LIS3353 SP12 Week 11


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  • Network topology is the layout pattern of interconnections of the various elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a computer[1][2] or biological network.[3] Network topologies may be physical or logical. Physical topology refers to the physical design of a network including the devices, location and cable installation. Logical topology refers to how data is actually transferred in a network as opposed to its physical design. In general physical topology relates to a core network whereas logical topology relates to basic network
  • LAN - a computer network that interconnects computers in a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office building.[1] The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to wide area networks (WANs), include their usually higher data-transfer rates, smaller geographic area, and lack of a need for leased telecommunication lines.WAN - a telecommunication network that covers a broad area (i.e., any network that links across metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries). Business and government entities utilize WANs to relay data among employees, clients, buyers, and suppliers from various geographical locations. In essence this mode of telecommunication allows a business to effectively carry out its daily function regardless of location OFTEN OWNED BY SINGLE CORPMAN - a computer network that usually spans a city or a large campus. A MAN usually interconnects a number of local area networks (LANs) using a high-capacity backbone technology, such as fiber-optical links, and provides up-link services to wide area networks (or WAN) and the Internet.PAN - a computer network used for communication among computerized devices, including telephones and personal digital assistants. PANs can be used for communication among the personal devices themselves (intrapersonal communication), or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet (an uplink)
  • Internetwork - the practice of connecting a computer network with other networks through the use of gateways that provide a common method of routing information packets between the networks. The resulting system of interconnected networks is called an internetwork, or simply an internet
  • In response to the Soviet Union’s launch of Sputnik in 1957, the first artificial satellite, the United States created ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) to help scientists communicate and share valuable computer resourcesWWW was created as a medium for disseminating scientific research; organized by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989Hypertext: Documents with built-in cross-referencing called “hyperlinks”
  • the Shannon–Hartley theorem tells the maximum rate at which information can be transmitted over a communications channel of a specified bandwidth in the presence of noise.
  • the Shannon–Hartley theorem tells the maximum rate at which information can be transmitted over a communications channel of a specified bandwidth in the presence of noise.
  • the Shannon–Hartley theorem tells the maximum rate at which information can be transmitted over a communications channel of a specified bandwidth in the presence of noise.
  • Bandwidth is the transmission capacity of a communications channelBroadband High-bandwidth communications systems, such as cable TV, are sometimes referred to as Systems with less capacity, such as the telephone system, are referred to as narrowband or baseband
  • What affects bandwidth?distance or expanse covered by the network,LAN, WAN, InternetworkMedia used for trxn of signalsbounded media (copper wire, co-axial, optical fiber cable)unbounded media (“wireless,” radio frequency waves, cellular networks)
  • Data can be sent in two ways:Synchronous protocols, which coordinate sending and receiving by using a clock signalAsynchronous protocols, which require the transmitting computer to send a start bit that indicates the beginning of a packetHandshakingHandshaking is a networking process when two computers establish a connection. An example of a handshake is when your modem dialup's to a computer network and agrees on baud rate, error correction and compression protocols. Handshaking usually occurs when packets of data are exchanged between two computers.
  • Datagrams:packets of data that also contain addressing informationTCP/IP:A suite of protocolsdefine protocols (standards) for how datagrams are packaged and deliveredIP address:a number that is the address of an Internet hostDomain names are pseudonyms for IP addressesDomain name system (DNS) servers provide users with IP numbers for URLs, e-mail addresses, etc.
  • Datagrams:packets of data that also contain addressing informationTCP/IP:A suite of protocolsdefine protocols (standards) for how datagrams are packaged and deliveredIP address:a number that is the address of an Internet hostDomain names are pseudonyms for IP addressesDomain name system (DNS) servers provide users with IP numbers for URLs, e-mail addresses, etc.
  • Datagrams:packets of data that also contain addressing informationTCP/IP:A suite of protocolsdefine protocols (standards) for how datagrams are packaged and deliveredIP address:a number that is the address of an Internet hostDomain names are pseudonyms for IP addressesDomain name system (DNS) servers provide users with IP numbers for URLs, e-mail addresses, etc.
  • An IP address is a series of numbers, such as is separated into four sections by periodsEach section’s number cannot exceed 255Each address requires a total of 32 bits (8 bits per section) addressesDynamic IP address – temporarily assignedStatic IP address – permanently assigned
  • Internet2 is an advanced not-for-profit United States networking consortium led by members from the research and education communities, industry, and government.[1]In 2009, Internet2 member rolls included over 200 higher education institutions,[2] over 40 members from industry,[3] over 30 research and education network and connector organizations,[4] and over 50 affiliate members.[5]Internet2 operates the Internet2 Network,[6] a next-generation Internet Protocol and optical network that delivers production network services to meet the high-performance demands of research and education, and provides a secure network testing and research environment. In late 2007, Internet2 began operating its newest dynamic circuit network, the Internet2 DCN, an advanced technology that allows user-based allocation of high-capacity data circuits over the fiber-optic network.The Internet2 Network, through its regional network and connector members, connects over 60,000 U.S. educational, research, government and "community anchor" institutions, from primary and secondary schools to community colleges and universities, public libraries and museums to health care organizations.[7]The Internet2 community is actively engaged in developing and deploying emerging network technologies beyond the scope of single institutions and critical to the future of the Internet. These technologies include large-scale network performance measurement and management tools,[8] simple and secure identity and access management tools[9] and advanced capabilities such as the on-demand creation and scheduling of high-bandwidth, high-performance circuits.[10]Internet2 is member led and member focused, with an open governance structure and process.[11] Members serve on several advisory councils,[12] collaborate in a variety of working groups and special interest groups[13] gather at spring and fall member meetings,[14] and are encouraged to participate in the strategic planning process.[15]
  • National LambdaRail is a 12,000-mile (19,000 km), high-speed national network infrastructure owned and operated by the U.S. research and education community that runs over fiber-optic lines, and is the first transcontinental 10-Gigabit Ethernet network. Its very high capacity (up to 1.6 Tbit/s aggregate), high bandwidth (40 Gbit/s implemented; planning for 100 Gbit/s underway) and high availability (99.99% or more), enable National LambdaRail to support some of the world's most demanding research projects. Users include NASA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and over 280 research universities and other laboratories. In 2009 National LambdaRail was selected to provide wide-area networking for U.S. laboratories participating in research related to the Large Hadron Collider project, based near Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Network MonitorsKeep track of network traffic, number of packets, packet size, collisions, re-transmissions, etc.Enable planning for growth and quality Network AnalyzersRandomly dissect packets, analyze problems, and determine the source of errors
  • Intranets: self-contained intra-organizational networks that offer e-mail, newsgroups, file transfer, Web publishing, and other Internet-like servicesExtranets: private TCP/IP networks designed for outside use by customers, clients, and business partners of the organization that owns the extranetElectronic data interchange (EDI): a decade-old set of specifications for ordering, billing, and paying for parts and services over private networks
  • LIS3353 SP12 Week 11

    1. 1. Networking (week 11)LIS 3353 Technologies Networking and the Internet
    2. 2. Networking (week 11)Agenda IT News Networking Thursday – bring your laptop!
    3. 3. IT News Apple – Foxconn – Daisey – TAL Windows 8
    4. 4. Why do we network? KXPc&feature=related Reduce hardware and software costs Provide access to a wide range of services and specialized peripheral devices Enable people to work together, regardless of time and place
    5. 5. Networks 101
    6. 6. Network 101
    7. 7. Networks 101Refresher – Client/server – contains servers and clients – Peer-to-peer (P2P) – every computer is considered an equal
    8. 8. Ring Topology Tree TopologyStar Topology Bus Topology Mesh Topology
    9. 9. Networks 101 A network is a collection of computer systems configured to share digital data and resources Computer to Computer  Local Area Network (LAN)   LANs extend across limited – geographical area  servers, terminals, etc.
    10. 10. How LANs work Connectivity supporting two-way communication Resource sharing Limited geographical area Transparency of use Support from hardware and software Positives – communications – management control – cost-effectiveness Negatives – need for additional equipment – maintenance – support staff
    11. 11. Lots of Networks LAN (Local Area Network) WAN (Wide Area Network) MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) PAN (Personal Area Network) And more – NFC, BAN, NAN, CAN…
    12. 12. Networks Internetwork:  collection of autonomous networks  Ex: the Internet, intranets The Internet:  ARPAnet - late 1960s  decentralized  loosely-coupled  redundant  Apps  e-mail  telnet  FTP (file transfer protocol)  www
    13. 13. Networks ARPANET The ARPANET, created in 1969, connected computers at four universities WWW Hypertext system This was an open system, evolved to I2
    14. 14. Networks - Shannon an information source generates a message a transmitter encodes the message as a signal the signal is transmitted over a communications channel the receiver extracts a signal from the communications channel and converts it back into the form of a message the destination receives the message a source of noise is usually present in the communication channel—this is a random element that modifies the signal in unpredictable ways
    15. 15. Networks Messages are encoded as a stream of binary numbers (0s and 1s) Signals are transmitted as electro-magnetic energy (electrical, optical, or radio waves) Rate of reliable transmissions depends on the properties of the channel and the complexity of the message Two types of signals:  Analog  Digital
    16. 16. iSpace Model CLIENT--(local) system requesting services SERVER--(remote) system that receives and handles requests from many clients concurrently
    17. 17. Peer-To-Peer (P2P) Another Model: Peer to Peer Each entity can act as a client or a server File sharers use this P2P terminology for file exchanges (ex.: Gnutella, Napster, Grokster, bittorrent) P2P (workgroups) - typically <10 people No central communication control device Inexpensive Each computer’s resources are used
    18. 18. Other models (like FSU) Dedicated servers File, application, mail, fax, communication Centralized, shared resources Security Backup Testing (iSpace) Virtual servers
    19. 19. Bandwidth Broadband – multiple signals transmitted on the same channel simultaneously – channel is divided into separate frequency bands, each capable of carrying a signal Narrowband/baseband – employs [the entirety of its available] bandwidth for one signal
    20. 20. Bandwidth Terms The bandwidth of a communications channel determines its capacity to transmit data—it’s analogous to the size of plumbing pipes (10MB, 100MB, 1GB, 10GB) Analog signals may contain independent waveforms of various frequencies The number of frequencies supported by a channel determines its bandwidth The bandwidth of a digital channel is usually measured in bits per second (bps)
    21. 21. Bandwidth Terms What affects bandwidth? media used for transmission of signals
    22. 22. Networks 101 Physical layer supports basic carrier signals Data link layer manages point-to-point connectivity Network layer routes data from sender to destination Transport layer provides messaging services Application layer provides user functions
    23. 23. Layers
    24. 24. Layers
    25. 25. Sending Information When you transmit data, it is broken up into small pieces called packets A packet is a parcel of data that is sent across a network – Has the address of its sender – Has the address of the destination – Has some data When packets reach their ultimate destination, they are put back together into the data that was originally transmitted
    26. 26. Sending Information Data can be sent in two ways: – Synchronous protocols – Asynchronous protocols Handshaking
    27. 27. Networking Packet Switching – The message is made of separate data packets, each addressed to the destination – Packets are transmitted over any available connection to the destination – The receiving node reassembles the message
    28. 28. Networks www @ FSU Comcast
    29. 29. Connecting Modem / Dial-up – “modem” = modulate-demodulate Modulation – changing the characteristics of a signal (digital to analog) Demodulation – changing the signal back to its original state (analog to digital)
    30. 30. Cables Most networks use twisted-pair cables – UTP (unshielded twisted pair) – STP (shielded twisted pair) – Looks similar to telephone cable – Has a square plastic RJ-45 connector Twisted Pair Wire Cable – Insulated pairs of wires historically used in telephone service • Category 1 – Telephones • Category 3 – Up to 10Mbps • Category 5 – Up to 100Mbps
    31. 31. Cables Another option is coaxial cable – Resembles cable-TV cable – Round, silver BNC or F-type connector Coaxial Cable (BNC) – Consists of an inner conductor wire surrounded by insulation, called the dielectric. The dielectric is surrounded by a conductive shield, which is surrounded by a non-conductive jacket. Coaxial cable has a better data transmission rate than twisted pair.
    32. 32. CablesFiber-optic cable is a bundle of extremelythin tubes of glass – Many extremely thin fibers of glass or plastic, coated with a cladding and bound together in a sheathing which transmits signals with light beams •Fast transfer rates •Immune to electrical interference (emi occurs over long distances) •Hard to tap into •Takes less space – Each optical fiber (tube) is thinner than a human hair
    33. 33. Cable Signals
    34. 34. Connection Speeds Comcast 6mps
    35. 35. Networks Repeaters – boost the signal strength over transmission medium Bridges – isolate LANs from unnecessary traffic, but connect LANs to neighboring networks Switches?, Routers?, Hubs?
    36. 36. Networks Datagrams: TCP/IP: IP address: Domain names are pseudonyms for IP addresses
    37. 37. Networks Protocols: – A communications protocol is a set of rules for efficiently transmitting data from one network node to another – The best-known protocol is probably TCP/IP – Sending Computer: • Breaks the data into packets; adds addressing information; prepares the data for transmission – Receiving Computer: • Takes packets off the cable; strips the packets of addressing information; reassembles the data from the packets
    38. 38. NetworksTCP/IP provides a standard that is public,free, extensible, and fairly easy toimplement. TCP/IP is the glue that holdsthe Internet together.
    39. 39. Networks The IP part of TCP/IP defines the format for the addresses that identify computers on the Internet These addresses are called IP addresses An IP address is a series of numbers, such as IP addresses
    40. 40. Networks ISPs need static IP addresses – Clients typically use dynamic IP addresses, as the IP addressing scheme provides approximately only 4.3 billion unique addresses Numbers are hard to remember, so host computers also have names called domain names; a domain names corresponds to an IP address; domain name system – huge database that houses the names and IP addresses of key computers Domain name servers – computers that house this database
    41. 41. Networks Internet 2 – consortium of government, industry, and education The consortium – establishes network capabilities to support national research – develops the next generation of Internet applications – transfers these to worldwide Internet
    42. 42. Networks Internet 2 – remote instrumentation and virtual laboratories – distance learning – digital libraries – Tele-immersion – multicasting
    43. 43. Networks National LambdaRail – High-speed national network running on fiber – LambdaRail will merge with I2 – Testing service network – University-based and -owned initiative
    44. 44. Networks Wireless – infrared broadcasting – radio frequency broadcasting • spread spectrum (cell telephony) • direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) • frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS)
    45. 45. Networks – Wireless Protocols Release Data Rate Data RateProtocol Op. Frequency Range (Indoor) Date (Typ) (Max)Legacy 1997 2.4 GHz 1 Mbit/s 2 Mbit/s ? ~30 meters802.11a 1999 5 GHz 25 Mbit/s 54 Mbit/s (~100 feet) ~30 meters802.11b 1999 2.4 GHz 6.5 Mbit/s 11 Mbit/s (~100 feet) 2003 ~30 meters802.11g 2.4 GHz 25 Mbit/s 54 Mbit/s (June) (~100 feet) 2008 2.4 GHz or ~50 meters802.11n 200 Mbit/s 540 Mbit/s (April) 5 GHz (~160 ft)
    46. 46. Networks
    47. 47. NetworksSupport for the creation of   802.11a - 54 Mbps standard, 5 GHz signaling (ratified 1999) 802.11b - 11 Mbps standard, 2.4 GHz signaling (1999)technologies for wireless local   802.11c - operation of bridge connections (moved to 802.1D) 802.11d - worldwide compliance with regulations for use of wireless signal spectrum (2001)area networking:   802.11e - Quality of Service (QoS) support (not yet ratified) 802.11F - Inter-Access Point Protocol recommendation for communication between access points to  support roaming clients (2003)  802.11g - 54 Mbps standard, 2.4 GHz signaling (2003)  802.11h - enhanced version of 802.11a to support European regulatory requirements (2003)  802.11i - security improvements for the 802.11 family (2004)  802.11j - enhancements to 5 GHz signaling to support Japan regulatory requirements (2004)  802.11k - WLAN system management (in progress)  802.11l - skipped to avoid confusion with 802.11i  802.11m - maintenance of 802.11 family documentation  802.11n - 100+ Mbps standard improvements over 802.11g (in progress)  802.11o - skipped  802.11p - Wireless Access for the Vehicular Environment  802.11q - skipped  802.11r - fast roaming support via Basic Service Set transitions  802.11s - ESS mesh networking for access points  802.11T - Wireless Performance Prediction - recommendation for testing standards and metrics  802.11u - internetworking with 3G / cellular and other forms of external networks  802.11v - wireless network management / device configuration  802.11w - Protected Management Frames security enhancement  802.11x - skipped (generic name for the 802.11 family)  802.11y - Contention Based Protocol for interference avoidance
    48. 48. Networks Using “ping” or “traceroute,” you can discover the length of time that data is in transit On average, data within the US usually arrives at its destination 110-120 milliseconds (ms) after it is sent Overseas transmissions require a little more time NetTraffic
    49. 49. Networks
    50. 50. Networks Network Monitors – Keep track of network traffic, number of packets, packet size, collisions, re- transmissions, etc. – Enable planning for growth and quality Network Analyzers – Randomly dissect packets, analyze problems, and determine the source of errors
    51. 51. Portals Web entry stations that offer quick and easy access to a variety of services – Consumer portals include search engines, e-mail services, chat rooms, references, news headlines, shopping malls, and other services – Corporate portals on intranets serve the employees of particular corporations – Vertical portals are targeted at members of a particular industry or economic sector Other Web Stuff – Push (auto-updates) versus Pull (browser in client- server model) technology
    52. 52. Nets Intranets Extranets Electronic data interchange (EDI)
    53. 53. Questions?