitenmal willkommen (Here in Sarastro’s hallowed border) In this trio, the three spirits (genii) welcome Tamino and Papageno into Sarastro’s temple. # 12: Ach, ich fühl’s, es ist verschwunden (Ah, I feel, to grief and sadness) In this touching aria, Pamina sings of her pain from being rebuffed by Tamino during his vow of silence. “Ah, I feel, to grief and sadness, ever turned is love’s delight. Gone forever joy and gladness. In my heart reigns mournful night.” # 13: O Isis und Osiris (O Isis and Osiris!) The chorus and Sarastro sing of what is to come for Tamino. “The noble youth through suffering recreated. Shall be to holy office consecrated.” # 14: Ein Mädchen oder Weibchen (I’d give my finest feather) Papagena sings of his heart’s desire to find his “little Papagena.” “I’d give my finest feather to find a pretty wife. Two turtledoves together, we’d share a happy life!” iii
  7. 7. # 15: Papagena! Papageno and Papagena sing of their life together and building a happy family. “Now I will be thine forever… come be my little starling . . . and their grace on us bestowing, will send us tiny children dear.” # 16: Die Strahlen der Sonne (The sun’s radiant glory has vanquished the night) Sarastro and chorus sing of the triumphant of good over evil. Note: The English libretto translation used in the above musical examples is taken from the G. Shirmer Opera Score of The Magic Flute. Calling All Teachers! Send us your ideas! How do you use the study guide with your students? Have you developed classroom activities or helpful tips to supplement the guide? Share your ideas with us. Email us at education@blo.org or mail your ideas to: Calling All Teachers! c/o Education Department Boston Lyric Opera 45 Franklin Street, 4th floor Boston, MA 02110-1316 Be sure to include your name, school, contact information, and grade/subject taught. Questions? If you have any questions about how to use this guide, contact: Lucas Dennis Education and Community Programs Manager (617) 542-4912 extension 239 ldennis@blo.org iv
  8. 8. Connecting This Guide to Massachusetts Learning Standards Boston Lyric Opera is proud to create educational materials that connect opera to multiple disciplines and reinforce the learning standards summarized by the Commonwealth’s Department of Education. This study guide meets the following learning standards as outlined in the K-8 Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks. ARRANGED BY PAGE NUMBER Page Number (s) 1-2 Title The Story Behind the Opera Subject (s) Language Arts History 3 Cast of Characters Language Arts 4-5 Synopsis Language Arts 6 Opera at a Glance: An Introduction Language Arts Arts 7 The Elements of Opera Language Arts Arts 8 Different Styles of Opera 9 What is Singspiel? 10 The Creators of Opera Arts Language Arts Arts Language Arts Foreign Languages Language Arts History Arts Standard (s) 8: Understanding a Text 15: Style and Language 3: Research, Evidence, and Point of View 5: Interdisciplinary Learning 8: Understanding a Text 17: Dramatic Literature 8: Understanding a Text 15: Style and Language 8: Understanding a Text 9: Making Connections 13: Nonfiction 21: Purposes of the Arts 22: Roles of Artists in Communities 23: Concepts of Style 27: Interdisciplinary Connections 8: Understanding a Text 13: Nonfiction 10: Critical Response 24: Materials, Inventions, and Technologies 23: Concepts of Style 13: Nonfiction 23: Concepts of Style 13: Nonfiction 5. Comparison 9: Making Connections 13: Nonfiction 3: Research, Evidence, and Point of View 5: Interdisciplinary Learning 10: Critical Response 21: Purposes of the Arts 22: Roles of Artists in Communities v
  9. 9. Page Number (s) 11 12-14 Title Mozart and Schikaneder The Great Opera Composers Subject (s) History Arts Language Arts Arts Language Arts 15-16 Freemasonry, the Founding Fathers, and The Magic Flute Arts History Language Arts 17-18 The Interpreters of Opera: Putting It On the Stage 19-20 The Performers Arts Arts Language Arts Arts 21-33 34 35-38 40 Libretto Language Arts Theatre Etiquette Glossary of Terms Arts Language Arts Language Arts The Age of Enlightenment Foreign Languages History Language Arts 41 The Art of Storytelling Arts Standard (s) 1: Chronology and Cause 3: Research, Evidence, and Point of View 5: Interdisciplinary Learning 22: Roles of Artists in Communities 13: Nonfiction 22: Roles of Artists in Communities 8: Understanding a Text 9: Making Connections 13: Nonfiction 22: Roles of Artists in Communities 1: Chronology and Cause 2: Historical Understanding 3: Research, Evidence, and Point of View 5: Interdisciplinary Learning 9: Making Connections 13: Nonfiction 21: Purposes of the Arts 22: Roles of Artists in Communities 24: Materials, Inventions, and Technologies 8: Understanding a Text 13: Nonfiction 24: Materials, Inventions, and Technologies 27: Interdisciplinary Connections 4: Vocabulary and Concept Development 8: Understanding a Text 12: Fiction 17: Dramatic Literature 18: Dramatic Reading and Performance 11: Acting 8: Understanding a Text 4: Vocabulary and Concept Development 5: Structure and Origins of Modern English 5: Comparison 2: Historical Understanding 5: Interdisciplinary Learning 2: Questioning, Listening, Contributing 4: Vocabulary and Concept Development 13: Nonfiction 23: Concepts of Style vi
  10. 10. Page Number (s) Title Subject (s) Language Arts 42 Music: Birdcatcher’s Song Arts 43 Opera Crossword Language Arts 44-47 Magic Math Math 48 The Meaning of Storytelling Language Arts 49 Mozart and the American Revolution History 50 Opera Connoisseurs Language Arts Arts Language Arts 51 Quest for Pamina Arts 52 Sevenfold Sun Circle Arts 53-54 Geography 55-56, 58-59, 62-63 57 Travels With Mozart The Magic Flute Vocabulary Questions for Discussion 60 Words as Imagery Arts Language Arts 61 Opera Soup Language Arts 64-65 Project Ideas Arts 66 Drama: Walk Like A… Arts Language Arts Language Arts Standard (s) 2: Questioning, Listening, Contributing 4: Vocabulary and Concept Development 19: Writing 6: Singing 7: Reading and Notation 4: Vocabulary and Concept Development 1: Understanding Numbers 2: Understanding Operations 4: Address Data in Charts 2: Questioning, Listening, Contributing 4: Vocabulary and Concept Development 9: Making Connections 15: Style and Language 1: Chronology and Cause 2: Historical Understanding 5: Interdisciplinary Learning 9: Making Connections 25: Research in the Arts 2: Questioning, Listening, Contributing 18: Observation, Abstraction, and Invention 17: Elements and Principles of Design 8: Places and Regions of the World 4: Vocabulary and Concept Development 2: Questioning, Listening, Contributing 25: Research in the Arts 15: Style and Language 19: Writing 4: Vocabulary and Concept Development 19: Writing 23: Organizing Ideas in Writing 18: Observation, Abstraction, and Invention 19: Processes of Artistry 21: Purposes of the Arts 24: Materials, Inventions, and Technologies 25: Research in the Arts 27: Interdisciplinary Connections 1: Movement Elements 11: Acting vii
  11. 11. Page Number (s) 67-68 69 70-72 Title Sound Science Subject (s) Science Music and Drawing: Drawing Music Styles of Poetry Arts Language Arts Arts 74-76 Always a Critic! Write Your Own Opera Review Language Arts 77-79 Set Design Arts 80-81 More Sound Science Science Standard (s) 4, 5: Forms of Energy 11: Sound Energy 10: Critical Response 27: Interdisciplinary Connections 14: Poetry 15: Style and Language 19: Processes of Artistry 23: Concepts of Style 27: Interdisciplinary Connections 19: Writing 20: Consideration of Audience and Purpose 21: Revising 22: Standard English Conventions 23: Organizing Ideas in Writing 24: Research 14: Technical Theatre 19: Processes of Artistry 4, 5: Forms of Energy 11: Sound Energy ARRANGED BY SUBJECT AREA LANGUAGE ARTS Learning Standard (K-8) Standard 2: Questioning, Listening, and Contributing Standard 4: Vocabulary and Concept Development Standard 5: Structure and Origins of Modern English Standard 8: Understanding a Text Standard 9: Making Connections Standard 12: Fiction Standard 13: Nonfiction Description Students will pose questions, listen to the ideas of others, and contribute their own knowledge or ideas in order to acquire new knowledge. Students will understand and acquire new vocabulary and use it correctly in reading and writing. Students will analyze standard English grammar and usage and recognize how its vocabulary has developed and been influenced by other languages. Students will identify the basic facts and main ideas in a text and use them as the basis for interpretations. Students will deepen their understanding of a literary or non-literary work by relating it to its contemporary context or historical background. Students will identify, analyze, and apply knowledge of the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students will identify, analyze, and apply knowledge of the purposes, structures, and elements of nonfiction or informational materials and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Page Number (s) 40, 41, 48 35-38, 43, 48, 55-56, 58-59, 62-63 35-38 1-7, 11, 19-20, 21-33 4-6, 10-11, 48-49 1-2, 4-5, 21-33 6-20, 40 viii
  12. 12. Standard 14: Poetry Standard 15: Style and Language Standard 17: Dramatic Literature Standard 18: Dramatic Reading and Performance Standard 19: Writing Standard 20: Consideration of Audience and Purpose Standard 21: Revising Standard 22: Standard English Conventions Standard 23: Organizing Ideas in Writing Standard 24: Research Standard 25: Evaluating Writing and Presentations Students will identify, analyze, and apply knowledge of the themes, structure, and elements of poetry and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students will identify and analyze how an author’s words appeal to the senses, create imagery, suggest mood, and set tone, and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students will identify, analyze, and apply knowledge of the themes, structure, and elements of drama and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students will present dramatic readings, recitations, and performances that demonstrate appropriate consideration of audience and purpose. Students will write with a clear focus, coherent organization, and sufficient detail. Students will write for different audiences and purposes. 70-72 Students will demonstrate improvement in organization, content, paragraph development, level of detail, style, tone, and word choice in their compositions after revising them. Students will use knowledge of standard English conventions in their writing, revising, and editing. Students will organize ideas in writing in a way that makes sense for their purpose. Students will gather information from a variety of sources, analyze and evaluate the quality of information they obtain, and use it to answer their own questions. Students will develop and use appropriate rhetorical, logical, and stylistic criteria for assessing final versions of their compositions or research projects before presenting them to varied audiences. 60-61, 70-76 1-2, 4-5, 21-33, 60, 70-72 21-33 21-33 60-61, 70-76 74-76 60-61, 70-76 60-61, 70-76 74-76 74-76 HISTORY Learning Standard (K-8) Standard 1: Chronology and Cause Description Students will understand the chronological order of historical events and recognize the complexity of historical cause and effect, including the interaction of forces from different spheres of human activity, the importance of ideas, and of individual choice, actions, and character. Page Numbers 15-16, 40, 49 ix
  13. 13. Standard 2: Historical Understanding Standard 3: Research, Evidence, and Point of View Standard 5: Interdisciplinary Learning Students will understand the meaning, implications, and import of historical events, while recognizing the contingency and unpredictability of history by studying past ideas as they were thought, and past events as they were lived, by people of the time. Students will acquire the ability to frame questions that can be answered by historical study and research. Students will describe and explain differing conceptions of human nature, the ideas of human nature in the arts, political and economic theories, education of the public, and the conduct of individual lives. 15-16, 40, 49 1-2, 10, 15-16 1-2, 10, 15-16, 40, 49 GEOGRAPHY Learning Standard (K-8) Standard 8: Places and Regions of the World Description Students will describe the earth’s natural features and their physical and biological characteristics; they will be able to visualize and map oceans and continents; mountain chains and rivers; forest, plain and desert; resources both above and below ground; and conditions of climate and seasons. Page Numbers 53-54 Description Identify the basic forms of energy (light, sounds, heat, electrical, and magnetic). Recognize that energy is the ability to cause motion or create change. Give examples of how energy can be transferred from one form to another. Recognize that sound is produced by vibrating objects and requires a medium through which to travel. Relate the rate of vibration to the pitch of the sound. Page Numbers 67-68, 80-81 Description Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems. Understand meanings of operations and how they relate to one another Formulate questions that can be addressed with data and collect, organize, and display relevant data to answer them. Develop and evaluate inferences and predictions that are based on data. Page Numbers 44-47 SCIENCE Learning Standard (K-8) Standard 4: Forms of Energy Standard 5: Forms of Energy Standard 11: Sound Energy 67-68, 80-81 67-68, 80-81 MATH Learning Standard (K-8) Standard 1: Understanding Numbers Standard 2: Understanding Operations Standard 4: Address Data in Charts 44-47 44-47 x
  14. 14. FOREIGN LANGUAGE Learning Standard (K-8) Standard 5: Comparison Description Students will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of language through comparison of the language studied and their own. Page Numbers 9, 35-38 Learning Standard (K-8) Standard 1: Movement Elements Standard 6: Singing Description Students will identify and demonstrate movement elements and dance skills. Students will sing with others a varied repertoire of music. Page Numbers 66 Standard 7: Reading and Notation Standard 10: Critical Response Standard 11: Acting Students will read music written in standard notation. Students will describe and analyze the music of others. Students will develop acting skills to portray characters who interact in improvised and scripted scenes. Students will demonstrate skills in using the basic tools, media, and techniques involved in theatrical production. Students will describe and analyze the theatrical work of others. Students will demonstrate knowledge of the elements and principles of design. 42 Students will demonstrate their powers of observation, abstraction, and invention by using a variety of media and materials. Students will demonstrate knowledge of the processes of creating their own artistic work. Students will describe the purpose for which works of dance, music, theatre, visual arts, and architecture were and are created. Students will describe the roles of artists, patrons, cultural organizations, and arts institutions in societies of the past and present. Students will demonstrate their understanding of styles, influence, and change by identifying when and where art works were created, and by analyzing characteristic features of the work. Students will describe and analyze how performing and visual artists use materials, inventions, and technologies. Students will conduct research on topics in the arts by framing open-ended questions. Students will apply their knowledge of the arts to the study of English language arts, foreign languages, history, social science, math, and technology. 51, 64-65 ARTS Standard 14: Technical Theatre Standard 15: Critical Response Standard 17: Elements and Principles of Design Standard 18: Observation, Abstraction, and Invention Standard 19: Processes of Artistry Standard 21: Purposes of the Arts Standard 22: Roles of Artists in Communities Standard 23: Concepts of Style Standard 24: Materials, Inventions, and Technologies Standard 25: Research in the Arts Standard 27: Interdisciplinary Connections 42 7, 69 21-33, 66 77-79 74-76 52, 77-79 64-65, 77-79 6, 10, 15-16, 64-65, 7, 11, 12-14 6, 8, 9, 41, 50 10, 64-65 50, 64-65 64-65, 70-72 xi
  15. 15. The Story Behind The Opera… The Sevenfold Sun & the magic flute nce upon a time, there lived in the East a wise King, whose good deeds were prized far and wide. In his possession was the Sevenfold Sun Circle, which could reveal the secrets of Nature and thus give great power to its possessor. The King knew that the Sun Circle’s power could be misused, but he guarded it carefully and used it only for the benefit of mankind. The Queen, his wife, was very beautiful. She was also hungry for more power. With great deliberation the King withstood her entreaties to create with the Sun Circle more power and splendor for themselves. Their only child was a daughter, named Pamina. She was very attached to her father. She often accompanied him on journeys through his kingdom, to see to the lot of his subjects, punish wrong, and reward the good. On one such journey, the King, traveling alone, lost his way in the high mountains, where a powerful storm overtook him. He found shelter under a mighty and ancient oak tree. The storm lasted three days. And while he waited he carved from the tree’s wood a flute. As he blew upon it, it led him home, for it was a magic flute. The King put it carefully away. On the border of the kingdom, in the trackless Fire Mountains, lay the grounds of a sacred temple, the seat of an ancient Order of people who had set upon themselves the duty to learn wisdom, to free mankind from the darkness of superstition and hate, and to preach brotherly love. Only the wisest persons of each age could become full members of this order, after they had undergone hard tests, in which they must show constancy, courage, and discretion. The temple and its grounds became a shining example of human activity, and the members served mankind in many lands. From time to time the forces of evil overran the temple grounds and tried to destroy the Order, but always it regrouped and rebuilt, and became stronger. During the reign of the wise king and the beautiful queen, the leader of this Order was named Sarastro,2 an exceptionally wise man. A deep friendship arose between the King and Sarastro. The two met often and Sarastro would counsel the King in his affairs of state. With the two men working closely together, the kingdom flourished. In a neighboring kingdom a prince had been born, who was now fast becoming a man – so skillful, brave, and prudent that even Sarastro and the wise King began to hear of him. It became the King’s innermost wish that this young prince Tamino might someday reign together with Pamina over his kingdom. 2 See Zoroaster and Zoroastrianism, the religion of Persia from ancient times until the coming of Islam in 636 A.D. 1
  16. 16. Then it came to pass, that the wise King sickened and began to die. As he felt death approach, he called Sarastro to him. All his treasures, his crown, and his Magic Flute he left to his wife the Queen, but the Sevenfold Sun Circle he gave over to Sarastro for safe-keeping, for he feared the Queen would misuse it in her quest for power. Also, the King was afraid that Pamina would come to harm with the confusion that would spread throughout the country after his death. So he bade Sarastro to take his daughter, educate her in the precepts of the Order, and one day see her betrothed to the young prince Tamino. As the king breathed his last, the Queen cursed him for taking away her daughter. Pamina grew into a beautiful maiden. She was well protected in Sarastro’s temple grounds, but was constantly pestered by the man Monostatos, whom Sarastro had appointed to watch over her. In her distress and loneliness, she became more and more homesick for her mother. But it had come to pass just as her father had foreseen: the land lay under the harsh and unjust rule of the selfish Queen. With great skill she spread the rumor that she had been betrayed by her husband and robbed by Sarastro. Her only goal was to possess the Sun Circle. To obtain this prized possession, she allied herself with the powers of evil and became known as the Queen of the Night. So reigned strife, confusion, and falsehood throughout the land, and even in the neighboring kingdom of Tamino’s father the Queen’s lies were believed. 2
  17. 17. The magic Flute THE CHARACTERS Tamino, a prince from a neighboring kingdom ....................................................................................Tenor Three Ladies of the Queen of the Night ...................................................... 2 Sopranos, 1 mezzo-soprano Papageno, bird catcher to the Queen............................................................................................................................................................Baritone The Queen of the Night ..................................................................................................................... Soprano Pamina, her daughter ............................................................................................................................ Soprano Monostatos, Pamina’s guard ....................................................................................................................Tenor Sarastro, Leader of the Brotherhood of the Temple ..............................................................................Bass Papagena, a bird-like young woman................................................................................................... Soprano THE SETTING A faraway land in the mountains between two kingdoms. Evocative of Ancient Egypt. Use this box to draw your setting of the Magic Flute! SYNOPSIS – THE STORY OF THE OPERA 3
  18. 18. A young prince named Tamino, out hunting in the forest, has strayed into the mountains and is being pursued by a dragon. He has no more arrows in his quiver, and, expecting to die, he faints. As he collapses, the Three Ladies of the Queen of the Night appear with huge spears and kill the dragon. The Ladies find the prince so handsome they are reluctant to leave, but finally go off to report to the Queen. In wanders Papageno, The Birdcatcher. Tamino awakens and Papageno introduces himself and explains that in exchange for food and wine he catches birds for the Queen of the Night. Tamino spies the dead dragon. “Did you save my life by killing that monster over there?” Papageno, seeing that the dragon is truly dead, replies, “Of course!” No sooner is the boast out of Papageno’s mouth than the Three Ladies reappear, scold him for lying, and place a padlock on his mouth. They then present Tamino with a miniature portrait of the Queen’s beautiful daughter, Pamina. They tell him that she has been kidnapped by the evil Sarastro. The sky suddenly grows dark, and The Queen appears. She sorrowfully sings of her daughter’s abduction, and then turns to the prince, saying “I appoint you to rescue my daughter! If you succeed, you may have her hand in marriage.” Tamino, already smitten by the princess’s portrait, eagerly agrees to find and rescue her. Papageno is to accompany him. Before leaving on their quest, The Ladies and The Queen present them with a magic flute and a set of magic bells to keep them safe. Meanwhile, Pamina is a prisoner in Sarastro’s Temple grounds, where she is tormented and threatened by her guard, the ugly Monostatos. The Queen enters Pamina’s quarters and orders Monostatos to leave Pamina alone. The Queen then demands that Pamina prove her love to her mother by killing Sarastro with a dagger. Pamina is horrified, but the Queen thrusts the dagger into her hand and leaves. Approaching Sarastro’s mountain retreat, Tamino and Papageno have become separated. Papageno comes upon Pamina, and recognizes her from her portrait. He tells her that she is to be rescued by Prince Tamino, who has fallen in love with her. Pamina, who is desperately lonely, is happy to hear that she is loved. Papageno tells her he too is lonely and wishes he could find a wife. Tamino now approaches the Temple grounds and is confronted by a priest (actually Sarastro himself), who confuses him by asserting that Sarastro is not evil but a wise and just leader. Pamina, he says, is not a prisoner; Tamino must wait until he learns the real story behind her separation from her mother. Furthermore, before Tamino can proceed, he must undergo certain trials to prove his courage and steadfastness. In lonely desperation, Tamino plays upon his magic flute, which has the power to make the beasts of the forest dance. In response, he hears the sounds of Papageno’s magic bells in another part of the Temple. Papageno and Pamina are still trying to find their way to join Tamino when they are accosted by 4
  19. 19. Monostatos. As he threatens to tie them up, Papageno plays his magic bells, which put such a spell on Monostatos that he hops off dancing a jig. Finally, Tamino joins them, but Monostatos reenters with Sarastro and lays bare not only their attempt to escape, but also Pamina and her mother’s plot to assassinate Sarastro. Sarastro, however, sees through Monostatos’s scheming and banishes him from the Temple forever. Pamina begs Sarastro to believe that she could have never brought herself to kill him. She also begs forgiveness for her mother’s impulsive plotting, and not to seek revenge. Sarastro replies that revenge has no place in his realm. Before Tamino and Pamina can finally be together, Tamino (and Papageno) must undergo certain trials: of silence, then fire, then water. Pamina comes upon Tamino when he has been sworn to silence and does not answer her pleading. She sings of desperate sadness; devastated, she wanders off. Papageno has utterly failed his test of silence and fortitude, but in comes an old crone who persuades him that she could be his faithful wife. As Papageno contemplates life married to an old crone, she throws off her cloak and reveals that she is the lovely Papagena, the perfect wife for him. But Sarastro whisks her away. Tamino, having passed the test of silence, is reunited with Pamina, who now determines to accompany him through the two final tests of fire and water. Together they go through the terrifying initiations, Pamina leading the way and Tamino playing his faithful flute. Papageno is desperate to find his Papagena again. Just as he despairs, she appears, and together they plan their life together with lots of children. Monostatos, now siding with the Queen of the Night and her Ladies, leads the group into the Temple stronghold to destroy Sarastro, but the power of his Sevenfold Circle of the Sun sends them into the dark abyss. 5
  20. 20. Opera at a Glance: Introduction What is opera? Opera is a dramatic story told through song. It is considered by many to be the most complete art form, combining all of the elements of art, words, music, art, drama, and dance. The earliest Italian operas were called several things, such as “favola in musica” (fable in music) and “dramma per musica” (drama by means of music). This last title is very close to the dictionary definition, and is the correct basis for any discussion about opera. The unique thing in opera is the use of music to convey an entire story/plot. This is based on the feeling that music can communicate people’s reactions and emotions better than words (read or spoken) or pictures. Opera takes any type of dramatic story and tries to make it more exciting and more believable with the help of music. Many famous stories have been made into operas, including Cinderella, Hansel and Gretel, and Romeo and Juliet. How did opera get started? The concept of opera was developing many years before the first opera was written. Its beginnings can be traced to the ancient Greeks. They fused poetry and music, creating plays that incorporate song, spoken language and dance, accompanied by string or wind instruments. In the 1100s the early Christian church set religious stories to music, a style known as liturgical drama. The first true opera, Daphne, was composed by Jacopo Peri (1561-1633). It told the story of a Greek myth. The first great composer of opera was Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643). Some of his operas are still performed today. How is Opera different around the world? Italy was the first country where opera became popular. It was the homeland of Jacopo Peri and Claudio Monteverdi. In time this exciting form of entertainment spread to the rest of Europe. France and Germany joined Italy as the principal opera producers. Eventually opera came to reflect the stories and musical styles of each of these countries. The Italians have always been famous for their love of singing, and so in Italian Opera there has always been great emphasis placed on the singer and the beautiful sounds of the human voice. It wasn’t until the late 19th century and early 20th century with the later works of Verdi and the operas of Puccini was a balance achieved between the role of the orchestra and that of the singer, and the combining of these two forces, to give a more effective presentation of the story. The French have favored the pictorial side of drama, and this has led to a continuing emphasis on the visual spectacle, especially with dancing. An example of this: the Paris opera in the 19th century would not accept a work for performance if it did not contain a major ballet. Verdi, an Italian composer, had to add ballets to all of his works to get them performed in Paris. The Germans have always sought to extract from both the Italian and French traditions, and go beyond both in an attempt to present more than just a story. In fact, one of the greatest German opera composers, Richard Wagner, chose legends or myths for most of his opera plots so that he could communicate ideas as well as just tell a story. 6
  21. 21. The Elements of Opera _____________________________________________________________________________________ A score is the blueprint to an opera. It consists of the words, music, stage directions, and often performance notes for the entire show. An opera score is often divided into sections. It begins with the overture, followed by one to five acts, and one or more intermissions. Each act may be divided into scenes. The scenes are comprised of recitatives, arias, duets, larger ensemble,s and choruses. Overture Musical introduction played by the orchestra that often consists of excerpts from the opera. Intermission Act A group of scenes with a common theme, such as a specific time or place. Most operas consist of 1-5 acts. A break between acts. This allows the audience to stretch and the performers to rest. Singing is hard work! Recitative Aria AR-ee-uh ress-it-uh-TEEV Speechlike singing that advances the plot & fills the spaces between the arias & choruses. A piece sung by one person. Arias allow singers to “show off” while reflecting on their emotions. Duet A musical piece sung by 2 people. Trio A musical piece sung by 3 people Chorus A musical piece sung by a group of people. The chorus may sing on stage or off stage. 7
  22. 22. Different Styles of Opera Grand opera Bel canto This Italian phrase means “beautiful singing.” These operas grew from a style of singing emphasizing long phrases, breath control and flexibility in singing both loudly and softly. Because the voice is considered the most expressive element, the words are often secondary. Gaetano Donizetti composed in this style. Spectacular opera. It is performed with elaborate sets and costumes. Many people are needed to make it happen. Grand opera involves royalty, heroism, an elaborate ballet scene, and is often long. Composer Jules Massenet wrote opera in this style. Opera seria Opera buffa Serious opera. These stories are often tragic, and typically involve heroes and kings or ancient myths and gods. Some of Handel’s operas are in this style. Comic opera, always sung in Italian. The jokesters in these operas are always the working class, such as maids, peasants, or servants, who keep busy getting the best of their employers. Gioachino Rossini composed in this style. Music drama Singspiel Singspiel evolved in German speaking countries out of the comic opera tradition. It includes elements of comic opera, spoken dialogue interjected among the sung phrases, and, often, an exotic or fanciful theme. Mozart’s The Magic Flute is an example of this style. A style of opera that is created by a single artist who writes both the text and the music to advance the drama. This style fuses many art forms, and makes each one as important as the others. Composer Richard Wagner (1813-1883) defined this style. 8
  23. 23. Ladies & Gentlemen… What type of Opera is The Magic Flute? Singspiel…A short Introduction Since the dawn of history, comic or popular theatre has existed alongside serious or tragic theatre. In primitive societies and in modern ones as well, comedy was commonly used as an invaluable way to get at truth. For example, in ancient Greece, satyr plays, those involving humor and improvisation, were as popular as the tragedies. Medieval morality plays featured a moral lesson and a goodly dose of clowning. In England, it was the genius of Shakespeare that managed to bring together these two elements in a single play—not once but again and again, in one masterpiece after another. Opera, too, was influenced by the audiences’ need for a good laugh. The first comedies took the form of entertainment during intermission (called intermezzi) between the acts of a serious opera. By the 18th century, intermezzi had evolved into opera buffa (comic opera) which was just as popular as its serious counterpart. Comedy requires jokes, and jokes require dialogue. Because it is difficult to fit the rhythms of dialogue into song forms, the Italians developed recitative, or sung dialogue (see Glossary). Recitative allowed composers to use music throughout an entire opera – not stopping for dialogue – yet tell dialogue-heavy jokes. The Germans, however, developed a different approach to musical comedy: singspiel (pronounced “zing-shpeel”), or, literally, “sing play.” In this form, spoken dialogue is interspersed among traditional arias. You will notice that this is the case in The Magic Flute. In all of these popular entertainments, Shakespeare’s plays and Mozart’s The Magic Flute stand virtually alone in their masterful integration of lowly comedy and high tragedy (or idealism). 9
  24. 24. The Creators _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Opera is created by a composer who writes the music, and a librettist who writes the words. Most operas are composed in European languages—mainly Italian, German, French, Russian, and English. The Composer The composer has a historically important role in Western culture. Both the nobility and the Church respected musicians, and thus provided for the care and livelihood of artists throughout the latter part of the 18th century. Although artists benefited from the personal security of the patronage system, most did not have the freedom to choose the subject or style of their compositions. It was not until the end of the 1700s that the patronage system declined. The rise of the consumer class allowed composers to write music that could be published and sold to the public. The result was an explosion of creativity, in both style and subject, throughout Europe. Did you know? Today many opera companies in the United States project supertitles on screens above or beside the stage. They are English translations of the opera designed so that the audience can read what is being said or sung without taking their eyes off of the performer. This is distinct from subtitles where the text is displayed below the performance and often on a seat-back close to the spectator. The Librettist The librettist creates or adapts a story so that it can be sung. The stories adapted for opera were usually taken from historical events, myths, poems or plays. Composers often had favorite librettists with whom they worked regularly. Perhaps the most well-known librettist is Lorenzo da Ponte (1749-1838) who collaborated with Mozart on three of his most popular operas: The Marriage of Figaro, Don Giovanni, and Così fan tutte. 10
  25. 25. Mozart and Schikaneder∗ Little Wolfgang Mozart, child prodigy pianist, violinist and composer, was the darling of most of the crowned heads of Europe before he was ten. At 35 when Mozart wrote The Magic Flute he was acknowledged by many educated people to be the greatest composer in Europe, but bad luck and boyish manners had made his career a constant struggle against ruin. It was Mozart’s fate to live in a century when musicians were, as often as not, treated like court tailors, or worse. But opera – this was the point at which the general public most often came in contact with the music of the great composer. Tunes from The Marriage of Figaro were being whistled everywhere. So, it was to opera he turned once again to recoup his finances. This time he chose as a collaborator Vienna’s most popular man of the theatre, Emanuel Schikaneder. Schikaneder had a small wooden theatre on the outskirts of the city, in which he was producer, director, comedian, tragedian, scriptwriter, and publicist all rolled into one. On alternating nights he might regale his audience with his comic turns, only to pack them in the next night as a histrionic Hamlet. He and Mozart had known each other for years, but now at last they would work together to create what would become Mozart’s final opera, The Magic Flute. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Schikaneder had selected the story Lulu by Liebeskind, which had originally appeared in a volume of oriental tales. However, it turned out that the tale was being presented at another German theatre which prevented Schikaneder from proceeding as originally planned. Both Mozart and Schikaneder were Masons and during the late 1700’s the endorsement of Freemasonry was considered controversial (see page 15 on Freemasonry). Queen Maria Theresa indicted Freemasonry and she ordered her troops to break up the Masonic lodges. Schikaneder decided that this was his chance to make a political statement. For the next 150 years, most productions of The Magic Flute contained heavy Masonic symbolism. Mozart’s work on the opera was interrupted during the summer of 1791, first to start work on a Requiem, on commission from a mysterious stranger, then to write a Emanuel Schikaneder completely different opera for the Emperor (which he finished in three weeks, La Clemenza di Tito, an opera also full of idealism and forgiveness). The Magic Flute opened on September 30th with Mozart conducting and Schikaneder in the role of Papageno the Birdcatcher, to great acclaim. It had many performances that autumn, but Mozart was unable to conduct them. He died on December 5th, leaving his Requiem incomplete. ∗ Linda Cabot Black created this article for the 1996 Opera New England Study Guide. 11
  26. 26. The Great Opera Composers _____________________________________________________________________________________ More information about some of the composers who defined and re-defined the opera world! Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) Don Giovanni, The Magic Flute, The Marriage of Figaro Mozart was a child prodigy who toured throughout Europe, performing and composing. When he was just 8 years old, his first compositions were published. Mozart served as performer and composer in a number of royal and papal courts, but insisted on freedom when composing. He was a prolific composer, completing more than 20 operas and countless chamber pieces, concertos, symphonies, and choral works. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Gaetano Donizetti (1797-1848) The Daughter of the Regiment, Don Pasquale Donizetti was trained in music school as a singer and keyboardist, but some of his teachers did not think he could sing well enough. He was nearly kicked out of school, but the founder of the school believed in him and let him stay. Donizetti’s training paid off. He composed nearly 70 operas in his lifetime. Together with Italian composers Gioachino Rossini and Vincenzo Bellini, Donizetti is known for introducing a style of opera called bel canto, which means “beautiful singing.” Operas in the bel canto style focus on the singer’s voice. Gaetano Donizetti Gioachino Rossini (1792-1868) The Barber of Seville, Otello Born to musician parents, Rossini was a natural musician himself. He was only 19 years old when he achieved success with one of his early operas. Rossini was a great lyric composer, always grateful for and attentive to the singer. Speed was one of Rossini’s most notable characteristics as a composer—in one year, he wrote five operas. In all, he composed 39 operas in 19 years, most meeting with great success. Rossini is also known as one of the three Italian composers who developed the bel canto style of opera (see Donizetti, above). He stopped writing operas in 1829, although he lived until 1868! Gioachino Rossini 12
  27. 27. Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901) La traviata, Don Carlos, Nabucco Verdi was born into a lower middle class family of innkeepers and grocers. His education has been described as “self-taught,” the result of private study with various composers, as opposed to formal study at the conservatory. In 1839, his first opera premiered at the most famous theatre in Italy, La Scala. He was immediately commissioned to compose three more operas, and he began a rigorous schedule of composing an opera every nine months. His pace eventually slowed, though the importance of his work did not falter. In all, Verdi composed 27 operas; at the time of his death, he was regarded as a cultural icon. Giuseppe Verdi Georges Bizet (1838-1875) Carmen Bizet was a child piano prodigy, admitted to the Paris Conservatory at the age of 10. Though his short career is marked by many incomplete works, his crowning achievement is Carmen, one of the best known operas of all time. Bizet is one of the best-known and best-loved proponents of a musical movement termed exoticism, that is, a fascination with Asian and Spanish music and themes. Carmen is a result of this movement. The opera was shunned by Paris audiences for its risqué themes, but was quickly revered when Bizet died of a heart attack, three months following the premiere. Georges Bizet Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924) La bohème, Madama Butterfly, Turandot Puccini had an early music education and proceeded on to the Milan Conservatory. He fell in love with opera and decided to pursue a career in opera composition. He soon soared to success, playing with the musical movement of his time, verismo, or simply, realism. Elements of this style, which includes unrestrained emotion and drama, violence, and “everyday people,” are apparent in both La bohème and Tosca. Puccini is regarded as the greatest Italian composer of his time. Giacomo Puccini 13
  28. 28. Richard Strauss (1864-1949) Salome, Elektra From his early years, the well-educated and financially stable Strauss absorbed the musical environment that surrounded him. He was deeply affected by Wagner’s Tristan and Isolde, and this influence is evident in Strauss’s own compositions. Strauss composed in both the raw, expressionist style of the early 20th century and the lighter, more Romantic style of his later operas. In all, he wrote 14 operas, and died peacefully in his home at the age of 85. Richard Strauss Richard Wagner (1813-1883) The Ring Cycle, Tristan and Isolde Wagner is responsible for revolutionizing opera in the 19th century. He was a scholar and composer with a strong literary background, and an appetite for political revolution. In fact, he fled to Switzerland in 1848, shunned by his native Germany. Wagner’s contribution to the opera world is dramatic—he was the first to describe his works as “music dramas,” focusing on drama through music. He wrote the words, he designed the set, he created musical idioms for characters, and he created an orchestra that could tell the story on its own. Wagner’s principal music drama is a cycle of four works called The Ring Cycle, which takes several days to perform. Richard Wagner Did you know? The composer Richard Wagner (VAHG-ner) revolutionized the idea of the libretto. His strong literary background prompted him to write all the texts to his music dramas. In addition, he took control of all aspects of the production, including set and costume design, music and stage direction. By unifying music and drama he demonstrated that drama, complemented by music and visual art, is among the greatest art forms. 14
  29. 29. A little history… Freemasonry, the founding fathers, & The Magic Flute Freemasonry is an ancient secret order devoted to the moral development of individuals who enter it. Its roots are in the Judeo-Christian tradition: its symbols derive from the building, destruction, and rebuilding of the Temple of Jerusalem. There is debate over the actual date and location of the origins of modern Freemasonry, however. Some historians date it to back to the formation of fraternal organizations as an outgrowth of medieval stonemason guilds in the 1200s; others see the first significant event in modern Freemasonry as the formation of the first Grand Lodge in London in 1717. Freemasons insist that theirs is not a religion but a handmaiden to religion, which will make pious or serious persons better members of their churches. Nevertheless, at various times in the past, Freemasons have been persecuted by established religions. By the 18th century, particularly in Catholic countries such as Italy and Austria, Freemasonry and the church were on a collision course. During the course of the Enlightenment and the American and French Revolutions, certain concepts of Freemasonry were taken up by the political leaders. “Liberty – Equality – Fraternity," the rallying cry of the French Revolution, came from a triad of Masonic principles. Of particular interest to us is the role of Freemasonry in the founding of the United States of America. The great majority of the signers of the Declaration of Independence were Masons, as were most of the generals in the Revolution. Except for the two Adamses, all of our Presidents through Andrew Jackson were Masons. Some of them, particularly deists like Jefferson, may have had philosophical conflicts, since Freemasons profess absolute allegiance to a supernatural deity, whereas Jefferson, like most of the philosophers of his time, was interested in natural law, the natural sciences, and the rule of reason. Both Mozart and Schikaneder were Masons, and had Masonic principles in mind while writing The Magic Flute. Among the key Masonic principles to consider include meeting “on the level” with other men: the men who gather in the “Lodge” as Freemasons are all equal and on the same level, regardless of social status or occupation. Mozart and Schikaneder drew from other sources as well: various exotic tales that were floating around at the time, and used in other, less distinguished extravaganzas. It was probably Mozart’s idealism, as much as Freemasonry itself, that took over as the moral principle of the opera; nevertheless, most productions of The Magic Flute between 1800 and 1950 were overwhelmingly Masonic in their décor, costumes, and symbolism. Mozart despised the patronage system (a system of servitude) under which he labored for most of his career. As a musician, he was treated very much as a servant: when the aristocratic rulers who hired him (the Archbishop of Salzburg, Emperor Joseph II, various counts and dukes) said “Jump,” Mozart could usually only ask “How high?” Prior to the early 19th century, the age of Beethoven and Rossini, musicians were craftsmen, or servants, much like a cook or a tailor. The Magic Flute was Mozart’s first opera to be written for a popular theatre and not under the patronage of the royalty or nobility. Sadly, it was his last opera, for he died a few months after its completion. It is fitting, therefore, that the themes in The Magic Flute reflect Mozart’s visions for a society in which all persons are created equal, and truth and goodness always triumph over deception and evil. 15
  30. 30. The Role of Women Like many organizations, Freemasonry has largely excluded women. However, controversy had already begun in Mozart’s time over whether or not women should be included as full members. There was already a subordinate membership called the Order of Mopsos: among its symbols was a golden padlock (women were obviously regarded as chatterers). The idea of man and woman fighting side by side had already become popular in the French revolution. Mozart, in any case, was far more enlightened on the subject of women than was orthodox Masonry. He has Sarastro set out to resolve the opera’s conflict by creating a “new pair,” Tamino and Pamina, who will synthesize the warring elements and herald a new golden age of peace and wisdom. Mozart has Pamina lead Tamino in their final tests, a young woman who is not afraid of night or death. Some Masonic Symbols & Terms The basic concept of “masonry” is to use the building of a temple, stone on stone, as an allegory of the building of moral character, step by step. 1. Masonic Symbols: Plumb (pointed piece of lead hanging on a string to give you true vertical- “the symbol of absolute integrity); Level (carpenter’s tool to establish true horizontal- “the symbol of equality); Square (carpenter’s tool to find a right angle- “the symbol of morality and righteousness”); Pickax (the tool that loosens soil – “symbol of breaking bad habits”); and Blue (the predominant color of Masonry is blue – “representing the vault of heaven).” 2. Audi, Vide, Tace: Listen, observe, and be quiet. (In The Magic Flute we see how badly Papageno fails on this score.) 3. Number Three: The number three, which keeps recurring throughout the opera, is significant to the teachings of the Masons. Look for the symbolism of three in the opera. There are many examples: three ladies, three geniis, the three temples, the three trials, etc. In the music, listen for the three heavy chords that open the overture and that are again repeated in the temple scene when Tamino begins his trials. The symbolism of three has been accredited to representing the three knocks on the door by the brotherhood to enter the Masonic lodge. 4. Egypt: The setting of the opera is in Egypt which is said to be where the rites of freemasonry originated. 5. Did you know? U.S. President George Washington was a Mason. In Alexandria, Virginia there stands today one of the most famous Masonic temples in this country - The George Washington Masonic National Memorial in Alexandria, Virginia. Open to visitors daily, it is an exceptionally beautiful structure that houses some of the artifacts from Washington’s life. 6. Cardinal Points of the Compass: First the building must be oriented. As with churches, Masonic temples are oriented toward the East, which represents wisdom, enlightenment, and the rising of the sun. The South represents Beauty: the West is Strength, and the North is Darkness (obviously, Freemasonry was born in the northern hemisphere!). 16
  31. 31. The Interpreters _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Once an opera is created, a team of artists begins the process of transforming the words and music into a visual spectacle. These artists are called directors and designers. Their role is essential in interpreting the intentions of the composer and librettist. The directors and designers develop an opera’s visual concept by first identifying the key themes. Then they engage in extensive research on the historical context for the work, including the clothing of the period and the culture of the society. Sometimes directors and designers choose to stay true to the history and setting of the work. Other times they elect to change the location or historical period of an opera. Either way, they are required to make countless decisions about everything from costumes to sets to the action on the stage. Roles of the Artistic Team The Stage Director is responsible for the action on the stage. This is accomplished by working with the singers for weeks before the performances, directing their movements and helping them develop their individual characters. The Music Director, also known as the conductor, interprets the music of the opera and rehearses it with the singers and the orchestra. During rehearsal the music is shaped to express different moods of the opera. For example, the conductor decides how fast or slow (tempo) and how loudly or softly (dynamics) the music is played. The Set Designer designs the scenery for the opera. The Lighting Designer manipulates the lights to create effects which help set the mood and complement the action on stage. The Costume Designer creates the clothes that the singers will wear on stage. The choreographer is responsible for creating and directing any dancing that takes place in the opera. 17
  32. 32. Behind the Scenes While all the action is happening on stage, some very important people are orchestrating all the action backstage. They are the production crew, and this is what they do: The Stage Manager leads the crew and directs all the action that happens backstage. Stage Managers direct scene changes, artists’ entrances and exits, sound/light changes, curtain movement and all other activities that make the opera run smoothly. Their job requires great leadership and quick decision-making A crew of stage hands work in synchrony with the Stage Manager. They move scenery and set props (short for “properties”), which are objects used in the scene. The Props Supervisor makes sure that all props are placed appropriately and are available when the singers need them. The Wardrobe Supervisor oversees the costumes and attends to last minute fittings and repairs. The Wardrobe Supervisor may be assisted by dressers, who help with fast costume changes. The Makeup Artist assists singers with dramatic stage makeup that must be applied in order for their features to be seen from the back of the theatre. Not all crew members work backstage. The Sound Engineer, working from a table in the rear of the theatre, operates the microphones and adjusts the sound. The Master Electrician, also working in a booth in the rear of the theatre, directs the positioning of the lights and then operates the lights during a show. Both need to be in the audience to hear and see what is happening onstage. The rehearsal pianist accompanies the artists as they rehearse the opera. This job also entails serving as a coach, assisting the artists with language and musical preparation. 18
  33. 33. The Performers _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ On the stage Most likely, singers are the first people we imagine when we think of opera. In fact, in the Italian tradition, singers were held in the highest esteem. Remember the bel canto style discussed in the Opera at a Glance section? This style of opera was totally devoted to the vocalist. Training Opera singers are specially trained, like athletes. They must acquire skill in controlling the flow of air, which means developing abdominal muscles and good lung capacity. Many singers attend a college music school or conservatory. There, they study their craft and practice technique—including breath control, vowel production, and diction. Maria Callas Maria Callas A singer must also develop artistry, the expressive interpretation of songs. This includes the study of multiple languages, literature, and history. In addition, singers must have knowledge about a song’s composer and lyricist, as well as an understanding of the reason for its creation. Then they can begin the process of practicing the piece. Other People on the stage TRY THIS! Find the singing muscle! Place your hand on your belly and laugh. The muscle that is moving is your diaphragm. This is the muscle used to support the flow of air! Supernumeraries Supernumeraries, or “supers,” as they are often called, are actors who perform a number of functions. They play crowds of people during large scenes, handle props, and sometimes dance. Supers do not sing but are essential to the “bigness” of opera. Down Below: The Orchestra The orchestra is a group of instrumentalists who accompany the singers. The orchestra performs in a pit, the sunken area in front of the stage. Keeping it Together: The Conductor The conductor has the task of unifying the singers and orchestra. Since the orchestra and the singers cannot see one another, the conductor is charged with directing all musicians. With the use of his or her hands she provides tempo, volume, and other expressive elements of the music. 19
  34. 34. Different Types of singers Did you know? Women singers did not appear on stage until the late 1700s. Until that time, men played all the women’s roles, wearing dresses and wigs. What type of singing voice do you have??? Coluratura Soprano- Female singer with a very, very high voice, who is capable of performing fast-moving notes with ease. Soprano- Female singer with a high voice. Countertenor-Male singer who can sing in a woman’s voice range. Men are able to sing in falsetto, a style of singing that allows them to reach almost all the notes that women can reach. Mezzo-Soprano-Italian term meaning “middle soprano.” Woman with a voice slightly lower than a soprano. Contralto-Rare female singer who can sing very low notes. Tenor- Male singer with a high voice Baritone- Mid-range male singer who sings some high notes and some low notes. Bass-Baritone- Male singer who can sing high notes and low notes with ease. Bass- A male singer with a very low voice. 20
  35. 35. The Libretto * The words in BOLD type are sung, and the words in plain type are spoken SCENE ONE (Tamino runs in, pursued by a dragon) Tamino Oh help me, protect me! The poisonous serpent will soon overtake me I see it draw near! O rescue me, protect me, save me! (Tamino faints) (The Three Ladies enter and kill the dragon) The Three Ladies Rejoice! The deed is done, we’ve won the fight! We’ve saved this prince from certain death. First Lady Second Lady Third Lady What beauty in this gentle face! I never saw such lovely grace! Yes indeed, for fingers to trace If I should fall in love again This prince indeed would be my choice. First Lady Second Lady Third Lady You both go on your way, and I would like to stay. No, no, you go ahead, and let me stay instead So, then we must go away O noble prince, and say farewell, Until we meet again. (The Three Ladies exit) Tamino Where am I? Am I dreaming? Am I still alive? Music! (He catches sight of Papageno off in the woods.) Is it a bird…..or is it? (Papageno enters) 21
  36. 36. Papageno I am a man of wide-spread fame, And Papageno is my name. To tell you all in simple words I make my living catching birds. The moment they attract my eye I spread my net and in they fly. I whistle on my pipe of Pan In short I am a happy man. Although I am a happy man, I also have a future plan; I dearly love my feathered friends But that’s not where my interest ends. To tell the truth I’d like to find A pretty girl of my own kind In fact I’d like to fill my net With all the pretty girls I’ve met. Once all the girls were in my net I’d keep the fairest for my pet My sweetheart and my bride-to-be To love and cherish tenderly. I’d bring her cake and sugar plums And be content to eat the crumbs. She’d share my little nest with me A happier pair could never be. Tamino (Entering) Hey there! Tell me, my fine feathered friend, who are you? Papageno Who am I? What a stupid question! I am Papageno, Chief Bird Catcher to the magnificent Queen of the Night! Tamino I am Prince Tamino. Are you royalty, too? Papageno What? No. I mean, of course! Tamino Now I get it! You must have saved my life! Papageno What!? Tamino The dragon—how did you do it? You have no weapons. Papageno Dragon? Where? (Papageno walks toward dragon, steps on tail forcing smoke from its nose) 22
  37. 37. AAAAAAAAAAAAAAHHHHHHHHHH!!!!!!!! (Papageno runs toward Tamino and jumps into his arms) Are you sure it’s dead? How did I kill it? Oh well, for me a strong squeeze of the hand is mightier than the sword! (Papageno demonstrates strangling and wrestling the dragon to the floor) Tamino You strangled it? Papageno I strangled it! (Enter the Three Ladies) Three Ladies Papageno! Tamino Who are they? Papageno Oh, these are the Ladies in Waiting to the Queen of the Night. Everyday I bring them birds in exchange for wine, cake and sugarplums. Ladies, here are today’s birds for the Queen. Second Lady (Spilling water on Papageno’s face) Today, our Queen sends you water instead of wine. Papageno Water? Third Lady And, she ordered me, instead of cake, to give you this stone. (She throws a large stone to Papageno and he falls to the ground with it) Papageno A stone for lunch? Second Lady And, instead of sugarplum, she has instructed us to put this padlock on your mouth, so that you can tell….. The Ladies ….NO MORE LIES! Third Lady Prince Tamino, it was we who saved you. (All three curtsey to the Prince and he bows) Tamino Our gracious Queen sends you this picture of her daughter Pamina. She is quite beautiful. Second Lady Until we meet again, dear prince. 23
  38. 38. (They exit) Tamino For here is like an angel fair No mortal image can with thee compare I feel it, I feel it This lovely sight Bring joy to my heart, my empty heart I cannot name this strange desire Which burns my heart with raging fire Can this emotion love be? Ah yes, it’s love alone I feel. Oh how to find my love burning I would then, what would I do? Upon this heart would I press her Within these loving arms I’d caress her Then evermore she would be mine. (Two Ladies reenter) Second Lady Dear Prince, the Queen has heard your every word, and has sent us to beg your help in rescuing her daughter. Tamino Is Pamina in danger?! Third Lady She has been kidnapped! Tamino Kidnapped! Second Lady By the evil sorcerer…. Two Ladies …..Sarastro! (The Two Ladies look at each other and emit frightened sounds) Tamino Sarastro? Third Lady He holds her captive in his palace just beyond these great mountains. The Ladies The Queen! The Queen approaches! 24
  39. 39. Queen Don’t be afraid, my dearest son For you are blameless, noble, strong So hear a mother’s plea, do not ignore me A wilderness of sorrow lies before me. Alone, abandoned, and forsaken, How I recall the dreadful day The day I saw my daughter taken A wicked man stole her away. By stealth near her creeping I still hear her weeping My poor heart was breaking I saw her sorrow all too plainly “Ah help!” I heard my daughter say All of my power had drained away You are chosen to defend her Soon you must hasten to her side And if success is granted You may take her for a bride. Tamino Can it be true? How will I save Pamina from evil Sarastro? Oh gods, give me strength—give me courage! Papageno Tamino Papageno Tamino Papageno Three Ladies Papageno Second Lady Papageno Ladies All HMMM! HMMMMM! The poor lad must surely suffer, He tries to talk, but all in vain! HMMM! I can no help or comfort offer. I wish I could relieve your pain. HMMM! We now forgive you graciously; from punishment you are freed. Oh what a joy again to chatter! Be truthful and you will fare better! No lie shall ever come from me! This padlock may your warning be. If one could seal the lips of liars, With such a padlock fast and tight, Then hatred, slander’s poisoned briars Would yield to brotherhood and right. Oh Prince, upon our Queen’s command I lay this treasure in your hand This magic flute I give to you Its mystic music will defend you. (To Papageno) These precious bells are meant for you Well, may I see it too? Here are bells of silver swinging But shall I learn to set them ringing O yes indeed! Flute and belltones, Magic power shall be yours in danger’s hour. Fare you well, we’ll meet again. Fairest ladies, tell us, pray! First Lady Papageno Three Ladies Papageno Three Ladies All Tamino 25
  40. 40. Papageno Three Ladies All Who will as guide show us the way. Three spirits young and wise will guide you And on your journey stay beside you. Rely on them where they may lead Only their counsel shall you heed Fare you well! SCENE TWO Pamina’s quarters, in Sarastro’s Temple grounds. Monostatos Pamina Monostatos Pamina Monostatos Pamina Monostatos Papageno Monostatos & Papageno My dearest treasure come to me Oh will my tortures never cease! Your life is at my mercy! But Death cannot dismay me. Yet for my mother’s sake, I mourn Her heart will break by sadness torn. Bring chains, ye slaves, and fetter her! I’ll force you to obey me I beg you, rather slay me If naught can stir your evil heart (To slaves) Get out, get out! Leave me alone with her. (Entering but not seeing Monostatos at first) Where am I now? Where have I strayed? A-ha! There’s something moving But I am not afraid. Dear maiden, young and fair And purer than a snowflake Hoo, that is the devil certainly! Have pity! Be merciful! (Papageno runs away from the site of Monostatos) Queen Do not touch that child! Monostatos The Queen of the Night! (He withdraws in terror) Pamina Mother! Save me! Queen Save you? You must first prove yourself worthy of being my daughter and do as I say. Pamina Yes mother, anything! 26
  41. 41. Queen Do you see this dagger? I have sharpened it for Sarastro. I want you to take it and kill him! Pamina No, Mother! I cannot kill Sarastro! Queen The wrath of Hell within my breast I cherish Death and defiance are in my heart If not by your hand Sarastro’s life be taken I shall disown my daughter evermore Abandoned forever, forsaken forever, and shattered forever All knots that nature tied, abandoned and broken Hear, hear! Gods of vengeance, hear a mother’s cry! (She exits) Papageno (Re-enters) What a fool I was to let myself be scared. After all, there are ugly birds in the world, so why shouldn’t there by ugly people? (Seeing Pamina) There she is! She is the one, the daughter of the Queen of the Night. Hair black, eyes blue, cheeks pink—she’s the one alright, except for the hands and the feet. In this picture she has no hands and feet. Pamino Who are you? Papageno I’m Papageno, your mother’s bird catcher. I have come here with Prince Tamino to rescue you. Pamina Prince? Is he handsome and brave? Papageno Oh yes! Pamina Is he coming to save me? I always knew there would be a happy ending! Papageno A happy ending for you, but not for me. Pamina What do you mean, Papageno? Papageno You may find true love, but I am afraid I never will. Pamina Oh Papageno! Of course you will! 27
  42. 42. Pamina Papageno Both The man who feels sweet love’s emotion Will always have a kindly heart. Each maid must share his deep devotion And from this duty never part. Its noble aim shows clear in life No greater good than man and wife Man and wife and wife and man Reach the heights of a godly life. SCENE THREE Another part of the Temple grounds. Tamino Can it be that I reached the grounds of Sarastro’s palace? Is this the place where Pamina is held prisoner? I must find her. Speaker (Sarastro) Stand back! Why have you entered these holy grounds? Tamino Forgive me. I am searching for the palace of the evil sorcerer Sarastro. Speaker This is Sarastro’s palace, but he is not evil. He rules with wisdom, compassion, and justice. Tamino Sarastro stole my future bride, Pamina, from her mother! Speaker Bride? I see! But you do not understand. You do not know why, you do not know the whole truth. Tamino When will I know the whole truth? How can I find my Pamina? Speaker Before you can be considered worthy enough to marry Pamina, you must first undergo our trials of wisdom and courage. Tamino What are these trials? Speaker I can tell you no more. For now, let the Magic Flute be your guide. Tamino How strong your tone with magic spell, dear flute, is binding By your tone, dear flute, each being new happiness and joy is finding! But Pamina does not hear! Pamina, hear me, I pray! In vain! Where shall I discover you? (He hears Papageno’s pipes) Ah! That is Papageno’s sound! Oh might he have Pamina found? Oh might she come with him to me! Oh might the tone bring her to come! (He goes off looking for the others) 28
  43. 43. Pamina & Papageno Pamina Papageno Both Nothing ventured, nothing won! To escape them, let us run Let us to Tamino go, or they’ll catch us, They’ll catch us indeed. Oh, Tamino! Quiet, let me show you how to call him. Then no harm did yet befall him What a joy to hear his tone It was he, yes he alone Now no more we have to worry Let us hurry, scurry, hurry, scurry! (Tamino reenters) Pamina Tamino! Tamino Pamina! Papageno Pamina, this is Prince Tamino! This is the Princess Pamina! Oh quick, quick. There is no time for this. We must get away before Monostatos finds us. (Enter Monostatos and Sarastro) Monostatos A-ha! Not so fast! Just as I told you. They have come to steal Pamina away. But she will not go until she has followed the wishes of her mother and kills you with this knife! Pamina Sire, it’s not true! I didn’t promise! I couldn’t. Monostatos Yes, it’s true, I saw her! Sarastro Enough Monostatos! You have lied to me for the last time. I banish you from my kingdom forever! Monostatos But sire, I don’t understand. Pamina Sire, I could never harm you! I beg you to understand. My mother was so terrified and distracted that she did not know what she was asking. Please do not seek revenge on her. Sarastro Revenge? Sarastro Within these holy portals Revenge remains unknown And to all erring mortals, Their way by love is shown And guided forth by friendship’s hand (Pamina cries at Sarastro’s feet. He comforts her and helps her up) 29
  44. 44. They journey to a better land. Within this holy dwelling, In brother-love one lives Of hatred is no telling For man his foes forgives Who by this law is led a-right Will ever share the gods’ delight! Sarastro Pamina, the young Prince Tamino has come to claim you for his wife. But before the two of you can be united, he must pass the sacred trials of our kingdom. Do you love him? Pamina Yes, oh yes! Sarastro Then let the trials begin. (Pamina withdraws) Papageno Lights! I’m afraid of the dark. Tamino Papageno, are you still with me? Papageno Oh no! Tamino What’s wrong? Papageno I’m trying to muster up enough courage to faint! Tamino Be a man. Papageno I am a man. But I’m also chicken! Sarastro Your first trial—the trial of silence—is about to begin. Tamino, no matter what happens, you must not speak. (Pamina enters) Pamina Tamino. Tamino, why do you not speak to me? Pamina Ah, I feel it, has it disappeared? Forever lost all my complete happiness Never to return, joy and gladness. In my heart reigns mournful night. See Tamino, see my tears, See my tears for you alone. If for love you do not languish Peace I find then in death alone. (She goes off in complete despair) 30
  45. 45. Sarastro Hail, Prince! You have succeeded in the trial of silence. You will now enter the Temple, to pray for strength to guide you through the trials of fire and water. Papageno This is where I came in and this is where I leave! Sarastro Human! You should be forced to spend your life here alone forever! But the gods have mercy and forgive you. However you will never experience the joys of heavens. Papageno Who cares? I’ll settle for the earthly joys. As a matter of fact, I’ll settle for a glass of wine. Crone Here you are, deary! Papageno What luck! (He sees her stooped figure) AAHHHHHHHHHH! Crone If you promise to be true to me forever, you will see how dearly I love you! Papageno Well, it’s the best offer I’ve had all day! How old are you, sweet thing? Crone Eighteen years and two minutes. Papageno Well, better an old wife than no wife at all! Crone Do you swear to be always faithful? Papageno (Crossing his fingers behind his back) I swear it…. …..until someone prettier comes along! (The Crone transforms into a beautiful young girl) Papageno Pa, Pa, Pa!! Sarastro Off with you, young woman! He is not worthy of you yet! Papageno Pa, Pa, Papagena! Two armed men Man, wandering on his road, must bear the tribulation (sung by Monostatos Of fire and water, earth and air’s probation and Sarastro off stage) If he prevails against the lures of evil’s might He soon will know the joys of heaven’s light Enlightened, he will now himself prepare. Tamino By fear of death I am not shaken 31
  46. 46. Pamina Tamino Pamina Both Pagageno Three Ladies Papageno Three Ladies Papageno The path of virtue I have taken Unlock the fatal doors to me My course will firm and gallant be Tamino, mine! Oh happy fate! Pamina, mine! Joy fills my heart! Beyond the gates of Temple, Both death and menace hide. You’re every act upholding, I shall not leave your side. In me your trust confide, For love shall be my guide Our path with roses it adorns, For roses always grow with thorns Now take the magic flute and play Its golden tones protect our way The fire’s flames we have transcended The danger we have firm withstood And still by magic tones defended We penetrate the water’s flood Oh Gods, what visions make us see! Isis fills the sky with light. (They exit) (Alone, by a small tree) Papagena, Papagena Dearest, sweetest, Papagena Tis hopeless, ah, how she has failed me! Since I was born bad luck has trailed me! By chattering, chattering, I lost my maid And for this crime I am repaid Since I have tasted of that wine Well, I’ll wait a while, let’s see, Till I count from one to three, One, two, three No one came, my lot is cast So this moment is my last Not a hand will mine restrain Fare thee well, thou world of pain! Hold back, hold back! Oh, Papageno hear our plea! You live but once, and that enough should be. My little friends you are mistaken For if like me you were forsaken You too, your luck with girls would try. Then take your magic bells and play them Your little sweetheart will obey them! Hey very foolishly I acted I truly must have been distracted My magic bells, I’ll set you ringing And you will call my maiden here And bring my maiden to my side. 32
  47. 47. Three Ladies Papageno Papagena Papageno Papagena Papageno Papagena Both Papageno Papagena Papageno Papagena Papageno Magic bells are ringing Call my maiden here Now Papageno, turn around! Pa, pa, pa, pa! Pa, pa, pa, pa! Now you will be mine forever Now I will be thine forever Come and be my little starling! I will be thy heart’s own darling! What a joy for us is near! When the gods, their bounty showing, And their grace on us bestowing Will send us tiny children, dear Such lovely, tiny children dear First we will have a Papageno Then we will have a Papagena Then comes another Papageno Then comes another Papagena It is the greatest joy of any! It is the greatest joy of any When many Papagenos upon Their parents blessing bring! (Change of scene Monostatos and the Queen enter) Monostatos We must be silent, silent, silent. As we approach the Temple door. Queen and Ladies We must be silent, silent, silent As we approach the Temple door. Monostatos & Ladies Thou great and might Queen of Night Their lives are thine by law and by right. (A great thunder and lightening storm approaches) Queen, Ladies & Monostatos Demolished, extinguished, defeated our might We plunge into destruction and infinite night! (They sink into the earth. Change of scene—Pamina and Tamino stand before the Temple of the Sun— Curtain call) The End 33
  48. 48. Theatre Etiquette As you enter the theatre you are greeted by an usher who provides you with a program, checks your ticket and helps you find your seat. Most theatres where opera, plays, and musical theater are performed forbid food and drink in the auditorium. It is important to remember to arrive at the theater before the announced curtain time. When you enter, the curtain is down and the house lights are up. The dimming of the house lights is the signal that the show is about to begin. As the house darkens, the conductor enters the pit. Arriving at the podium, the conductor is outlined by a spotlight and he or she turns to greet the audience, which returns the greeting with applause. Many operas begin with an orchestral piece, known as an overture, a non-sung musical introduction to the opera, before the curtain rises. Most operas have intermissions that provide the audience a chance to use the restrooms, have a drink, get some fresh air and talk while the stagehands change the set. However, since the performance of The Magic Flute that you will be seeing is only one hour in length, there is no intermission. Therefore, it is very important that before the show begins you get your drink of water or make that trip to the restroom. It is very disruptive to other audience members, not to mention to the performers, when you leave your seat during a performance. Show your enthusiasm by applause. It is important that you enjoy the show – laugh and cry as you like, but please do not talk, because that disturbs others who are trying to hear the words and music. Remember also that the entire company is trying to give you their best performance. Unnecessary noise from the audience makes it difficult for them to concentrate and it is absolutely forbidden to take pictures or try to record what is going on. At the end of the show the performers, conductor and director come back out for curtain calls, giving an opportunity for the audience to show their appreciation through applause. People who are particularly enthusiastic shout “Bravo.” When the house lights come up, it is a signal for the audience to leave and let the tired performers go home. Etiquette in A Nutshell Show your enthusiasm by applause, but only at the appropriate times – at the end of arias or songs or at the end of the show. BE RESPECTFUL OF OTHERS AND REFRAIN FROM TAKING ANY PICTURES DURING THE PERFORMANCE. Talking during a performance interferes with other students hearing the words and the music of the opera. 34
  49. 49. Glossary of Terms Act A group of scenes, usually related by a passage of time or unified by location. Allegory (ex. The Magic Flute) A story that often contains a hidden symbolic meaning. An allegory uses its characters to depict moral qualities. It is closely related to a parable or fable (fictional stories that use animals as characters to describe a moral truth). The art of allegory reached its greatest popularity during the Middle Ages (5th c.-15th c.) in the works of Dante and Chaucer. Aria A musical piece sung by one character. It usually describes the emotion(s) they are feeling. Artistry Expressive interpretation; the way a singer performs a role onstage. Baritone The middle male voice. Bass The lowest male voice. Bel canto An Italian style of opera that emphasizes the voice and beautiful singing as the most expressive element in opera. Choreographer Directs and designs dance scenes. Chorus A musical piece sung by a group of people of all voice types. Coach Assists artists with musical and language preparation. Coloratura soprano Female singer with a high voice and the ability to perform fast moving notes in the extreme high range. Composer The artist who writes the music of the opera. Conductor Interprets the music of the opera; keeps the singers and the orchestra together during the performance. Contralto The lowest female voice. Sometimes referred to as “alto.” A female singer who can sing very low notes. Costume Designer Designs the clothes for the opera. Countertenor A male singer with a highly developed falsetto; able to produce and sustain notes in a woman’s range (see “falsetto”). Diction The process of proper enunciation and communication of text. 35
  50. 50. Dresser Production crew member who assists with quick costume changes. Duet A musical piece sung by two characters. Dynamics How loudly or softly a piece is performed. The Enlightenment This was the age of the great French and English philosophers who set out to deal with the nature of man not vis-à-vis God but vis-à-vis his fellow man. It was an age of the philosopher-kings who took note of these developments, and who tried to put some of these ideas into practice, but who in the end had to step down from their thrones to allow the transformation of society and government to take place. The culmination of that transformation, which took place only two years before The Magic Flute, was the United States Constitution, and its Bill of Rights, which still stand today. A period characterized by a loss of faith in traditional religious sources of authority and a turn toward human rights, science, and rational thought. Ensemble A musical piece sung by five to nine people. Exoticism A fascination with Asian and Spanish music and themes; historically, in art and literature, a Western way of constructing the East (as exotic, as feminized, as static, as weak) that is built on false, imperialist, racist assumptions Falsetto The term given to a male voice singing in the female voice range. Freemasonry In its most idealistic form: a brotherhood devoted to wisdom, truth, and reason. In The Magic Flute, we see Mozart celebrating the notion of an ideal society built on these principles. One of the themes the opera explores is the difference between imposed authority based on inequality and free choice based on moral education. Glockenspiel A percussion instrument consisting of metal bars of varying lengths. When Papageno plays his bells, you’re hearing a glockenspiel. Grand opera A lengthy style of opera favored by the French featuring royalty and acts of heroism, and containing a ballet. Intermission A break between acts that allows the audience and the singers to rest. Librettist The artist who writes the words of the opera. Libretto The words of an opera. The word literally means “little book.” Lighting Designer Develops the lighting scheme for the opera. Makeup Artist Production crew member who applies the stage makeup to singers and actors. Master Electrician Production crew member who directs positions of lights and operates lights during the performance. 36
  51. 51. Mezzo-soprano Middle female voice. Music Director Oversees all musical aspects of an opera company, from providing input on the selection of an opera season to the casting of singers; helps to ensure the quality of the orchestra and the chorus; and often conducts one or more operas per season (see Conductor). Music drama Music and text created by a single artist and developed into an onstage production. Combines all art forms, with each one as important as the others. Opera A story that is told through singing, acting, and sometimes dance. Opera buffa Comic opera that often involves the working class—maids, peasants, and servants— triumphing over their stupid masters. Opera seria Tragic opera that involves a hero, a villain, and usually ends sadly. Orchestra Instrumentalists who perform with the singers. Orchestra Pit The sunken area in front of the stage where the orchestra plays during the performance. Overture Musical introduction played by the orchestra before the singers appear onstage that sometimes includes excerpts from the major musical moments of the opera. Production Crew The team behind the scenes that handles sets, props, lights, costumes, and makeup. Props (short for “properties”) Objects used by characters onstage; they may be hand-held or part of the scenery, such as furniture. Props Supervisor Production crew member who secures and maintains all props. Recitative Fast, speech-like musical phrases that advance the action of the plot. Rehearsal pianist Accompanies artists during rehearsal period. Score Collection of music, words, stage directions and performance notes—the blueprint for opera. Set (Scenery) The background for the opera that helps create a setting or location. Set Designer Designs the scenery for the opera. Singspiel Opera originating in Germany and Austria that includes spoken dialogue and simpler songs. 37
  52. 52. Soprano A high female voice. Sound Engineer Production crew member who operates the microphones and adjusts sound in the theatre. Stage Director Responsible for directing the action on the stage. Stage Hands Production crew members who assist with changing scenery and props. Stage Manager Production crew member who coordinates all the action backstage including scene changes, exits and entrances, and curtain movement. Supernumeraries Actors who do not sing, but portray characters onstage. Supertitles (or surtitles) English translations of the opera text, usually projected over or next to the stage. Technique The physical functions that a singer utilizes while singing, including breath control, vowel production, and diction. Tempo How fast or slow a piece is performed. Tenor A high male voice. Trio A musical piece sung by three people. Vibrato From the Latin word for “to shake,” this is quite literally the vibrating sound of an opera singer’s voice. String players use it as well – it is the undulating fluctuation of pitch and intensity they make with the finger of the left hand that is depressing a string. It also creates a richer, multi-textured, and more pleasing sound than a “straight,” or unornamented, tone. 38
  53. 53. ACTIVITIES and worksheets 39
  54. 54. The Age of Enlightenment Also known as the Age of Reason, the 18th century was a time when ideas had the power to direct the course of history. Define the following concepts associated with the Enlightenment and discuss their impact on life in the United States today. Consider the Declaration of Independence and the Preamble to the United States Constitution. LIBERTY EQUALITY FRATERNITY REASON NATURAL LAW Answer the following: 1. Although Freemasonry predates Enlightenment philosophy they share the same political and social ideals. Discuss one way in which their ideologies differ. ______ 2. How does “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness” reflect Enlightenment philosophy? 3. List five United States presidents who were Masons. 4. What Masonic principles did Mozart glorify in The Magic Flute? Do you think his vision was too idealistic? ______ 5. What would your ideal society be like? 40

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