Chemical processes


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Chemical processes

  1. 1. CHEMICAL PROCESSES Industrial processes are procedures involvingchemical or mechanical steps to aid in the manufacture of an item or items, usually carried out on a very large scale. Industrial processes are the key components of heavy industry. Chemical processes Smelting- chemically enhancing metals Disinfection- chemical treatment to kill bacteria and viruses Pyroprocessing- using heat to chemically combine materials, such as in cement. Heat processes Flash smelting- a refinement on smelting, for sulfur-containing ores (produces copper, nickel and lead) Electrolysis The availability of electricity and its effect on materials gave rise to several processes for plating or separating metals. Gilding, Electroplating, Anodization, Electrowinning - depositing a material on an electrode Electropolishing - the reverse of electroplating Electrofocusing - similar to electroplating, but separating molecules Electrolytic process - the generic process of using electrolysis Electrophoretic deposition - electrolytic deposition of colloidal particles in a liquid medium Electrotyping- using electroplating to produce printing plates Metallizing, Plating, Spin coating- the generic term for giving non-metals a metallic coating Physical processes There are several physical processes for reshaping a material by cutting, folding, joining or polishing, developed on a large scale from workshop techniques. See also: Fabrication (metal) Forging - the shaping of metal by use of heat and hammer Casting - shaping of a liquid material by pouring it into moulds and letting it solidify Machining - the mechanical cutting and shaping of metal which involves the loss of the material.
  2. 2. Progressive stamping - the production of components from a strip or roll Hydroforming - a tube of metal is expanded into a mould under pressure Sandblasting - cleaning of a surface using sand or other particles Soldering, Brazing, Welding - a process for joining metals Tumble polishing - for polishing Precipitation hardening - heat treatment used to strengthen malleable materials Work hardening - adding strength to metals, alloys, etc. Case hardening, Differential hardening, Shot peening - creating a wear resistant surface Die cutting - A "forme" or "die" is pressed onto a flat material in order to cut, score, punch and otherwise shape the material Moulding The physical shaping of materials by forming their liquid form using a mould. Casting, Sand casting - the shaping of molten metal or plastics using a mould Sintering, Powder metallurgy - the making of objects from metal or ceramic powder Blow moulding as in plastic containers or in the Glass Container Industry - making hollow objects by blowing them into a mould. Compression molding Separation Many materials exist in an impure form, purification, or separation provides a usable product. Comminution - reduces the size of physical particles (it exists between crushing and grinding) Froth flotation, flotation process - separating minerals through floatation Solvent extraction - dissolving one substance in another Frasch process - for extracting molten sulfur from the ground Distillation Fractional distillation, Steam distillation, Vacuum distillation - separating materials by their boiling point Batch distillation Continuous distillation Fractionating column Spinning cone Iron and steel Early production of iron was from meteorites, or as a by-product of copper refining. Heating iron ore and carbon in a crucible at 1000 K produces wrought iron. This process gained popularity during the Iron Age. Temperatures of 1300 K were produced around the 8th century by blowing
  3. 3. air through the heated mixture in a bloomery or blast furnace (12th century); producing a strong but brittle cast iron. Furnaces were growing bigger, producing greater quantities; a factor contributing to the Industrial Revolution. In 1740 the temperature and carbon content could be controlled sufficiently to consistently produce steel; very strong and very workable. The 19th century saw the development of electric arc furnaces that produced steel in very large quantities, and are more easily controlled. Smelting - the generic process used in furnaces to produce steel, copper, etc. Catalan forge, Open hearth furnace, Bloomery, Siemens regenerative furnace - produced wrought iron Blast furnace - produced cast iron Direct Reduction - produced direct reduced iron Crucible steel Cementation process Bessemer process Basic oxygen steelmaking, Linz-Donawitz process Electric arc furnace Petroleum and organic compounds The nature of an organic molecule means it can be transformed at the molecular level to create a range of products. Cracking (chemistry) - the generic term for breaking up the larger molecules. Alkylation - refining of crude oil Burton process - cracking of hydrocarbons Cumene process - making phenol and acetone from benzene Friedel-Crafts reaction, Kolbe-Schmitt reaction Olefin metathesis, Thermal depolymerization Transesterification - organic chemicals Raschig process, Ketazine process, Peroxide process - part of the process to produce nylon Oxo process - Produces aldehydes from alkenes. Polymerisation . : Aluminium - (Deville process, Bayer process, Hall-Héroult process, Wöhler process) Ammonia, used in fertilizer & explosives - (Haber process) Bromine - (Dow process) Chlorine, used in chemicals - (Chloralkali process, Weldon process, Hooker process) Fat - (Rendering) Fertilizer - (Nitrophosphate process) Glass - (Pilkington process) Gold - (Bacterial oxidation, Parkes process) Heavy Water, used to refine radioactive products - (Girdler sulfide process)
  4. 4. Hydrogen - (Steam reforming, Water Gas Shift Reaction) Lead (and Bismuth) - (Betts electrolytic process, Betterton-Kroll process) Nickel - (Mond process) Nitric acid - (Ostwald process) Paper - (Pulping, Kraft process, Fourdrinier machine) Rubber - (Vulcanization) Salt - (Alberger process, Grainer evaporation process) Semiconductor crystals - (Bridgeman technique, Czochralski process) Silver - (Patio process, Parkes process) Sodium carbonate, used for soap - (Leblanc process, Solvay process, Leblanc-Deacon process) Sulfuric acid - (Lead chamber process, Contact process) Titanium - (Hunter process, Kroll process) Zirconium - (Hunter process, Kroll process, Crystal bar process, Iodide process) A list by process: Alberger process, Grainer evaporation process - produces salt from brine Bacterial oxidation - used to produce gold Bayer process - the extraction of aluminium from ore Chloralkali process, Weldon process - for producing chlorine and sodium hydroxide Crystal bar process, Iodide process - produces zirconium Dow process - produces bromine from brine FFC Cambridge Process Girdler sulfide process - for making heavy water Hunter process, Kroll process- produces titanium and zirconium Industrial rendering - the separation of fat from bone and protein Lead chamber process, Contact process - production of sulfuric acid Mond process - nickel Nitrophosphate process - a number of similar process for producing fertilizer Ostwald process - produces nitric acid Pidgeon process - produces magnesium, reducing the oxide using silicon Steam reforming, Water Gas Shift Reaction - produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide from methane or hydrogen and carbon dioxide from water and carbon monoxide Vacuum metalising - a finishing process