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Middle Passage 2

Middle Passage 2



Great dipiction of the Middle Passage

Great dipiction of the Middle Passage



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Middle Passage 2 Middle Passage 2 Presentation Transcript

  • The Middle Passage
  • Slavery in the Americas, A Form of Genocide
    • What is genocide?
    • Brief history of the slave trade
    • How was the slave trade a form of genocide?
  • Triangular Trade Middle Passage
  • Life During the Middle Passage
  • Slave Caravan
    • Journey to the coast to board slave ships
    • Weak slaves left to die on trail
    • Frequent whippings for those who could not keep up the pace
  • Inside a Slave Holding Fort
    • Elmina Castle
    • Along the Coast of Central Ghana
    • First point of contact with Europeans
    • Trading post to protect from possible attacks
    • Base of Christopher Columbus on his mission to “discover” the New World
  • Inside a Slave Holding Fort
    • The Dungeon
    • Ground floor dungeons held up to 1000 slaves
    • Held for up to three months before slave ship arrival
    • Minimal ventilation and food
    • Men chained and branded for identification
  • Inside a Slave Holding Fort
    • Condemned Cell
    • Rebellious Africans who resisted their enslavement
    • No escape
    • Starved until death
  • Slave Ships
    • Good Weather
    • Allowed to roam on deck
    • Fed two small meals:
    • Boiled rice, millet, or cornmeal and a daily ration of a half-pint of water in a “pannikin”
    • Horse beans, the cheapest food available
    • Exercise
    • Had to be in acceptable physical condition to maximize profit
    • “ Dancing”: Men were forced to jump up and down to the beat of a drum until their ankles bled from their chains
    • Crew members whipped slaves who refused to dance
    "At the savage Captain’s beck, Now like brutes they make us prance Smack the cat about the Deck And in scorn they bid us dance"
    • Bad Weather
    • The worst time of the Middle Passage
    • Slaves remained below deck all day and night
    • These “tween decks” were filled with slaves (live and dead), blood, vomit, urine, and human waste
    • Slaves not fed as usual- forced to scrounge for crumbs
    • “ Bedwarming”
    • Crew member or captain took slave women from the tween decks at night
    • Physically and sexually abused
    • This practice demonstrated the figurative and literal rape of the African-American culture by the slave traders of the Middle Passage
  • Revolts and Punishments
    • Made weapons of chains and shackles to attempt to kill crew
    • Uprisings usually put down quickly by crew  Most Africans who attempted to revolt were killed in the process
    • Africans harmed themselves to threaten cargo (suicide, starvation)  Crew force fed slaves
    • One of the few successful slave mutinies
    • A group of Africans led by Congolese chief Cinque killed captain and most of crew on the Amistad
    • Long legal battle  Supreme Court ruled the Africans to be free
  • Death Toll
    • Extreme overcrowding, deplorable conditions caused many to die
    • Dysentery, smallpox, ophthalmia, malaria, yellow fever, scurvy
    • Gone mad  flogged or clubbed to death and thrown overboard
    • Sick  starved
    • Contagious  thrown overboard so as not to infect others
    • Suicide, death from revolting
  • Legacy
    • 10-15 million Africans estimated to arrive in the Americas
    • Nearly as many estimated to die during the voyage  20-30 million victims total
    • Paramount example of inhumanity, suffering
    • Set precedent for horror of slave trade
    • Hurt dignity and culture of Africans
    • Led to discrimination against a new group: African-Americans
  • Preparation for Sale
    • Focus: reduce obvious effects of journey
    • Exercised, shaved, oiled
    • Auctioned to American slave owners
  • The End