2e-learning orelectronic learningThe process of learning usingtechnologythe Internet, CD-ROMs portable devicesALL FORMS OF ELECTRONICALLY SUPPORTEDLEARNING AND TEACHING
3Distance /distant learningOpen learningOnline learningBlended learningWe have several terms associated withe-learning and these terms are often usedinterchangeablyM - learning
4DistanceLearningoften on an individual basis, withoutphysically being present in a traditionaleducational setting such as a classroom.learners and what will be learned are separated bytime, distance or bothOriginated from traditional paper-based distancecourses delivered by regular mail
5OpenLearningIt is one aspect of distance learning thatrefers to the independence of the learnerAllows learners self-determined, independentand interest-guided learning.The more open a distance course is, the moreautonomy the learner has in decidingwhat they learnhow they learn andwhen they learn
6On-line Learning(a side of e-learning)The type of e-learning that takes place over anInternet or mobile phone connection.Key to the concept of online learning is that a verysignificant part of the course delivery andcoursework should take place virtually (using anelectronic connection e.g., the Internet.)
7M LearningMobile LearningType of on-line learning using portablecomputing devices (such as laptops, tabletPCs, PDAs, and smart phones) with wirelessnetworks
8BlendedLearningA mixture of online and face-to-face learningIt is generally used to support face-to-face learning.For example, learners may meet once a week with a teacherface-to-face for an hour, and do a further two hours workweekly online.In some situations the digital element is done offlinewith a CD-ROM.
9examples of learning situationsto show howe-learningactually works in practice
10Learners are in a self-studycentre, or at home, and theyuse a CD-ROM which provides themwith extra practice of what they have donein class.
11During class, learners are taken to acomputer room, and do exerciseson a language website on the Internet, in pairs.
12Learners use an ICT tool, such asblogs, wikis, chat or podcasts, forproject work, either inside or outside theclassroom.
13Learners email their homework orclass assignment to the teacher, who marks itand emails it back to learners
14The teacher uses a blog to provide learnerswith online links for reading andlistening, homework assignments, andsummaries of class work for learners who missclass.
15The classroom is equipped with aninteractive whiteboard, which isregularly used in class.
16Learners meet face-to-face only once amonth, and do class work using email,chat, phone and shared activities on theInternet.
17Online learning is often delivered viaa LEARNING PLATFORMThis platform is calledVirtual Learning Environment (VLE)Learning Management System (LMS)Course Management System (CMS)Virtual Classroom
18On this web-based platformcourse contentcan be stored.Learners can accessthis contenton the Internet
19Learners can notonly see thecourse content(in the form of documents,audio and video lectures)but also they cando activitiessuch asquizzes,different types of examsquestionnairesThey can usecommunication toolslikediscussion forumstext and audio chatBlogsWikis
29No course book including a number of units in apredetermined order.Units about different topics and learners can choose theunit or topic and they make their waysActivities and works are conducted on lineFeedbacks are provided by the computersLearners are assessed automaticallyWritten texts are sent to the teacher by e-mailSpeaking is dealt with via SkypeLearners send regular “voicemail” to the teacherLearners follow the courses individually and at their ownpaceIf there are small groups, they have set deadlines for units oractivities and they may have additional communicationfacilities such as on line forums
30Similar setting as seen in previous exampleBut the course is delivered 75% online and 25%face to faceFor example, learners meet once a month face toface with teacherSpeaking activities are carried outmainly face to facePhone contact and Skype can provide extraspeaking practiceBlended Learning
31Course is in classroom setting but teacher usessome on line toolsTeacher blog to provide extra reading and listeningpractice, to set homework and to provide summaries ofthe class workLearners send their homework via e-mail and can getfeedback in the same wayTeacher offer regular chat sessions outsidethe class time (for example every Staurdaybetween 14.00-15.00 pm)Teacher does project work involving ICTtools like blogs, wikis, podcasts, encourages studentsto work on such projects outside the class timeFace to face course supported byon-line learning
32Online course designIn online course design there are certainquestions which the course designer or individualteacher needs to consider carefullyThese questions can be grouped under the followingheadingsDelivery modeTask design and materialsLearnersTeacher/TutorsAssessment and evaluation
• Is the course purely online, or does it include blended learning? If blended,exactly what percentage of the course takes place face-to-face, and how oftendo learners meet?• What elements of the course content are delivered online, and what elementsare delivered face-to-face?• How exactly are the online components of the course delivered? By email andchat? In a VLE? Via an ad hoc collection of online tools like Skype, email andYahoo! Groups?• Can a CD-ROM provide a useful means of delivering digital content forelements that are difficult to download, for example video content?• Is the method of delivery suited to the content? In other words, if an onlinecourse promises to teach and practise pronunciation, but the delivery mode isvia email, it is unlikely to work!• What elements of the course will take place synchronously, that is, in real time,and what elements asynchronously, that is, not in real time? What synchronousand asynchronous tools will be used?• Does the course content and delivery mode reflect the learners needs?33Delivery mode
• What materials will be used for the course content? Will they be tailor-made content and activities, or will existing resources on the Internetbe used?• What issues of copyright need to be taken into account, if you areusing existing activities, graphics and websites available on theInternet?• Is content attractively presented and varied, for example withgraphics and animation? Is there a range of media used - audio, video,text - and a range of tools - forums, text/audio chat, email, voice mail?• Are different task types provided? For example, are all the grammarexercises drag-and-drop or are various activity types available?• Do task types appeal to a variety of learner styles?• Are there plenty of opportunities for interaction between learners, andbetween learners and tutors, built into the tasks and overall coursedesign?34Task design and materials
• Are the learners computer literate, or will they need training touse the online tools? If training is needed, how will this beprovided?• To what extent are the learners prepared for and suitable for e-learning? How will their course expectations be dealt with?• Will the course be individual self-study, or will learners workthrough the course material at the same time, in small groups?What is the maximum size for a group?• If the course is 100 percent online and group-based, how andwhen will group formation and socialising activities beintegrated? How will learners be made to feel part of an onlinelearning group?• How much tutor support, and access to tutors, will learners begiven?35Learners
• Are the tutors experienced in e-learning, as well as computerliterate, or will they need training to deliver the course? If trainingis needed, how will this be provided?• To what extent will tutors be involved in course design, or willthey simply deliver the course?• What is the ratio of learners to tutors, and how many hours aweek are tutors expected to work on the online component of acourse?• How much support are tutors given, and by whom?36Teacher/Tutors
• How will the success - or otherwise - of the course itself beevaluated?• Will the course be evaluated as it is running (known asformative assessment) or only at the end (summativeassessment)?• How will learners coursework be assessed and graded?• How will tutors performance be evaluated?37Assessment and evaluation
38You will be teaching to primary or secondary schoolstudents and many of them will already be familiarwith Internet tools like blogs, wikis andchat, and they will probably like the useof technology in the classroom morereadily.How to get started with online learning
39ON LINE TEACHING IS POSSIBLEIF YOU HAVESINCERE EFFORT TO DO
•Take an online course. Experiencing online learningyourself will make you much more aware of - andempathetic to – difficulties• Ensure that all design and delivery issues are resolvedat the planning stage.• Find out about your learners expectations about theonline course, and deal with any unrealistic expectations,early on.• Create interactive tasks at the beginning of your onlinecourse40FOR ON LINE TEACHING
•Create an online community by providing opportunitiesfor learners to interact with each other and to get to knoweach other socially from the very beginning of the course.•Create spaces, communication channels and norms fordealing with issues and conflict. This can be done bothpublicly and privately, and should be availablethroughout the course.•Establish norms, protocols or guidelines for groupinteraction and behaviour.•Allow for group closure by, for example, celebratingachievements, disseminating products, providingfeedback, designing closing activities and providing forpost-course contact and development.41FOR ON LINE TEACHING
43SOME ON-LINE TEACHERTRAINING COURSESShort methodology courses for teachers(Teaching Young Learners, Teaching Listening or Using Dramain the Classroom)Pre-service certificate coursesIn-service diploma courses,(Trinity Diploma or Cambridge ESOL DELTA)MAs and University Diplomas
44http://www.ihlondon.com/teacher-training/Some of these courses areoffered by established andreputable training bodies oracademic institutions.The best way isTO FIND A COURSE THATIS ACCREDITED BY ARECOGNIZED BODY
45Today teachers are very busy with someextracurricular activities…
46For the teacher who does notwish to follow an on linecourse, but would like to keepup-to-date with issues in thefield, or develop their skillsmore informally,there are some otheroptions online.mailing listdiscussion listdiscussion group
47A mailing list is the simplest form ofinformative email communicationTypically a mailing list circulates information aboutforthcoming online courses or conferences, newmaterials or articles.One example is theBritish Councils ELTECS(English Language TeachingContacts Scheme) lists,which keep membersaround the worldinformed of events,activities, courses andgrantshttp://www.britishcouncil.org/eumd-educationuk-l.htm
48A discussion list is similar to a mailing listbut will allow for and encourage discussion oftopics and issues.This is done by a software called Listserv or MajordomoListserv is a commercial mailinglist management system thatallows you to subscribe to orcreate, manage, and control anelectronic mailing list.Majordomo is another mailinglist manager (MLM) developed byBrent Chapmanhttp://web.cortland.edu/flteach/
49Discussion groups may be in the form ofSPECIAL INTEREST GROUPS (SIG)(A group formed around a specific field)COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE (CoP)(A group in which not only is there a lot of discussion andinteraction between members but also shared responsibilities,tasks and activities)
50http://www.iatefl.org/special-interest-groups/list-of-sigsSPECIAL INTEREST GROPUSIATEFL(The International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language)has several discussion groups
Business EnglishBESIG represents the interests and needs of the internationalbusiness English teaching community. Offers - both on andoffline - annual conference, regular newsletters, webinarsand weekend workshops together with an open discussionlist and an expanding list of high quality members onlyresources.http://www.besig.org/ESOLEnglish for Speakers of Other Languagesmain interest is language learners, including refugees, asylumseekers or migrant workers, who have come to settle in acountry where English is the major or predominant language.http://esolsig.wordpress.com/51
English for Specific Purposesfocuses on English for Specific Purposes, English for AcademicPurposes and English for Occupational/ProfessionalPurposes/English for Work. Its main objective is todisseminate good practice and promote models of excellencein ESP to ELT professionals in the UK and abroad.http://espsig.iatefl.org/Global Issuesprovides a forum among ELT practitioners to stimulateawareness and understanding of global issues to exchangeideas on integrating peace education, human rightseducation, development education, and environmentaleducation into English language teaching.http://gisig.iatefl.org/52
Learner Autonomydiscusses via publications and events a wide range of issuesrelated to autonomy in language learning, including learnerdifferences, motivation, learning styles and learningstrategies, and cultural diversity.http://www.learnerautonomy.org/Leadership and Managementmeets the needs of managers and other ELT professionals inleadership positions. Recent topics through its newslettersand workshops have included leadership skills, performancemanagement, change management, project management,motivation, communication skills and personal effectiveness.http://eltm.iatefl.org/53
Literature, Media & Cultural StudiesIt is for anyone involved in teaching or using literature, mediaor cultural and intercultural studies in EFL/ESL contexts.http://lmcs.iatefl.org/.Learning Technologiesone of the largest groups, explores the dynamic changes takingplace in the application of technology in English languagelearning, including corpora, multimedia, computer mediatedcommunication, text-based software, authoring, the web, andInteractive Whiteboards.http://ltsig.org.uk/54
PronunciationIt is for teachers interested in integrating pronunciation skillswith language teaching. PronSIG encourages and promotesbest practice in pronunciation teaching across a range ofcontexts, from young learners to professional and academicEnglish.http://www.rdg.ac.uk/epu/pronsig/ResearchIt is a unique forum for discussion of issues connected withresearch into ELT, bringing together teachers, teacher-researchers and researchers from around the world. In thisactive community, members share their experiences of andfindings from research, and network face-to-face at regularevents, online via our discussion list, and in print though ourbiennial publication, ELT Research News.http://resig.weebly.com/55
Teacher DevelopmentProvides a forum in which anyone interested indevelopmental issues can share their own experience andlearn from the experiences of others. Through an activenetwork the group encourages individuals and groups ofteachers to undertake activities that focus on personal andprofessional development.http://tdsig.org/Testing, Evaluation & AssessmentIt is for everyone interested and involved in the process andoutcomes of testing, evaluation and assessment in ELT. Coreareas of interest include classroom assessment and tests,external standardized examinations, progress, achievementand proficiency testing and assessment, teacher evaluation,self-assessment and evaluation of institutions and learningprogrammes.http://tea.iatefl.org/56
Teacher Training & EducationFocuses on the aspects of pre and in-service Teachereducation, as well as professional development through talksand workshops at the annual IATEFL conference in the UK andaround the world. Members receive information about thelatest developments in teacher training and education andplenty of opportunities to network within the profession areprovided.http://ttedsig.iatefl.org/Young Learners and TeenagersThe Young Learners and Teenagers SIG provides a forum forEnglish Language Teaching professionals involved in thelanguage education of 3-17 year olds. The community consistsof some 1200 individual and institutional teachers, teachereducators, lecturers, policy makers, publishers and textbookwriters around the world. All benefit from our online andoffline interactions, international events, publications andresources.http://www.yltsig.org/57
58COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICEhttp://www.webheadsinaction.org/
59COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICEhttp://groups.yahoo.com/group/dogme/DogmeThose are a group of teachers, trainers andmaterials writers interested in exploring how toteach without using materials like course books,and using the learners themselves as resources togenerate content and dialogue. Like Webheads,Dogme members often try things out in class,then discuss them afterwards with the group.