Taxonomy Interoperability Standards

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Presented by Access Innovations, Inc. president Marjorie M.K. Hlava at the 2013 Taxonomy Boot Camp, November 5, 2013. An update on taxonomy standards from the International Organization for Standardization, the American National Standards Institute, and the British Standards Institution.

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Taxonomy Interoperability Standards

  1. 1. Taxonomy Interoperability Standards Marjorie M.K. Hlava mhlava@accessinn.com Data Harmony Software Access Innovations, Inc. www.accessinn.com Leveraging your content semantically
  2. 2. STANDARDS UPDATE Taxonomy Boot Camp 2013 2:15 p.m. - 3:00 p.m. Tuesday, November 5, 2013 Taxonomy Interoperability Standard Marjorie M.K. Hlava, President & Chairman, Access Innovations, Inc., Data Harmony. My blog is TaxoDiary.com. Taxonomies at last have a standard to support interoperability between taxonomies and other controlled vocabularies. The linking, multilingual, or interoperability of standards has been a holy grail for many years. With the passage of ISO 25964, Part Two in 2013, the groundwork has been laid for further development in these areas. A brief overview of the standard and its relation to other current standards such as ISO 25964, Part One; revisions to Z39.19; and the updated British standard BS 8723 Parts 1–5 is provided. In addition, the ISO terminology standards used by the computer science community are discussed. © 2010. Access Innovations, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. What does it take to make the components of the digital information model work…
  4. 4. Standardization Makes Life Easier
  5. 5. Standard Definition   Written definition, limit, or rule approved and monitored for compliance by an authoritative agency (or professional or recognized body) as a minimum acceptable benchmark. This is the usual meaning of the plural term (standards). See also specification.
  6. 6. Groups of standards       Identifiers Records management Country codes Transliteration Formats Taxonomy related
  7. 7. Traditional Standards  ISO  TC 46  SC 9  ISO/CD 25964-1  ANSI   NISO  Z39.19 BSI  BS 8723 (officially, superseded by ISO standards)
  8. 8. More Standards Groups     W3C  OWL  SKOS US Government  Office of Management and Budget European Union Individual organization attempts
  9. 9. The Process  ISO   164 nations, one vote each ANSI  US organization  NISO US Information and Library Standards Tag 46 – ISO information standards NISO is the secretariat
  10. 10. Impatient others  W3C   World Wide Web Consortium Ad hoc groups  Author IDs    Industry and National Groups   Library of Congress Associations for their industry   ORCID VIVO SMPTE Book Industry Study Group  ONIX
  11. 11. Proprietary ―Standards‖  PDF – Portable Document Format   Adobe CSV   Comma separated values Microsoft
  12. 12. Soliciting Input – Formal Process    Standard need Group with a frustration – need Standard proposal        NISO topic groups, CCM and others Call for participation Write the draft standard Open for comments NO must be resolved Standard for vote Approved for five years
  13. 13. Soliciting Input – Informal Process          Standard need Group with a frustration – need Create a Working Group Write the draft standard Publish to the web Allow comments Resolve comments When no comments, considered OK Start implementing / Early implementers
  14. 14. Identifiers  ISO/IEC CD 27037, Information technology — Security techniques —   Information and documentation –   Guidelines for identification, collection, acquisition, and preservation of digital evidence International standard document link ISO/FDIS 24619, Language resource management —  Persistent identification and sustainable access (PISA)
  15. 15. Taxonomy types standards      Vocabularies Taxonomies Thesauri Knowledge Organization Systems Terminologies
  16. 16. Vocabularies  ISO/TC 46    SC 6 and SC 9 Information and documentation ISO/TC 37  Terminology and other language and content resources
  17. 17. ISO TC 46/SC 9    Information and Documentation - Identification and Description TC 46 is ISO's Technical Committee (TC) for information and documentation standards. SC 9 is the TC 46 Subcommittee (SC) that develops and maintains ISO standards on the identification and description of information resources.
  18. 18. Thesaurus and Indexing Standards – ISO     ISO 2788:1986 (Withdrawn) Documentation - Guidelines for the establishment and development of monolingual thesauri ISO 5964:1985 (withdrawn) Documentation - Guidelines for the establishment and development of multilingual thesauri ISO 5963:1985 Documentation - Methods for examining documents, determining their subjects, and selecting indexing terms ISO 999:1996 Information and documentation - Guidelines for the content, organization and presentation of indexes
  19. 19. ISO TC 37 Scope of ISO TC 37: Standardization of principles, methods and applications relating to terminology and other language resources.  TC 37/SC 1 - Principles and methods  TC 37/SC 2 - Terminography and lexicography  TC 37/SC 3 - Computer applications for terminology  TC 37/SC 4 - Language resource management
  20. 20. OntoIOp  Terminographical and lexicographical working methods, for a new project proposal on: Ontology Integration and Interoperability (OntoIOp).  A reference ontology for the interchange of cultural heritage information.  ICOM (International Council of Museums) CIDOC (International Committee for Documentation)
  21. 21. ISO 1087 Terminology Work    Vocabulary ISO 1087-1:2000 Terminology work Vocabulary - Part 1: Theory and application ISO 1087-2:2000 Terminology work Vocabulary - Part 2: Computer applications
  22. 22. Other ISO standards: Concept-oriented terminology ISO 704:2000 Terminology work - Principles and methods ISO 860:1996 Terminology work - Harmonization of concepts and terms ISO 10241:1992 Preparation and layout of international terminology standards
  23. 23. ISO - Data Categories      ISO 12200:1999 Computer applications in terminology - Machine-readable terminology interchange format (MARTIF) - Negotiated interchange ISO 12616:2002 Translation-oriented terminography ISO/TR 12618:1994 Computer aids in terminology Creation and use of terminological databases and text corpora ISO 12620:1999 Computer applications in terminology - Data categories used to create glossaries Others in the work codes
  24. 24. ISO 25964    ISO 25964 Information and documentation - Thesauri and interoperability with other vocabularies Part 1: Thesauri for information retrieval [published August 2011] Part 2: Interoperability with other vocabularies [published March 2013]
  25. 25. Stella G Dextre Clarke http://www.iskouk.org/conf2011/papers/dextreclarke.pdf 26
  26. 26. History  ISO 2788, Guidelines for the establishment and development of monolingual thesauri.    Published 1974 Updated in 1986. ISO 5964, Guidelines for the establishment and development of multilingual thesauri.  Published 1985
  27. 27. History of development 28
  28. 28. 2005- 2008   ANSI/ NISO Z39.19 rewritten and approved. BS 8723 Structured vocabularies for information retrieval - Guide      Part 1: Definitions, symbols and abbreviations Part 2: Thesauri Part 3: Vocabularies other than thesauri Part 4: Interoperability between vocabularies Part 5: Exchange formats and protocols for interoperability
  29. 29. 2006 - 2011   Begin work on international standard to replace ISO 2788 and ISO 5964. ISO’s Technical Committee 46      Information and documentation Subcommittee 9 Identification and description Working group Aka ISO TC46/SC9/WG8 Structured Vocabularies ANSI/NISO Z39.19 reaffirmed in 2010
  30. 30. 2011 - 2013   ISO 2788 and ISO 5964 were withdrawn ISO 25964 – Part 1 issued.   Covered Parts 1- 4 of BS 8723 ISO 25964 – Part 2    Issued in March 2013 Covered part 5 of BS 8723 Interoperability
  31. 31. Mission and Scope    "If both the indexer and the searcher are guided to choose the same term for the same concept, then relevant documents will be retrieved.― Older versions for single domains Now used in   Networked applications Semantic Web
  32. 32. Controlled vocabularies and more       Thesaurus Taxonomy Ontology Semantic net Knowledge Organization System (KOS) Monolingual – single domain       Multilingual – many domains Classification schemes Subject heading schemes Name authority list Terminologies Synonym rings.
  33. 33. ISO 25964 – Part 1     How to build a monolingual or a multilingual thesaurus, how to display it, and how to manage its development. The standard also sets out the features you should look for when choosing software to manage the thesaurus.
  34. 34. ISO 25964 compliant thesaurus      Lists all the concepts available for indexing in a given context Labels each of them with a preferred term Labels any synonyms that apply Shows relationships between the concepts and between the terms Easy to navigate around the field while building up a search query
  35. 35. The relationships  Equivalence    Hierarchical    Synonyms and near-synonyms Another way to state the concept Broader and narrower concepts Genus species / parent child Associative   Concepts that are closely related in some nonhierarchical way Cause and effect
  36. 36. Get the XML Schema!       There is a data model to use for handling thesaurus data Especially when exchanging data between systems Contains an XML schema for encoding the data. Model and the schema Free of charge http://www.niso.org/schemas/iso25964/is o25964-1_v1.4.xsd
  37. 37. ISO 25964 – 2 The Challenges    Using one thesaurus in combination with another With another type of controlled vocabulary Many KOSs used within one organization        Records management system Library catalog Corporate intranet Research lab External web sites Stored data drives Single search on all collections
  38. 38. ISO 25964 – 2 Mapping guidance between ..Terms and concepts of one KOS and another ..Other forms of complementary vocabulary use. .. Repositories and databases that have been indexed with different KOSs ..Different networks, platforms, software applications, and languages .. Corresponding terms in different natural languages ..
  39. 39. 40
  40. 40. Interoperability     Between structured vocabularies Where a thesaurus is involved In multilingual thesauri Numerous protocols and standards
  41. 41. Adoptions  British Standards Institute       Full adoption As is BS ISO 25964-1 Part 2 is in process Replaces BS 8723 Other countries also in progress
  42. 42. What about the Americans?    Much overlap Broadly compatible NISO is actively involved in both standards   Participated in the work of developing ISO 25964 NISO currently runs the Secretariat for the standard
  43. 43. ANSI/NISO Z39.19     Guidelines for the Construction, Format, and Management of Monolingual Controlled Vocabularies Covers some of the same ground Monolingual lists, synonym rings, and taxonomies, as well as thesauri Up for review now and reaffirm or withdraw in 2015
  44. 44. ANSI/NISO Z39.19        No data model No multilingual vocabularies No interoperability, such as mapping between KOSs Either has links to RDA Should they have? Does ISO 25964 Part 2 really work? Should they be rewritten, merged?
  45. 45. W3C and SKOS ISO 25964-1  About selecting and organizing concepts, terms, and their relationships to make a good thesaurus  Shows options for mappings between KOSs  Includes more options for KOS expression SKOS    Applies to KOSs beyond thesauri Addresses porting the thesaurus to the Web One way of expressing term mappings within a KOS
  46. 46. Trying to work with others  US Library of Congress. MADS (Metadata Authority Description Schema). Washington, DC: Library of Congress. Available at http://www.loc.gov/standards/mads/  World Wide Web Consortium. SKOS Simple Knowledge Organization System eXtension for Labels (SKOS-XL) Namespace Document - HTML Variant. W3C Recommendation Edition, 18 August 2009. Latest version available at: http://www.w3.org/TR/skos-reference/skos-xl.html
  47. 47. Questions?? Marjorie M.K. Hlava President Data Harmony Software Access Innovations, Inc. mhlava@accessinn.com
  48. 48. Standards are our guiding light Thank you Marjorie M.K. Hlava President Access Innovations, Inc. Data Harmony mhlava@accessinn.com 505-998-0800 www.taxodiary.com - the taxonomy news blog mmkhlava = twitter mhlava = facebook, linkedin, eacade my, plaxo

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