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Introduction To Fso Technology
 

Introduction To Fso Technology

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Descripcion de la tecnologia y sistemas de luz para transmitir señales

Descripcion de la tecnologia y sistemas de luz para transmitir señales
Sistemas de transmision por fibra optica, equipos de fibra optica para transmision inalambrica

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Introduction To Fso Technology Introduction To Fso Technology Presentation Transcript

  • Wireless Product Division Introduction to FSO Technology By Itshak Kidouchim – Jan 2007
  • Introduction to FSO – Free Space Optics
    • FSO Communication is using the LASER light as the carrier.
    • Full Duplex, Full Speed AND No Delay.
    • Up to 1 Gbps Ethernet
    • Distances – up to 5km.
    • No License is required.
    • Easy to install and almost no maintenance is required.
    I - What is FSO
  • II - Why Free Space Optics (FSO)? The “Last Mile” Bottleneck Problem Only about 10% of commercial buildings are lit with fiber
    • Wide Area Networks between major cities are extremely fast
      • Fiber based
      • >2.5 Gbps
    • Local Area Networks in buildings are also fast
      • >100Mbps
    • The connections in between are typically a lot slower
      • 0.3-1.5 Mbps
  • Why Free Space Optics? Why Not Just Bury More Fiber?
    • Cost
    • Rights of Way
    • Permits
    • Trenching
    • Time
    With FSO, especially through the window, no permits, no digging, no fees
  • Ground Lasercom Terminal Satellite Lasercom Terminal 1 Gbps 2000 km range Commercial Lasercom Examples of FSO Systems
  • Worldwide Installations USA Canada Mexico Brazil Argentina Uruguay China Singapore Japan India Philippines Taiwan S. Korea Australia Thailand Vietnam Malaysia Indonesia South Africa Nigeria Slovenia Croatia Latvia Czechoslovakia Gibraltar Luxemburg Netherlands France Norway Greece Germany England Switzerland Sweden Portugal Spain Italy Turkey Israel Saudi Arabia MRV Communications: More than 7000 links installed
  • Electromagnetic Spectrum Spread spectrum Microwave 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 10 8 10 9 10 10 10 11 10 12 10 13 10 14 10 15 10 16 Hertz kHz MHz GHz THz 10 7 10 6 10 5 10 4 10 3 10 2 10 1 0.1 10 -2 10 -3 10 -4 10 -5 10 -6 10 -7 10 -8 Frequency Wavelength Radio Waves Microwaves Infrared UV Power & Telephone Copper wire transmission km meter cm mm mm 10 -9 nm 10 17 Coaxial cable Fiber optic AM radio FM radio Laser communication Unlicensed III – The Technology Smaller carrier wavelength / Higher Bandwidth
  • Near Infrared Visible Spectrum 400 nm 500 nm 600 nm 700 nm 800 nm 900 nm HeNe 780 nm 810 nm 850 nm 1550 nm Near Infrared 1300 nm
  • How does it work? Fiber Optic Cable Laser Transmitter Receiver Network Network Lens Free space
  • How FSO works? Anything that can be done in fiber can be done with FSO 1 Network traffic converted into pulses of invisible light representing 1’s and 0’s 2 Transmitter projects the carefully aimed light pulses into the air 5
    • Reverse direction data transported the same way.
      • Full duplex
    3 A receiver at the other end of the link collects the light using lenses and/or mirrors 4 Received signal converted back into fiber or copper and connected to the network
  • IV - Free Space Optics Positioning
    • High Bandwidth Wireless
    • Secure Wireless
    • Short distances
    • Within Urban areas
    • Eye safe
  • Bandwidth - Wireless ?
    • What is the fiber technology bandwidth limitation ?
      • Unlimited
    • What is the radio technology bandwidth limitation ?
      • Limited (only GHz frequencies)
    • What is the FSO technology bandwidth limitation ?
      • Unlimited
    FSO ≡ Ultra Bandwidth Wireless Solutions MRV Leading the Gigabit Wireless Revolution
  • Access Technologies Positioning c 10 Gbps 1 Gbps 100 Mbps 10 Mbps 1 Mbps 200 m 50 m 500 m 1 km 5 km 15 km+ Fiber LMDS WiFi Optical Wireless T-1 DSL Future Performances
  • Security Wireless ?
    • Is Radio signal secure ? What is the RF signal spectrum ?
    Very wide How many times did you see other Radio network in your area ?  FSO ≡ Most Secure Wireless Solutions Very narrow and directional mrad divergence Range = R = 1000 m = 1 km ~2 m
    • Is TereScope FSO signal secure ?
    • Beams only a few meters in diameter at a kilometer
    • Allows VERY close spacing of links without interference
    • No side lobes
    • Highly secure
    • Efficient use of energy
    • Ranges of 20m to more than 8km possible
    Narrow Beam Advantages
  • Applications Point-to-Point Ring Secure Ultra Bandwidth Wireless Mesh
  • V - General Terms Beam Divergence - measure of angle or how much the beam spreads circle: 360° (degrees) = 2π radians 1 radian = 57° (degrees) 1 milliradian = 0.001 rad = 0.057° (degree) 80 µ radians = 0.00008 rad = 0.0046° (degree) (satellite) 2.5 mrad divergence 1 mrad divergence Range = R = 1000 m = 1 km 80 µrad divergence 1 radian Laser Communication System 2.5 m 1 m 8 cm STRV-2 Satellite Laser Communication System
  • Tx Tx High geometric loss. . . . . .good link stability. Narrow angle Tx . . .poor link stability. Wide angle Link stability – Depending on Beam divergence Tx
  • Geometric loss Beam Area Receiver Lens Area  d B
    • = divergence angle, d B =  R
    • GM (Geometric Loss) = 10 log (Rx lens Area/Beam Area)
    • = 10 log [d R /(  R )] 2
    d R R (air transmission distance) Tx
  • The Decibel - dB
    • A logarithmic ratio between two values
    • In the optical world of Power in mW,
    • dB=10*Log(power2/power1)
    • 3 dB = ratio of 2/1
    • 6 dB = ratio of 4/1
    • 10 dB = ratio of 10/1
    • 20 dB = ratio of 100/1
    • 50 dB= ratio of 100,000/1
    Gain/Loss Multiplier +30 db +20 db +10 db 0 db -10 db -20 db -30 db 1000 100 10 1 .1 .01 .001
    • System Gain
      • Transmitter(s) power
      • Receiver sensitivity
    • Attenuation
      • Geometrical attenuation
      • Atmospheric attenuation
        • Scattering
        • Scintillation
        • Turbulence
      • System factors
        • Components and assemblies tolerances
        • System misalignment
    Total available margins = System Gain - Attenuation Link Budget
  • Environmental factors Sunlight Building Motion Alignment Window Attenuation Fog Each of these factors can “attenuate” (reduce) the signal. However, there are ways to mitigate each environmental factor. Scintillation Range Obstructions Low Clouds Sunlight
  • Environmental effects – Rain, Scintillation & Haze Type of events
  • Fade Margin calculation
    • Effects of the atmosphere on laser beam propagation
        • Atmospheric attenuation
            • absorption
            • scattering
        • Atmospheric turbulence
            • laser beam wander
            • scintillation
    VI – Effects of the weather on FSO com.
    • Scattering Major Factor – Haze, Fog, Smog
    • Scintillation Moderate Factor - Air shimmering off hot surfaces
    • Turbulence / Beam Wander Minor Factor – Different density air layers formed locally by temperature differences
    Environmental effects – Scattering, Scintillation & Turbulence
  • Typical Scattering Attenuation Factors for Various Weather Conditions Scattering
  • Effective Link Range vs. Winter Visibility
    • For laser transmission, attenuation by fog is much greater than attenuation by rain (opposite for microwaves)
      • Fog droplet size (5 to 15 µm)  laser wavelength
      • Rain droplet size (200 to 2000 µm)  microwave wavelength
      • Effect of snow is between rain and fog
    FOG RAIN SNOW
  • Scintillation & Turbulence Atmospheric turbulence (ie. wind) produce temporary pockets of air with different temperature thus different density thus different index of refraction. These air pockets and are continuously being created and then destroyed as they are mixed. The effect of these cells which lie along the laser beam path depends on the size of the cells. Laser Beam Wander if the cells are larger than the beam diameter Scintillation if the cells are smaller than the beam diameter. The wavefront becomes distorted due to constructive and destructive interference creating fluctuations in receive power, similar to the twinkling of a distant star.
  • Scintillation & Turbulence Power Time Power Time Laser Beam Wander Transmit power Receive power Power Time Power Time Scintillation Total Effect is the sum of both Power Time
  • Scintillation caused burst errors Serial bit stream Fluctuating received laser power Minimum receive power threshold Burst error Burst error
  • Link Bandwidth vs. Link Range @ various Atmospheric attenuation values * * TS5000/G TS5000/155 Ethernet/4E1 E1 Bandwidth 1 km 1.25Gbps 100Mbps 10Mbps 2Mbps 2 km 3 km 4 km 5 km * 30 dB/km 17 dB/km 10 dB/km 3 dB/km @ @ @ * @ For operation under light to medium rain, light snow, light haze. * For operation under medium to heavy rain – snow, thin fog. For operation under cloudburst, medium snow, light fog. For operation under blizzard, moderate fog. @ 6 km
  • VII - Competitive Technology
    • Spread Spectrum Disadvantages
        • Susceptible to RF interference in congested areas
        • Can be monitored easily
        • Limited actual bandwidth (throughput of 2-54 Mbps half duplex)
    • Microwave Disadvantages
        • Cost (the higher the bandwidth, the greater the cost)
        • Complex installations
        • Licensing required for higher frequencies
  • VIII - MRV TereScope™ Series - Matrix
    • The Most Comprehensive Free Space Optics Solutions
    • In The Industry
  • IX – TS Installation Examples TS5000 Datec
  • DisneyLand - France TS3303 with Fusion M6- France
  • Sofdit, 7m pole - France TS707/4E1, Yanisahra - Turkey
  •  
  • Vitrolles – France 10 links
  •  
  • X - TereScope Structure בס " ד A - TS155 BLOCK DIAGRAM 1-155Mbps Interface unit Control Panel Management Unit(optional) Air Link Transmitter Air Link Receiver AC / DC Power Supply Clock / Data Recovery RSM-DC (Option) Data Out Data In Interface
  • B - 4E1 BLOCK DIAGRAM E1/T1 Line Interface unit E1/T1 Line Interface unit E1/T1 Line Interface unit E1/T1 Line Interface unit 4 E1/T1 Multiplexer / Demultiplexer Device Clock/Data Recovery Control Panel Management Unit(optional) Air Link Transmitter Air Link Receiver AC / DC Power Supply
  • Advantages of Infrared Wireless links
    • Very high bandwidth (1.5GBps)
    • License free
    • Most secure wireless medium
    • RFI/EMI immunity
    • No cross-talk or cross interference
    • Safe, no health hazards
    • Easy to relocate links
    • Low maintenance
    • Fast deployment
    XI - Summary
  • THANK YOU ww.mrv.com [email_address]