Quick Assessment: Open Q’s: What is this statue? From What Period? (CLICK AND REPEAT for diadoumes)(Analyse New York kouros pre-naturalism. Discuss: Pose, build, detail, proportions, movement, life, us of Vs and Ws to depict detail?)We are looking for ways in which sculptors moved away from archaic ideals in their pursuit of accuracy and freedom of design, as celebration of the human form.Differences: Desire for freedom, and movement and portrayal of the human form as it is in reality. By the period of Classical sculpture a rule had been developed to ensure that accurate proportions could be reflected in the statue. Sculptors such as Polykleitos and Myren, began to experiment with poses in order to reach their goal of depicting freedom in celebration of the beauty of the human form. Symmetry and geometric pattern gradually gave way to an ideal of contrast, movement and realism. Contrapposto was widely used to create interest and balance without adhering to strict symmetry in its most basic form.Question: Does anyone know what invention enabled this experimentation of poses to happen? (Bronze Casting)
P45-46 of Green Book. : Although maintaining the same pose as the New York Kouros a number of improvement were made. The face is more lifelike due to the subtle swelling of the cheeks,(Refer to picture of the face and detail around mouth and eyes) The suggestion of soft flesh is created in the technique of replacing sharp angles and flat planes with softer curving masses and by adding gentle detail, particularly present in facial features and muscle definition.There are, of course, ways in which this statue has been unsuccessful in attaining complete naturalism.Can you think of any?-Bulk and thickness of the Kouros, particularly hips, is unrealistic and still reminiscent of early works such as Kleobis and Biton. -No suggestion of movement in the hips or muscles.... Too concerned with perfect symmetry. As a result the pose remained consistently similar to archaic Kouroi.-Although the hair has improved by adding curls and details, it was still the basic bead structure displayed in the New York Kouros.
(Page 47 of Green Book) Question: What is the name of this statue? Anyone know the period? (late 6th century BC) CLICK. Question: Would anyone like to have a go at identifying changes and improvements made, or any ways they have remained similar? The hair problem was partially solved by having it cut short. Greater naturalism was achieved as the proportions were more realistic and improvements were consistently being made in the depiction of muscles and the contours of the body and flesh.However, naturalism was not yet wholly achieved in this instance.The realism of the statue now made the archaic style pose adopted by most sculptors seem awkward and unusually rigid. Proportions were still not perfect and the torso was too long.This is mostly seen in the shoulders and hips. While the archaic smile seems a little mindless and inanimate.Again there is no movement in the hips and lower abdominal muscles.
By the early 5th century BC, Bronze casting was more widely used and sculptors used the technique to experiment with new poses and methods as Bronze Casting led to better strength than solid marble. Key themes began to appear: Different, more dynamic poses: Less use of symmetry in a traditional sense: and the eradication of the archaic smile.(Page 78 and 79 of Green Books) Question: Anyone recognise this statue? Date? CLICKQuestion: Anybody able to identify how contrapposto has been used in this statue? Any other developments or lack of development.CLICKMovement suggested through the transference of weight on to the back foot, the slight turn of the head and the movement suggested in the hip as it is raised at the right side on the load bearing leg while the slight turn of the head to the left balances this out.Naturalism led to the disappearance of symmetry in favour of movement in formulas of equilibrium.The eyes and hair both suggest that this marble statue was based on a bronze original as they reused methods such as inserting painted eyeballs and using slight incisions to suggest hair.The archaic smile had now disappeared. Life was depicted through the inclusion of subtle facial features and delicate details.Limitations:The torso and lower abdominal muscles do not react to the slight movement of the hip.
Question: Who is this? Date?CLICKIt is a rarity as it has survived to us in a near complete form, minus the thunderbolt. This is a testament to the strength and stability which bronze casting gave to free limbs.The main problem with the Zeus statue was the same as that with the Kritios Boy. The torso, while highly detailed and accurate, remained completely unresponsive to the movement or pose of Zeus (indicate on statue)
(Page 88-90 in green book) Question: Statue, sculptor and date?CLICKIn his Diskobolos (or discus thrower) Myren has avoided symmetry and repetition, although these were considered to be key features of the archaic design, sculptors in their search for naturalism had decided to break free from traditional constraints and depict freedom in their works.Myren incorporated a new mathematical- aesthetic ideal of curved versus straight- smooth versus angular, closed legs vs open chest. Yet while the composition of a single curve contrasting with 4 lines meeting at near-right angles is aesthetically pleasing from the front view, the statue can appear quite odd and distorted from other angles.How else has Myren portrayed action, movement and freedom in Diskobolos? Is he successful? I.E no movement in upper torso, pectorals etc.
Pages 84-86 of green bookWhat is it? Date?CLICKA statue of a warrior or a hero/ once held a shield in its left hand which is now lost, with his right hand held down by his side.Contrapposto manifests in the S shape of the body with hips and shoulders slanting in opposite directions. However, this statue has attempted to add freedom by animating the limbs which brings further interest to the statue from the side (see p84-5), but also brings contrast to the compositionin the way the left sided limbs are flexed while the right side are straight. (Question: can you think of anywhere else where this is done?: Diskobolos)The detail of the muscles and the different angles of the limbs help bring interest and beauty to the sides and back of the statue, as the upper back muscles and the buttocks are flexed accordingly.There are slight inaccuracies in the bronze statue, the lack of movement being shown in the upper torso in relation to the differing degrees of tension in the arms. (Analyze shoulders, pectorals etc.)
Diadoumenos only survives in Roman copies.Graceful rhythm of elegant movements. A gentle S shaped curve runs through the centre of the torso, while all the limbs are noticeably tilted in different directions.Classic Lines of contrapposto, with the shoulders and hips slanting in opposite directions, also highlight how it appears almost as if the statue is keeping itself in balance. Affective suggestion of movement and life?The muscles react and slant and are soft and life-like, probably more-so than Doryphoros.The body is well proportioned (symmetria), and the torso and pectoral muscles are reacting to the movement and yet despite how accurate it was as a representation of the human anatomy in motion it has often been less celebrated than the Doryphoros.
TheDoryphoros (or spear bearer) is often described as one of the best examples of naturalism. It was sculpted by Polykleitos who had observed his ‘rule’ very closely when creating Doryphoros. The proportions and implementation of symmetria create a convincing representation of a man.The pose of Doryphoros, holding spear, portrayed in the split second before he steps forward, creates a real sense of movement, or that movement is imminent.Movement is also suggested in the muscles, as the left pectoral raises slightly with the shoulder, and the abdominals on the right side are slightly contracted to accommodate for the raised hip.Galen, writing in the 2nd century BC, Galen described it as the perfect visual expression of the Greeks' search for harmony and beauty, which is rendered in the perfectly proportioned sculpted male nude.The contrapposto is extremely subtle as the arm holding a spear is tensed and therefore slightly raised. The hip slants in the other direction in classical contrapposto style. The raised shoulder on the right ensured the traditional S-shape of the torso.The muscle-belt around the groin is exaggerated as is the sternum of the statue to further accentuate the lines of contrapposto.Like the Riace Warrior, Doryphoros adopted the method of using contrast to attract interest....While the right arm and leg are straight and inanimate, the left leg is about to step forward, while the left hand was raised clutching a spear. The head turns to the right in order to balance this out.The combination of mathematical design and natural representation are successfully combined in the Doryphoros. While symmetria, proportions and detail were all important in creating a realistic representation of human anatomy, depicting freedom, movement and implementing contrapposto and formulaic composition were also implemented in the creation of the Doryphoros.
The doryphoros is an example of perfect slideshow
“The Doryphoros is an example of perfect naturalism”. Using your own knowledge of 6th & 5th century B.C sculpture, explain to what extent you agree with this statement.
Aims• To identify a range of developments made in free standing sculpture during 5th and 6th century BC.• To identify various statues which demonstrate these changes.• To evaluate the Doryphoros as an example of ideal naturalism.
New York Kouros (from Diadoumenos by Polykleitos copy of a bronze original from aroundAttica) late 7th century BC. 430 BC.
The AnavyssosKouros c. 530 BC -Early example of naturalism in sculpture. -Muscle definition, facial features and the hair, have improved since the New York Kouros.
Aristodikosmemorial, late 6thcentury BC -Partial solution to the problems of the artificial looking beaded hair effect, by cutting the hair short. -Continued developing trends of naturalism as the proportions became more accurate.
Kritios Boy .Early 5th century BC-Advances indicatingmovement include theintroduction of slight‘Contrapposto’.-Body carved with greatsubtlety.-The soft edges suggestyouth.
Bronze Statue of Zeus(or Poseidon) c. 460 BC Like the Kritios Boy the torso, while highly detailed and accurate, is completely unresponsive to movement.
Diskobolos byMyren 2nd quarterof 5th century BC -Portrays that moment of stillness in the midst of action. -Symmetry completely avoided. -Movement suggested in the way the abdominals fold.
Riace WarriorBronze 450-475 BCContrapposto used, not only inshoulders, hips and torso, butalso in the arms.Detail of hair and face are veryconvincing.Contrapposto is evident fromall angles, as is detail.Abandoned symmetry in orderto create the illusion offreedom.
PolykleitosDiadoumenos c.430 BC-Produced around a decadeafter the Doryphoros.-Developed his ‘rule’ or‘measurement’ whichimproved anatomicalproportions (symmetria).-Effective and increaseduse of Contrapposto
Doryphoros byPolykleitosc.440 BCSubtle use ofContrapposto in theshoulders and hips.Galen described it asthe perfect visualexpression of theGreeks search forharmony and beauty,which is rendered inthe perfectlyproportioned sculptedmale nude.
Task• Using pages 130-134 of your green books and your lesson notes, fill in the Handout entitled “Task 2”.
Task• In your groups, use play dough to create 2 statues.• One should be a Kouros. (remember archaic smile, symmetry, crude detail etc)• The other should be influenced by naturalism. (try to clearly demonstrate contrapposto, symmetria, movement, detail etc)
Have you been able.....?• To identify a range of developments made in free standing sculpture during 5th and 6th century BC.• To identify various statues which demonstrate these changes.• To evaluate the Doryphoros as an example of ideal naturalism.