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  • Beverly Hills– “your body needs enzymes found in certain foods to digest food properly & if food is not digestion  turns to fat” approx 800 kcals/day (15# in 35 days is promised), sample day: B – 8ozprunes, L – unlimited strawberries, D – baked potato, Drinks: water, coffee, teaSleeping Beauty – 1976, heavy sedation for a few days to skip mealsCigarette – “reach for a Lucky instead of a sweet” - 1925Sacred Heart – veggie soup based diet that allows soup and restricted additions everyday (ex: day 1 – soup and all fruit but bananas, day 2 – soup and veggies – no potatoes)Negative Calorie – based on finding foods that yield “negative calories” through diets consisting of fibrous complex carbs – green veggiesTapeworm – ingesting tapeworms (which interfere with digestion/absorption then take abx to kill it off when desired weight is achieved, illegal in USCheater’s – 2005 diet “cheating on the weekends is required”Baby Food – 2010 – 14 jars of baby food/day with optional “adult” dinnerBanana - started in 1970s, resurfaced in 2003 – started as one banana with room temp water for breakfast but adapted to eating a banana before everymeal to help fill you up before to reduce overeatingBlood type– 1996, genetic factors involved with weight loss through eating and exercise habits and people can’t change their future d/t blood type so he teaches how you can achieve your goals through characteristics found between blood types
  • Food FaddismLow-fat, low-carbohydrate, high-protein, focus on consumption of certain foodsOver prolonged time period of following restrictive diets with inadequate nutrient profiles –> can developed serious health problemsWeight lost on diet – primarily water to begin and/or muscleOnce diet stopped  weight often regained and usually in the form of fatVery few teach you how to eat right
  • The Physiology of Taste by Jean Brillat - Savarin
  • At risk for compromised vitamin and mineral intakeHarvard researchers – observations in 1624 women in Nurses Health Study, damage to kidneys found with reduced kidney function, risk higher with HTN present, 1 in 4 US may already have reduced kidney function -2003 study(A 2007 study done at Stanford University Medical School, The A to Z Weight Loss Study, compared the Atkins diet with the Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets in a randomized group of 311 obese premenopausal women over a period of 12 months. The study found that weight loss was significantly higher for the Atkins diet compared to the other three diets. Secondary factors such as HDL-C, triglyceride levels, and systolic blood pressure were also found to have improved to greater levels compared to the other diets)
  • DOO-CAN-originally release in 2000, new book came out april 2011Attack – rapid 4-7# weight loss in 2-7 days  allowed to eat as much as they want of 72 allowed protein foodsCruise – add in 28 specific veggies (low glycemic load) to protein-rich foods every other day and 2TB oat bran dailyConsolidation – prevents future “massive” weight gain, MOST CRITICAL - add one serving of fruit and 2 slices WW breadStabilization – eat whatever they want with the rules: protein day once/week, oat bran everyday, commitment to take the stairs (~20mins exercise)Duration for each stage is unstated and ‘individualized” with the exception of phase 1
  • -Multiple websites advertise him as an RD and nutritionist for 30 years-Referred to many as the “I don’t know how to lose weight” diet-Atkins – rapid weight loss (1-2#/day during first phase) – bad breath, fatigue and low energy and crankiness/irritabilityMVI will not compensate for lack of fruits, whole grains and healthy fats that are excluded
  • British Dietetic Association: One of the 5 worst diets in 2011Ketosis: dehydration, causes electrolyte losses (K, Mg), also floods the body with uric acid
  • Established in 1950 by Dr. SimeonsPregnancy related – HCG level is what is read from a home pregnancy testHCG ensures fetus gets necessary nutrients – mobilizes current fat stores if the women doesn’t eat enough nutrients for fetal growth, her fetus will still grow appropriatelyHCG in weight loss: fat mobilization idea that is highlightedStarted: Simeons, HCG is gonodotropic, can be used to prompt genital development so in a study with under-developed obese adolescent males, saw they were able to lose weight by eating less without any hunger pangs
  • -Paltolithic Diet, Caveman Diet, Warrior Diet“the best human diet is the one we are best genetically adapted – Foods allowed-lean red meat, game and organ meat-pork, poutry, ,eggs-leafy green veggies, root veggies, mushrooms, fruits and nuts-What’s not allowed-grains, beans, dairy, salt, refined sugar and fat, canned/processed meat, soda/fruit juice
  • Diabetes, obesity, heart disease, some inflammtory conditionsRisk of deficienes high, no dairy (low in Ca and vit D)High sat fat  heart disease, stroke, t2dm, certain cancers
  • compared the effects of a usual diet for this group of diabetics with that of a paleolithic-type diet on normal adult Americans based on multiple metabolic and physiological variables
  • Aka The Lemonade Diet1950s diet – resurfaced when Beyonce lost 20# in 10 days on the set of Dreamgirls-drink a glass “whenever hungry”-can also switch morning laxative for “salt flush” – 2tsp non-iodized salt 1 quart water: drink all at once – on an empty stomach
  • Ease in – regular foods, f&v only, f&v juice only, OJ then diet -ease out is the same in reverseLemonade diet – 10 days-weight loss not the priority, more about cleansing your body with weight loss as added prize10 days on with period of time between for 4-5 cycles-promotes: energy boost in 10 days!
  • Serious calorie deficient – weakens the body’s ability to fight infections and inflammation-our bodies: liver, kidney, GI tract – do a perfectly good job of eliminating toxins from the body on their own, no evidence these types of diets are necessary-fasting: healthy bac that aids digestion and boost immunity, perputuates unhealthy relationships with foodsLaxative abuse: dehydration, heart stress, colon damage, colonic irrigation  risk for bowel perforation or infection  death-lose water weight and muscle tone-crash diets – unbalance blood sugar, Na ad K in the body
  • Dr. David Katz from Yale University – warns of the risk of falling off the deep end into extremes: medically controlled chemotherapy or medically induced comas for weight lossIs this really within the relm of “do no harm?”
  • 1994 – bankrupt company, 2008 Fortune Magazines Top 100 fastest growing companies-get breakfast, lunch, dinner and snacks/dessert delivered-offers online resources and supportWomens, Mens, Women’s silver, men’s silver (over 60), women’s diabetic, mens diabetic, vegetarianMeal plans less than 2300mg Na, less than 5% sat fat, 0% trans fat
  • Easy – explain systemDieters can become discouraged if weight isn’t lost quickly
  • 2009 Study in PostGraduate Medicine Journal
  • However, exercise regimen wasn’t includedDidn’t assess diet of Support Group
  • Revamped in 2010The old program – you could spend your points on whatever you want, now lower numbers are assigned to protein and fiber rich foods to increase consumption-help you lose weight in a healthier and more nutritious way#1 Diet by US News
  • Counseling – in person meetings, private counseling, onlineApplebees – many other brands support points system
  • In person Meetings only for womenCan be difficult for some to follow
  • 2005 Annals of Internal MedicineSelf-help group: 2 visits with a dietitian
  • 500kcal/day deficit-Fat contains 9kcal/gm versus 4kcal/gm with pro and cho-most successful in weight loss maintenance – continue a lifestyle similar to diet program instead of treating it with a stopping point2. Also, eat several times per day-food decisions take on a routine nature3. Also yields fewer episodes of unbalanced, impulsive and excessive eating later in the day
  • 4. One of the most important aspects of weight maintenance5. Consistent self monitoring associated with improved weight loss6. Avergeamerican watches 28 hours TV/week  4 hours/day – highly sedentary activity7. Many report long term weight maintenance is more challenging than the intital weight loss program-prevention of weight re-gain is one of the most difficult dilemmas dieters encounter
  • University of California Los Angeles –-those on a very low calorie diet (like 500-1000 range) regained significantly more weight than they did on their program-Judith Beck, PhD – director of Beck Institute of Cognitive TherapyKelly – coined the term yo-yo dieting in the 1980s-you’re body cannot tell the difference between Atkins and famineImmune function-repeatedly losing weight and regain --> lowers immune function, particularly natural killer cells-important in fending off infections and vital in the early sttages of cancerMore tan 100 overweight but otherwise healthy women – yoyo dieted 5x or more in their lives decreased NK cell activty by 1/3
  • The more diets you’ve been on – the harder it is to lose weightHunger hormone ghrelin increases  fullness hormone leptin decrease-more hungry feeling and less satisfied feelingDavid Kessler MD – former FDA commissioner-overactive neural circuits  resisting regaining the weight can be biological-evidence also shows it is partially learned-Conditioning can rewire the process of your brain to stop the cycle of these diets (RD CAN DO THIS)
  • Judith BeckJournal of Psychosomatic ResearchGroup two did not
  • Weight loss programs – often don’t provide enough educaiton to maintain lifelong-instead they teach the beginning of what an RD can get into (balanced diet, portion sizes)
  • 100% Fad Free

    1. 1. 100% Fad FreeHealth updates on currentdiet trends AllisonBrewer
    2. 2. Presentation Overview History of Fad Diets Current Fad Diet Overview Diet Programs and Systems ◦ Weight Watchers ◦ NutriSystem Role of the Dietitian Summary Food For Thought in Future Practice
    3. 3. Learning ObjectivesAt the end of the presentation, the participantswill be able to: Identify popular methods for weight loss, interpret dietary trends, and develop the skills to identify fad diets Discuss current trends in dietary applications for weight loss and characteristics of popular diets Evaluate systems and programs developed for weight loss and determine efficacy Understand the role of the Registered Dietitian in healthy weight loss and dietary interventions
    4. 4. Pop Quiz Beverly Hills Diet Sleeping Beauty Diet Cigarette Diet Sacred Heart Diet Negative Calorie Diet Tapeworm Diet Cheater’s Diet Baby Food Diet Banana Diet Blood Type Diet
    5. 5. What is a Fad Diet? Eating patterns that promote short term weight loss Usually have no concern for weight maintenance Temporary popularity and solution to what is commonly a chronic condition Many lack major nutrients, vitamins and minerals
    6. 6. Identify Fad Diets Promise a quick fix. Claims that sound too good to be true. Simplistic conclusions drawn from a complex study. Dramatic statements that are refuted by reputable scientific organizations. Lists of good and bad foods. Specialized product used in conjunction for desired result Recommendations based on studies published without review by other researchers or that ignore differences among individuals or groups. Eliminating 1 or more of the 5 food groups.
    7. 7. Common Fad Diets“I’m just one stomach flu away from my goalweight…”
    8. 8. Which diet was originallypublished in 1825but is still popular today? A. Raw Foods Diet B. Low Carbohydrate Diet C. Blood Type Diet
    9. 9. Atkins Diet Update Low carbohydrate diet with intake based on fiber rich vegetables and protein Research supports: prevention of CVD, lowers LDL and increases HDL (although research not consistent) Research argues: contributes to osteoporosis and kidney stones Nutritional Concerns: restrict healthful foods and limit variety
    10. 10. Dukan Diet Protein based (excluding pork and lamb) Designed by French MD Pierre Dukan 4 phases with over 100 “allowed” foods ◦ Attack ◦ Cruise ◦ Consolidation ◦ Stabilization
    11. 11. Analysis of Dukan Diet Pierre Dukan – French MD with 35 years of experience in clinical nutrition Similar to Atkins Promises hunger will disappear by day 3 Encourages MVI with minerals
    12. 12. Risk Factors with Dukan Diet Risk of kidney issues, muscle loss, issues with electrolyte imbalances Restrictive nature - hard to maintain lifelong British Dietetic Association: “Do-can’t Diet” National Agency for Food, Environmental and Work Health Safety in France – declared the diet unhealthy
    13. 13. Myth or FactYou should eat each food groupseparately for optimal digestion. MYTH!You’re digestive system is made tohandle more than one type of food at atime.
    14. 14. HCG Diet Human Choriogonadotropin Hormone produced by women during early stages of pregnancy HCG hormone surge signals the hypothalamus to move nutrients and fat into the placenta Low calorie diet & supplemental drops or injections
    15. 15. Fact or MythSkipping meals helps cut calories andisn’t a bad way to help lose weight. MYTH!When you skip meals, the naturaltendency is to overeat andovercompensate later.
    16. 16. Paleo Diet “The World’s Healthiest Diet” Genetic adaptations Foods broken down into “do eat” and “do not eat” ◦ Foods focus on what humans would have eaten during the Paleolithic era
    17. 17. Analysis of the Paleo Diet Claims ◦ Permanently free yourself from acne ◦ Improve athletic performance ◦ Slow progression of autoimmune diseases ◦ Longer, healthier, more active life ◦ Lose weight without dieting or exercise ◦ Reduce or eliminate your risk for disease
    18. 18. Analysis of the Paleo Diet Benefits ◦ Reducing risk of chronic diseases: Risks ◦ Not balanced nutrition ◦ Long term high protein – high saturated fats ◦ Long-term maintenance difficult
    19. 19. Paleo Diet: Behind theResearch Type 2 Diabetes and cardiovascular risk 13 pts – 3 women, 10 men One group on Paleo diet for 3 months, Another on usual diet for 3 months Paleo Diet Improvements HgbA1c -0.4%, p = 0.01 Triglycerides -0.4mmol/L, p = 0.003 Diastolic BP -4mmHg, p = 0.03 Weight -3kg, p = 0.01 BMI -1 kg/m2, p = 0.04 Waist Circumference -4cm, p = 0.02
    20. 20. Master Cleanse 2 TB lemon juice, 1 TB maple syrup, 1/10 Tsp cayenne pepper and 2 cups water Drink 6-12 glasses throughout the day for 10 days Laxative therapy morning and evening “Help you lose up to 20 pounds, look younger, ease chronic pain, cleanse your body of internal waste and boost your energy levels in 10 days”
    21. 21. How Master Cleanse works 3 phases ◦ Ease In ◦ The Lemonade Diet ◦ Ease Out Cleanse Stack “Every day of the master cleanse that you overcome the psychological need to eat, you feel a growing sense of control that motivates you to complete the process”
    22. 22. Risks of the Master Cleanse Deficient in calories, vitamins, minerals and macronutrients Fear of filling our body with toxins drives many to these diets ◦ Our bodies naturally rid themselves of undesirable substances without human intervention Fasting can rob intestines of healthy bacteria Laxative abuse
    23. 23. Match the Diet with the correctdescription Helps you overcome the psychological need to eatPaleo Diet “The PregnancyMaster Cleanse Diet”HCG Diet “Healthiest diet in the world!”
    24. 24. KE Diet Ketogenic Enteral Nutrition http://abcnews.go.com/Health/diet- brides-feeding-tubes-rapidly-shed- pounds/story?id=16146271#.T58m3N nAE14
    25. 25. Risks of KE Diet Sudden weight loss often returns Opens up other medically “controlled” weight loss methods Ethical dilemma
    26. 26. KE Diet A.S.P.E.N. Statement: Using this medical therapy for weight loss detracts from the health benefit achieved by patients that require this therapy and would much rather eat by mouth ◦ None of the 5,500 physicians, dietitians and other professionals in A.S.P.E.N. would support this action
    27. 27. Weight Loss Programs
    28. 28.  28 day delivered meal program Catered to your meal preferences Consider portion sizes while reducing fat and caloric intake Glycemic Index 1200 – 1500 calories for women, 1500 – 1800 calories for men Offers money back guarantee
    29. 29. NutriSystem - Pros With exercise, can lose 1-2#/week Ease Focuses on low fat, whole grains, fruits and vegetables Allows for pre-established meal patterns with snacks and dessert No calorie counting Pre-portioned meals Social support, nutrition education and exercise tips available online
    30. 30. NutriSystem - Cons Preservatives in meals Pre-packaged meals can lack color and variety Expensive Counseling education not from health professional/RD but “Qualified Counselors”
    31. 31. NutriSystem – Behind theResearch Obese individuals with T2DM Studied commercial weight loss programs and glycemic control 69 patients (49 females, 20 males) ◦ Mean age: 52 years, BMI 39, HcgA1C: 7.5% Random assignment to NutriSystem – D or Diabetes Support and Education program 3 months – Support group also on NutriSystem D
    32. 32. Research Results At 3 months – 7.1% weight loss from NutriSystem group, 0.4% weight loss from Support Group, P<0.0001, statistically significant; NutriSystem HgbA1C reduction 0.88% vs 0.03% in Support Group Show obese patients with improvements in weight and glycemic control can benefit from commercial weight management programs
    33. 33.  Points Plus Program Protein and fiber-rich foods get fewer points to encourage dieters to eat more filling foods throughout the day Unlimited fruit and non-starchy veggies All foods can fit Named #1 Best Commercial Diet, 2011
    34. 34. Weight Watchers - Pros Suits women and men Counseling Exercise regimen recommendations Recipe and meal ideas Partnerships 40 years of experience Mobile App
    35. 35. Weight Watchers - Cons Counting points similar to counting calories Weight Watchers for Men – online only Open-ended plan with lots of personal control Not a strong emphasis on fitness Points system based solely on calories, total fat and dietary fiber
    36. 36. Weight Watchers – Behind theResearch  Random assignment to either WW group or Self-help group ◦ 48 in WW group, 40 in Self-help ◦ Means BMI = 33.7 kg/m2 ◦ 85% women ◦ 2 year duration
    37. 37. Weight Watchers ResearchResults Maximum weight loss ◦ 5.3 # at 26 weeks in WW group ◦ 1.5# at 26 weeks in Self-Help group Maintenance in 2 years ◦ 3.2# in WW ◦ 0# in Self Help
    38. 38. How do I use thisinformation?
    39. 39. 7 Steps to Successful WeightLoss1. Low-calorie, low-fat diet•To lose weight, one must create an energydeficit•Maintain consistency with weight loss program2. Eat a consistent diet from day to day.• Encourage self-control, minimize unplannedfood temptations, foster self-discipline, andincrease one’s ability to persevere with the diet3. Eat breakfast• Suppresses midmorning hunger• Produces better blood glucose control
    40. 40. 4. Incorporate physical activity5. Check body weight frequently•Form of accountability and self-monitoring6. Limit TV viewing time7. Take corrective action when weight is regained• Many formal weight loss programs report thatdieters frequently regain weight 3-5 years after theyachieve their goal weight loss
    41. 41. Role of the RD
    42. 42. Role of the RD Systemic review of 31 long term diet studies ◦ 2/3 of dieters regained more weight within 4-5 years after the program than they initially lost Kelly Brownell, MD ◦ Director of Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity at Yale University ◦ Dieting is perceived as a threat to survival Immune function and decreased NK cell activity
    43. 43. Role of the RD
    44. 44. Role of the RD Never learned skills for behavior change 200 overweight and obese individuals ◦ Group 1 – weight loss program with one hour counseling ◦ Group 2 – weight loss program with one hour exercise (low intensity) Results – Group one maintained weight after 3 year follow-up
    45. 45. Conclusion Fad diets are eating patterns that promote short term weight loss When a weight loss program sounds too good to be true, it probably is Effective weight loss programs can be used as primary education RD can help process lifestyle changes and goals to making desired changes
    46. 46. Food For Thought Are we already crossing the line of what is ethical when medical professionals recommend or endorse potentially dangerous programs? How far will society go to make losing weight easier?
    47. 47. References 1. Lowe MR, Miller-Kovach K, Frye N, Phelan S. An initial evaluation of a commercial weight loss program: short-term effects on weight, eating behavior and mood. Obesity Research 1999; 7 (1): 51-59. 2. American Council on Exercise – Weight Management. Available at www.acefitness.org 3. Fletcher, D. Fad Diets. Time Magazine: Health. 15 Dec 2009. Accessed April 27, 2012. Available at http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1950931,00.html 4. Gilden Tsai A, Wadden TA. Systematic Review: An evaluation of major commerciation weight loss programs in the United States. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2005; 142 (1): 56-66. 5. WebMD – Women’s Health Weight Loss: Spotting Fad Diets. Available at http://women.webmd.com/fad-diets 6. Eat right for your type. Available at dadamo.com 7. WebMD – The Dukan Diet Review. Available at http://www.webmd.com/diet/features/dukan-diet-review?page=2
    48. 48. References 8. US News Health: Can the Dukan Diet do it? April 5, 2011. Available at http://health.usnews.com/health-news/diet-fitness/diet/articles/2011/04/05/can-the-dukan-diet-do-it 9. The Dukan Diet. Available at Dietsinreview.com 10. HCG Diet. Available at Dietsinreview.com 11. WebMD – The Lemonade Diet (Master Cleanse Diet). Available at http://dadamo.com/http://www.webmd.com/diet/features/the-lemonade-diet-master-cleanse- diet?page=2 12. Weight Watchers. Available at Dietsinreview.com 13. FoxNews – Cleansing diet may be worthless, dangerous. Available at http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,214802,00.html 14. Discovery Fit and Health – NutriSystem Diet: What you need to know. Available at http://health.howstuffworks.com/wellness/diet-fitness/diets/nutrisystem4.htm 15. Discovery Fit and Health – Paleo Diet: What you need to know. Available at http://health.howstuffworks.com/wellness/diet-fitness/diets/paleo-diet2.htm
    49. 49. Questions?