Cognitive Theory KeyPoints:• Believe that learning is due to a “change inindividuals mental structures enabling them toshow changes in behavior (Haberkorn).”•“ Cognitivists objected to behaviorists becausethey felt that behaviorists thought learning wassimply a reactionary phenomenon and ignored theidea that thinking plays a role (Shelly 371).”•See the next two diagrams for more key points!
Key Theorists•Allan Paivio- Dual Coding theory: processing forimages and processing for language•Robert Gagne-Five major learning outcomes:verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitivestrategies, motor skills, and attitudes•Howard Gardner- 8 multiple intelligences:linguistic, logical, spatial, kinesthetic, musical,interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist•Benjamin Bloom- 6 levels to acquire knowledge-Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge, comprehension,application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation
Gardner’s Contribution: Multiple Intelligences (Image from excelsiorlearningcenter.com)
Classroom Implications•Teachers: Robert Gagne gives 9 events of instruction to increase the potential for theinternal learning process to occur :1) Gain attention of the learners2) Inform learners of the objective3) Stimulate recall of prior learning4) Present the stimulus or lesson5) Provide learning guidance and instruction6) Elicit performance7) Provide feedback8) Assess performance9) Enhance retention and transfer•Integrate technology in order to fulfill the previous 9. Using technology, such as videos,also aids in reaching a variety of the multiple intelligences: Music, visual, interpersonal,linguistic…•Students: By understanding your learning style (Gardner) and how complex yourlearning skills are (Bloom), you can create a learning plan such as: Singing a song toremember information, drawing images to study with, ect.
My Personal ThoughtsAbout the Theory for MyOwn Teaching:In my opinion, the cognitive approach to learningand teaching seems quite effective. I believe thatlearning requires cognitive stimulation/thinking.Every student is wired differently and thereforelearns differently. As a progressive teacher, I feelthat it is very necessary to teach according to thestudent body given and integrate technology andcurriculum that reaches all types of learners.
Credits to:•Integrating Technology and Digital Media in theClassroom by: Shelly, Cashman, Gunter, andGunter•http://rachel-shirley.suite101.com/the-cognitive-approach-to-lesson-planning-a116006•http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/students/jhaberkorn/edpsy399ol/l11q4.html•http://www.excelsiorlearningcenter.com/Gardners-Multiple-Intelligence-Model.html