We're committed to providing 100% plagiarism free academic assignments i.e.
Course work, Homework assignments, thesis, dis...
2
A critical review of key factors or
indicators in the motivation of
employees in an organization
3
Contents
Abstract..........................................................................................................
4
Abstract
This particular research has been conducted to evaluate the indicators of motivation in
Pak Elektron Limited (P...
5
Part One: Introduction and Research
Framework
The initial part of the research will present a general idea about the top...
6
human resource available to a company can change the destiny of that company. It is
because the worth of human resource ...
7
levels of the workers. Moreover, the research is important because this research put
forwards and signifies the imperati...
8
iv) Study concerning the strategies that can prove to be helpful regarding the
management of the factors influencing mot...
9
Part Two: Data Collection Sources and
Business and Accounting Techniques
This portion of the research statement will be ...
10
accounting revolves around quantitative data and its study through various ways, the
concept of motivation is more qual...
11
remove the research concerning discrimination with small scale industries in the
economy and will be able to provide a ...
12
Furthermore, the second complication found was in regarding the replies of the
participants. The collected data and the...
13
Non Monetary Factors: These refer to the nonmonetary recognition offered to
employees for their efforts in the organiza...
14
Part Three: Analysis of Data and
Conclusion
This third portion of the research project will provide results of the anal...
15
Other than human resource management, the concepts of motivation have better roots
in the sociology and psychology (Jyo...
16
satisfaction that will happen only when the desired outcome is attained. In the
expectancy theory, this feeling regardi...
17
3.2 Results of the Questionnaire Survey
Before moving towards the findings of this questionnaire survey, it is signific...
18
Question no 2: Age
In the survey results, it was seen that most of the employees, around 57 percent lied
into the age g...
19
Question no 4: For how long have you been working with this organization?
Results: For any organization having permanen...
20
Question no 5: Which out of the following factors affects your motivation the
most?
Results: As studied above, factors ...
21
the best reward and so salary package is a fairly important factor of motivation. 17
percent people were found to be ne...
22
Question no 8: Do you feel the need to show your work in between other
employees?
Results: From a sample of employees o...
23
Question no 9: How much does the security (social and physical) helps you to
perform better?
Results: From the sample o...
24
Question no 10: Do you want your opinion to count in order to perform better in
the organization?
Results: In the resul...
25
3.3 Analysis of Data
Through the literature review conducted and from the results of 50 questioned people,
this is dete...
26
motivate them to work harder. Generally, competition is considered more like a stress
on working brains but the results...
27
The foremost objectives of this research was to understand what exactly motivation in
the employees means and why is it...
28
and simple, the employers or the management must create such an environment in
which the workers are given a chance to ...
29
References
Atchison, T. A. (2003). Exposing the myths of employee satisfaction.Healthcare
Executive, Vol. 17(3), PP. 20...
30
Larsson. R, Brousseau. K, Kling, K and Sweet, L. 2007. “Building motivational
capital through career concept and cultur...
31
Appendix
Please identify your gender
Female
Male
Please Identify your age range
15 t 25 years
26 to 35 years
36 to 45 y...
32
How much does the security (social and physical) helps you to perform better?
Very Important
Important
Not important
Do...
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RAP on Topic 6 of BSC Honors Oxford Brookes Thesis - A Critical Review of Key Indicators in the Motivation of Employees in an Organization

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RAP on Topic 6 of BSC Honors Oxford Brookes Thesis - A Critical Review of Key Indicators in the Motivation of Employees in an Organization

  1. 1. We're committed to providing 100% plagiarism free academic assignments i.e. Course work, Homework assignments, thesis, dissertations, Oxford Brookes Thesis (RAP, SLS, PPT), Essays and Term/Research papers etc. Please visit and like our Facebook page www.facebook.com/assignmentwritingservices/ and website www.ghostwritingmania.com to avail our special discount packages. You can add me on Skype ghostwritingmania for any further discussion...Looking forward to working together on long term.
  2. 2. 2 A critical review of key factors or indicators in the motivation of employees in an organization
  3. 3. 3 Contents Abstract........................................................................................................................................................4 Part One: Introduction and Research Framework ................................................................................5 1.1 Reasons for Selection of Topic and Organization.....................................................................5 1.2 Importance of the Research .........................................................................................................6 1.3 Aims and Objectives of the Research.........................................................................................7 Part Two: Data Collection Sources and Business and Accounting Techniques.............................9 2.1 Research Pattern ...........................................................................................................................9 2.2 Sources of Information and collection of Data........................................................................10 2.3 Sample and Data Collection Process........................................................................................11 2.3 Limitations of gathering information and Techniques.............................................................11 2.4 Classification of Ethical Issues...................................................................................................12 2.5 Business Techniques: Techniques for Motivation...................................................................12 Chapter Three: Analysis of Data and Conclusion ...............................................................................14 3.1 Literature Review...............................................................................................................................14 3.2 Results of the Questionnaire Survey..............................................................................................17 3.3 Analysis of Data............................................................................................................................25 3.4 Conclusion and Recommendations..........................................................................................26 3.4.1 Conclusion............................................................................................................................26 3.4.2 Recommendations ..............................................................................................................28 References ..................................................................................................................................................29 Appendix .....................................................................................................................................................31
  4. 4. 4 Abstract This particular research has been conducted to evaluate the indicators of motivation in Pak Elektron Limited (PEL). Primary data has been collected for the evaluation of the indicators of motivation in employees of PEL. A sample of 50 employees was selected for conducting survey. Response rate of 82% was attained in the survey. The results of the survey have evaluated that the results have evaluated the competition among employees creates motivation in employees to work harder for the organization. In addition, salary benefits and recognition of employee opinion also play effective role in motivating employees. It has been recommended that employees must be given attractive benefits in terms of salary and compensation and also better growth opportunities.
  5. 5. 5 Part One: Introduction and Research Framework The initial part of the research will present a general idea about the topic in order to provide a well concluded and an organized research study. Moreover, a brief explanation of the methodology and philosophy that has been carried out to conduct the research and the research structure will be provided in this first part of the research. The central idea of this part is to provide a better analysis understanding about the topic. 1.1 Reasons for Selection of Topic and Organization Motivation is one of the most significant variables a manager strictly needs to control, keep a check on and influence in the human resource management and organizational behaviour. This is because the organization‟s success almost completely relies on the performance of its employees, and motivation would lead it towards the concept of stability and development. Motivation in employees is one of the descriptive variables of how employees perform and also an extremely important one (Bartel and Locke, 2000). That is why human resource managers mostly work hard to keep the motivation level of their employees high. To be more precise and simple, higher motivation level of the employees in the firm would lead to higher level of performance by the employees and therefore resulting into high level performance by organization and more development. Clearly then the aspects of motivation also are quite important to management of any firm. This research will highlight these factors that determine, in human resource, the levels motivation. A significant similarity which can be used regarding this idea is of China. There is no doubt that China has contrived its economy from scrape and because of its efficient human resource management china has conquered the international trade. China‟s “human power” has helped the country to turn into the worlds “super power”. The basic idea of this example is to explain the fact that with efficient management and portion of
  6. 6. 6 human resource available to a company can change the destiny of that company. It is because the worth of human resource has been proven long ago when there was no use of machines and human resource with performance, creativity, and innovation had the ability to lead a business towards success and accomplishment of its objectives. Regarding the formal account of human resources, Jackson and Mathis claim that the human resource in an organization is the collective value of “successes, motivation, talents, capabilities, and experience” which it owns. More precisely, what this point implies is that if a business increases its level of motivation among the employees of the organization, the organization can actually enhance its overall value of the employed human resources. Therefore, the human resource of any organization needs to be managed. Sonawane and Pragya(2008) say that the incorporation of human resource management in a business will prove to have a positive and constructive relationship with the success and productivity of the business. The factors of human resource management adding up to the levels of motivation of the employees are the purpose of this research. The organization selected for the research is Pak Elektron Limited (PEL). It is one of the pioneer manufacturers of Electrical goods in Pakistan. It has been working to introduce quality products to customers. I have selected this particular organization because I had experience of working in it in the past. Therefore, I had the idea of motivational practices of the organization. However, I wanted to categorically identify the factors which cause motivation in employees in PEL. Therefore, I selected this particular organization for research. 1.2 Importance of the Research The foremost reason why this research is important is because of the significance of the covering topic. For a business, human resources are considered to be the most essential employed assets of the organization and thus for an organization it is imperative to manage them and invest in its human resources (Wyatt , 2000). This study with its analyses and conclusion will allow the managers of human resource to not only recognize the importance of human resource but also the significance of motivation
  7. 7. 7 levels of the workers. Moreover, the research is important because this research put forwards and signifies the imperative management and organizational associated factors that affects the motivation of the employees. Lastly, the research is considered important as it focused on not only the restricted liability organizations having a formal human resource and employee research department but also the organizationin Pakistan.This research would prove to be a vital input into the academic literature arena and this kind of methodology would also let an insight in the aspects which lead to enhancement in motivation in the employees devoid of any manipulation and intrusive strategies. Regarding this, the research has worked more on the practical factors and on the application of levels of motivation making the study valuable for those who desire to read and relate a perception on the human resource management. The purpose of selecting small scale organizations with or without the presence of a proper human resource management department is explained in the later on chapters of the research. 1.3 Aims and Objectives of the Research Following is the aim of the research “To determine the factors influencing the motivation levels of the employees in a company” To accomplish the above mentioned aim, the objectives of this research are as follows: i) The first and the most significant objective here to determine the factors having an impact on motivation levels of the employees is the achievement of completion of this RAP project ii) To identify and briefly explore the idea of motivation in the employees and its affect on how the employees perform. iii) To provide a list of important factors that influence the motivation levels of employees and to study and focus on the affect of all of those factors individually in PEL, Lahore
  8. 8. 8 iv) Study concerning the strategies that can prove to be helpful regarding the management of the factors influencing motivation in PEL, Lahore v) Finally, to give business guidelines and policies for such companies which have no formal or strict human resource management department, about how to increase the motivation and performance of the employees.
  9. 9. 9 Part Two: Data Collection Sources and Business and Accounting Techniques This portion of the research statement will be discussing the method through which study has been carried out,the elements of the research philosophy and how a range of research methods were applied to determine the results. Moreover, in this chapter will be discussed the ethical restrictions and limitations the organization faced. The purpose of this chapter is to describe the above stated points in suitable details in order to make sure that the results of the study are able to be critically analyzedin the light of the research methodology used in the study later on. 2.1 Research Pattern To carry out this research, the central idea was to build a framework of aspects known to affect the motivation levels of employees of a corporation. Academic literature in the form of both books and journal articles related to the topic was used to aid the research study. For the first step of the study, this was the built support for the assessment of the initial data of the study. The results of the main data were examined in the light of the results concerning all the variables available in the literature. It was thought to be appropriate as it allowed the researchers to present the conclusions on the basis of evidences provided from two perspectives and dimensions therefore making the research more valuable. It is imperative to mention on this point that the method applied for the analysis of the collected data was deductive (Saunders et al, 2007), implying that the analyses of the research conducted on the collected data concerned analyzing the available hypothesis about the variables and also that none of the new theories and relationships were being anticipated during this research (inductive research). As the most ofdirection of the study was towards the human resource management, and the study on how the decisions of management influence the motivation, the capacity to use the accounting model regarding this study was minimal. It was because while
  10. 10. 10 accounting revolves around quantitative data and its study through various ways, the concept of motivation is more qualitative and abstract and thus demands qualitatively acquainted attention which the business models were obviously not able to give. Furthermore, talking about the concerned models of business management, the line of human resource management and its purpose initiated in the study would have been applied in the research as required. Note: It is important to know about the assumption made in the project that the motivation levels of the employees are directly related to the performance levels of the workers. So when the level of motivation of an employee increases, the performance of that employee would also increase. The conducted research would rely on this assumption. 2.2 Sources of Information and collection of Data As mentioned above, two methods of collection of data have been followed; primary and secondary. Concerning the secondary data, academic literature was collected and then analyzed. With the help of various academic material records, the secondary data was collected. The basic concepts and theories were analyzed from the books available online and depth information related to the subject and factors increasing the motivation were collected via journals. The two chief databases accessed concerning the project were JSTOR and Science Direct. As the research was in nature was quite general, exact information through magazines and newspapers was not used. Next is the collection of primary data which is mentioned earlier above that the data has been collected via a questionnaire survey. In the questionnaire were the questions about the factors expected to affect the levels of motivation. The source of information for data collection was the workforce of the organization. This must be distinguished that small scaled to medium scaled corporations were selected to carry out this research. The reason for this was twofold. The first reason was regarding the present non corporate business companies missing the status of literature. The plan here is to explain that how even for the success of a small scale private business, employee motivation is an extremely important factor. With this, the research project is able to
  11. 11. 11 remove the research concerning discrimination with small scale industries in the economy and will be able to provide a complete pool of knowledge. The other reason was to determine the dynamics of human resources while a company lacks formal human resource management department. This is to compare that if in the absence of these formal plans, motivation of employee‟s hold similar importance and determinants as in the presence of these formal strategies. In the end, talking about the business contacted, it must be known that all the businesses selected are from the manufacturing sector. The main idea of choosing the manufacturing sector was to easily measure the productivity and therefore the performance of workers which is somehow tough and as compared to the service sector more qualitative. Even for the workers, stating and discussing about the changes in performance is easier in manufacturing sector than that of service sector. 2.3 Sample and Data Collection Process The sample selected from PEL, Lahore is of 50 employees. Conveniencesampling technique was used for selecting sample. In order to collect data from this sample, a questionnaire has been developed. The questionnaire design is close end. I took permission from the management regarding survey in PEL. The manager of PEL, Lahore allowed me to conduct the survey. On the appointed day, I reached at the organization and distributed questionnaire among the selected employees. Out of 50 selected respondents, 41 respondents returned the filled questionnaire. This created response rate of 82%. 2.3 Limitations of gathering information and Techniques Limitations are significant to note in order to provide the readers an idea of the constraints and restrictions involved in the study which is already included. The first problem regarding this is the small size of the sample selected. Regarding the population elected of the organization existing in Lahore Pakistan, the size of the sample overall is quite small. This sample size is affected by financial, time and other resource constrictions during the research conduction and therefore 50 employees were selected as a sample.
  12. 12. 12 Furthermore, the second complication found was in regarding the replies of the participants. The collected data and then its analysis were completely based on the judgment of the workers themselves. There is then a chance of the employees being bias regarding what affects their motivation levels. Here, the most significant bias predicted is that the worker might, while answering the questions assume that his answers will in actual effect the employer and that the answers of the questionnaire will work in the favour of the employee. The honestly level of the employees answering the questionnaire is then assumed for this research. 2.4 Classification of Ethical Issues Two main ethical constrictions were experienced creating difficulty for this research. The first problem was regarding the privacy and confidentiality of the personal information and data of the participators. This was well considered that the loss of private data of any level organization can bring about changes in how the employer usually deals with the participating employees. To tackle this situation, no personal information except for gender and age of the workers was required in the questionnaire survey. This helped the workers filling the questionnaire survey to feel more secure about their answers. Also, this helped to eliminate some part of the bias. In this heading, the names, the owners of the company and the organizations contacted are not provided as well. The next issue was of plagiarism. To avoid this issue, it was made sure that each source of data and information is appropriately stated and explained. 2.5 Business Techniques: Techniques for Motivation Motivation is one of the most important aspects of human resource management. Within the organizations, motivational practices several motivational practices are adopted. Some of the motivational techniques adopted by organizations are as follows (Alen et al., 2011): Monetary Factors: These refer to the salaries, benefits and monetary compensation provided to employees for their services to the organizations. It has been found that monetary factors provide substantial level of motivation to employees.
  13. 13. 13 Non Monetary Factors: These refer to the nonmonetary recognition offered to employees for their efforts in the organization. This may include appreciation, support of management, decision power andcoordination among employees. In addition, it may also include the challenging tasks given to employees.
  14. 14. 14 Part Three: Analysis of Data and Conclusion This third portion of the research project will provide results of the analyzed data which has been collected by the method mentioned above; questionnaire survey. The arrangement of this portion of the research would be like that the results of the questionnaire and the results of the literature review will be provided. Then the analysis of both will be presented. The basic idea behind this is to analyze the data collected for its value, significance and trends and then with the analysis decide upon a conclusion regarding the factors affecting the increase in motivation the most in a corporation. 3.1 Literature Review Drafke&Kossen(2007) describe motivation as a desire of doing something which is in fact strong enough to truly influence a person to or sets him or her in action to do it in actual. A person basically is motivation when he/she wants to or feels the need to do something, to position to achieve, or to have a state of mind, and then the person actually starts working on it. An important thing here that needs to be noted is that the motivation is not only in the head of a person. Motivation cannot be defined as a feeling alone, to do something. In fact, motivation is considered as “motivation” when an individual puts himself/herself into action (Kuo, 2004 and Kinicki, 2009). Motivation so can be defined as something which manipulates an action and something less than an action cannot be defined as motivation. Regarding the employees human resources, its importance is self descriptive. Motivation level in the employees indicates their need to perform well and better in the business. However, the motivation here would be counted only if the employees are making an action towards their motivation to do something. A similar argument has been provided by Condly et al (2003); Manion(2005); who emphasizes that motivation is a built in response which cannot be forcefully imposed by some external factors.
  15. 15. 15 Other than human resource management, the concepts of motivation have better roots in the sociology and psychology (Jyothi and Venkatesh, 2006). The concept of motivation is at times studied to examine some psychological disorders in persons regarding the unpredictability in their attitudes. However, moving back to the human resource management field, Steijn(2004) emphasizes that in early nineteenth and twentieth century, the employee management of a company was mostly based on control and command. This is because mostly people working at that time were veterans like (Steijn,2004) People‟s nature have changed and therefore the society has changed. With the intense economic and financial competition, for an organization it is impossible to completely rely on the command and control policies and not utilize the power of brain they have employed. The perceptions about the employees motivation is then significantly changed enough that the motivation of employees is now the heart of human resource management. For better understanding and analysis of motivation as a perception, Perry, Mesch&Paarlberg(2006) has been analyzed to give two kinds of motivations. i) The first kind of motivation is the built in motivation. This is when people employ themselves into an action for the sake of their own desire to do so. It means that the actions they decide to take help them in their personal growth and development. ii) Second is the extrinsic motivation. This kind of motivation is affected by the third party who motivates these people to do something they want. In this case, motivation leads towards team work, job management and leadership. As for the leadership, a leadership that is able to motivate employees towards an action or better performance is considered to be a good leadership (Gould-Williams, 2003). Moreover, regarding the theorization of motivation, the expectancy theory of Victor Vroom is quite famous and important. Mullins (2007) says that Vroom is the first person who proposed an expectancy theory aiming particularly towards the motivation to work. In the proposed model by Vroom, there are three main variables; names, instrumentality and expectancy and valence. The main idea of this theory is that persons favor particular results from their attitude over others. Also, people predict a sense of
  16. 16. 16 satisfaction that will happen only when the desired outcome is attained. In the expectancy theory, this feeling regarding specific result is defined as valence. This feeling refers to preference or attractiveness towards a specific outcome. Valence however itself is originated from instrumentality and is moreover a result of expectancy. Regarding the expectancy theory, Kathryn(2011) uses the similar to observe if the theory proves to be true in application. Modified expectancy theory which in fact has five instead of three component that are extrinsic, expectancy, extrinsic valence, intrinsic instrumentality, instrumentality and intrinsic valence give the best description for the employee motivation.Also, intrinsic motivation factors are found to be more effective for the workers instead of the extrinsic factors of motivation (Garg&Rastogi, 2006 and Larsson et al., 2007). This indicates that the human resource management must present to the employees a touch of intrinsic factors of motivation for example an opportunity of leisure time, personal growth etc. Furthermore, according to a study performed by Mullins (2007) the employees on the bank from 12 different multinational banks Istanbul studies the role of incorporating a reward in the human resource management department in the business to increase the motivation levels. The study basically determines that when a legitimate and formal and well executed reward system is introduced, the level of motivation of the employees is considerably improved. The reason behind this can be related to both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. The performance of the employees can considered being motivated intrinsically in the existence of a reward or bonus system as the presence of it allows the employees to see their own personal benefit and growth and perform in the best possible manner (Luthans, 2005 and Herzberg, 2003). This result is also influenced by the study performed by Atchison(2003) which claims that when the wages are increased, the motivation level of the employees also show an increase. It means that when employees see their own personal gains, their motivation level to perform better is increased.
  17. 17. 17 3.2 Results of the Questionnaire Survey Before moving towards the findings of this questionnaire survey, it is significant to know that the rate of response for this primary collection of data was 82 percent. Not just the employees of the organizations happily volunteered to answers the survey questionnaire but the employers of the company also gladly greeted the collectors of data and permitted them to collect the required data. This indicates that the level of bias in this research survey is less. Due to this neutral level of help received from the employees, the survey was successfully conducted. Question no 1: Gender Results: Regarding the questionnaire survey on motivation levels of the worker it was important to know the gender of the employees as the motivation level is different for each gender claims Kathryn (2011). In the results of the questionnaire survey, it was found that 92 percent of the employees working in the organization were male while only 8 percent were female. This twist of such a high level in the gender results can imply a fine amount of bias concerning the motivation level in the employees. However, as far as the culture and population of is concerned, it is known that there are less working women in the manufacturing sector of Pakistan. The entire workforce almost is comprised of male workers and a very small amount of female workers are found working as manual labor. 92% 8% Gender of Participants Male Female
  18. 18. 18 Question no 2: Age In the survey results, it was seen that most of the employees, around 57 percent lied into the age group of 26 to 35 years. 27 percent employees were found to lie in the age group of 15 to 25 years while the rest of the 17 percent employees were found to be in the age range of 36 to 45 years. As the level of motivation is inconsistent with the age range of people, Kathryn(2011) this result is quite important to determine the motivation level of employees. Higher number of young people working in the organization, the higher would be the motivation level. In Pakistan, young adults are higher in proportion. Question no 3: How much does the job assigned to you motivates you? Results: 31 percent employees said that they are motivated towards the job they are assigned and claimed to feel intensely motivated to perform better. 40 percent employees of the organization said that they are not highly motivated to do the job assigned to them, however they claim to be motivated enough to finish their work on satisfactory level. Approximately 19 percent workers of the organization were on both sides, they replied being neutral about their motivation towards the task assigned. The rest of the 10 percent claimed to have no motivation towards their task. 56%27% 17% Age of Participants 15 t 25 years 26 to 35 years 36 to 45 years
  19. 19. 19 Question no 4: For how long have you been working with this organization? Results: For any organization having permanent and long term employment is important. In the results of questionnaire survey, 37 percent employees working in the company were working in the organization for one year and above. 29 percent employees of the organization said that they were working from 3-5 years in the firm. 21 percent of the employees were comparatively new and had been working in the company for 6 months to less than 1 year. The rest of the 13 percent said they have been working for more than 5 years in the organization. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Highly motivated Satisfactory level Motivated Moderately motivated No motivation from work How much does the job assigned to you motivates you 21 37 29 13 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 6 months or less than 1 year 1 year and above 3 to 5 years More than 5 years For how long have you been working with this organization?
  20. 20. 20 Question no 5: Which out of the following factors affects your motivation the most? Results: As studied above, factors affecting the levels of motivation are the core of this research. When asked from the employees in the questionnaire survey, competition was one of the most important factors. As competition challenges one‟s personal abilities, mostly people increase their level of motivation in competition. In the results as well, 40 percent employees said that they are more motivated when there is some competition. 22 percent employees said that bonuses and salary packages motivates them more to work harder. 21 percent of the employees replied that opportunity in career growth makes them more motivated towards their task. 13 percent people wished to have a friendly and comfortable environment in order to keep their motivation level high. The remaining 4 percent of the employees said that security is under their point of view the most important factor of motivation. Question no 6: Does your salary package increases your motivation to work harder? Results:Salary is the most attractive factor of any job, when asked from the employees 51 percent said that salary is a strong factor influencing the motivation levels of the employees. 23 percent of the workers were positive, they also thought that good pay is 40 22 21 13 4 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Competition Salary and Bonus packages Opportunity in career growth Friendly and comfortable environment Jon security Which out of the following factors affects your motivation the most?
  21. 21. 21 the best reward and so salary package is a fairly important factor of motivation. 17 percent people were found to be neutral about this question; salary does and does not affect their motivation level. The rest of the 9 percent were negative and said salary package is not an important factor of motivation. Question no 7: Does the change in organization affect your work? Results: From the sample of employees questioned, 42 percent employees said that their work is inspired by the working conditions and changes in the environment does affect their work as it has a direct relation with their work. 27 percent employees also agreed and said the working conditions affect the efficiency and performance and so changes in the environment fairly affect their work. 24 percent employees working said that it depends on the change and were mostly neutral about it. The remaining 7 percent of the employees said that changes in organization do not affect their work. Here it can be concluded that although a safe and healthy working environment is important, the consistency of it is more important and employees do like to work in a steady environment were the circumstances plan to remain the same as they were when they joined. 51 23 17 9 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Strongly influences motivation Motivates employees Neutral Does not influence motivation Does your salary package increases your motivation to work harder?
  22. 22. 22 Question no 8: Do you feel the need to show your work in between other employees? Results: From a sample of employees of the organization maximum number of employees felt that there work needs to be presented in front of other employees. The results from these findings show that from the total number of employees 40 percent of the people said that they strongly feel their work should be shown in between other employees. 31 percent of the people said that yes at times their work must be acknowledged and agreed that fairly their work needs to be shown among other employees of the organization. 20 percent of the employees were neutral about this opinion giving it not much importance. The remaining 9 percent of the people said that no, not at all their work should not be presented among the other employees of the organization as it creates problems. 42 27 24 7 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Inspired by the working conditions and changes in the environment Affect the efficiency and performance Neutral Does not affect work Does the change in organization affect your work?
  23. 23. 23 Question no 9: How much does the security (social and physical) helps you to perform better? Results: From the sample of employees given the questionnaire, 60 percent considered security a very important factor affecting the efficiency of work. They ranked security 1. 29 percent employees voted for 3 which indicate that security is an important factor to perform better. The remaining 11 percent employees said that security does not affect their performance. Security however as we can see is an important question for the employees and employees do consider a safe and fair environment while working for a firm. 40 31 20 9 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Strongly need to show work At times Undecided No need to show work Do you feel the need to show your work in between other employees?
  24. 24. 24 Question no 10: Do you want your opinion to count in order to perform better in the organization? Results: In the results of this question, it was found that 51 percent employees believe that the importance given to their opinion helps them work harder for the company. They said that the space for opinion highly affects their performance. 39 percent people were neutral in their answer. The rest of the ten percent said that space for opinion somehow helps to perform better or worse. However, we can see that a large number of employees consider having the space for opinion an important factor influencing their performance in work. 60 29 11 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Very Important Important Not important How much does the security (social and physical) helps you to perform better?
  25. 25. 25 3.3 Analysis of Data Through the literature review conducted and from the results of 50 questioned people, this is determined that the level of motivation of the employees was average. This implies that some workers wish to make an effort and step forward to perform better while other employees perform on standard level, the only effort they put is in the completion of task and no special efforts to perform better are placed. The important question here is to provide according to the literature review and results of the questionnaire the factors influencing the motivation levels of the employees. The first indicator according to the study of motivation is the wage rate or salary packages/bonuses or rewards the employees get in return for their hard work. From the review of literature especially, we can decide that reward system or a bonus system in an organization influences the motivation levels and employees in return work harder for the organization. However, in the questionnaire survey results it was seen that a fair and safe working environment is also an important factor influencing the motivation levels of the workers working in the organization. This was further measured with the competition level existing in the organization which was seen to be important factor affecting the motivation level of employees. When asked which factors influences them to work hardest, it was quite fascinating to know that the presence of competition was the important factor for the employees to keep them motivated towards their work and 51 39 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Recognition for opinion highly affects performance Undecided Somehow helps to perform better or worse Do you want your opinion to count in order to perform better in the organization?
  26. 26. 26 motivate them to work harder. Generally, competition is considered more like a stress on working brains but the results proved it wrong. In manufacturing companies of Pakistan however we see that competition is an important factor adding to the motivation level. The next most important factor we see that employees consider important regarding its effect on their motivation level was opportunities in career growth. This factor also is a part of both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation as it motivates the employees to place their efforts in a task and also feel an internal involvement and passion to perform better. Other than personal growth opportunities and competition in an organization, security and salary package and a reward system were the most important factors manipulating the motivation levels of employees. Lastly, as for the changes occurring in the organization, a small percentage of employees only claimed to it to have no effect on their motivation levels with the changes in the organization. Mostly employees considered the change to have a direct relation with their work and so organizations were changes in working environment are frequent would face a condition of stagnation. 3.4 Conclusion and Recommendations This portion of the research would include the verdict on the research. Other than just presenting a small summary of the research content and results, this portion of the project would provide an analysis on the aspects of human resource influencing the level of motivation in a company. Then in the end, some piece of recommendations would also be provided according to the conducted analysis of the research. Also there are recommendations for those owners who are working and running their organizations without a proper human resource management section. 3.4.1 Conclusion The research conducted was based on the perceiving the impact of motivation regarding the performance in an organization of the human resources and also to learn about the factors influencing the motivation levels of employees itself. To carry out this research, a set of aims and objectives were set and in this verdict, it will be discussed if these objectives have been met or not.
  27. 27. 27 The foremost objectives of this research was to understand what exactly motivation in the employees means and why is it an important as frequently discussed subject in the human resource management regarding its affect on the employee performance. In the results we found that motivation is the desire, the need to take an action towards the desire to accomplish a goal or to fulfill a task. Motivation is the passionate feel to want to do something. Motivation has a significant role to play in the human resource department. Motivation basically is linked to the employees wish to perform better towards the assigned task. If motivation level is low in an employee, the performance level would as well go down affecting the quality of the task performed. The main focus of the human resource management is towards the motivation levels of the employees and most of their efforts and plans concern an increase in the motivation level of the employees. There are two concepts of motivation which have been discussed above as well. The first type of motivation is the internal motivation, which is also known as intrinsic motivation triggered by the internal will of a person. This type of motivation includes self manipulation or the desire to take an action towards the desired task for a better and successful life. In this case, a person is himself/herself passionate regarding a task and no external factors are involved. On the other hand, there is extrinsic or external motivation which is a result or external factors. For instance, competition causing a person to work harder on some particular task to prove his efficiency or in the need of winning the completion is an extrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation is also considered as a result of good leadership or management. However, both kinds of motivation are important for the increase in motivation levels of the employees so that they can perform better. In the research conducted, many factors influencing the motivation levels of the employees have been found. It is quite fascinating to know that the most important or the most voted factor of motivation according to the questionnaire survey is competition. In has been determined that healthy and fair competition allows the workers to work harder and perform better in the need to win. Competition influences motivation on high scale because every employee has this need to prove himself/herself and in this need they tend to work harder and perform better on the assigned task. To be more precise
  28. 28. 28 and simple, the employers or the management must create such an environment in which the workers are given a chance to prove their worth. Furthermore, the next factor affecting the performance of the employees or the motivation level is financial returns like wages, salary packages, reward system or bonuses. These financial incentives are quite important for the employees and highly impact on their motivation level. If there are good financial incentives provided to an employee, he/she would perform better with better motivation. The importance of this factor has been proven through the conducted questionnaire survey. So during the management of the employees regarding their motivation levels, the human resource management must consider good financial incentives for the employees. Finally, the importance and space given to an employee in the firm is another important motivator. This also includes job and social security and the level of respect given to an employee. Future opportunities also matter a lot for the employees and is an important factor having great impact on their motivation and performance level. If more opinions of an employee are respected, he/she would be more motivated to work harder. 3.4.2 Recommendations In the end, some recommendations would be suggested considering the results of the research. The most important thing human resource must work on is the financial returns or incentives. The salary packages and wages must be satisfactory and an employee should be satisfied in order to perform better. Also, better growth opportunities should be provided so that other than competition, employees have an aim to work harder for the firm. Human resource planners must place great efforts in personal growth and career incentives. The last but an important recommendation is to give good respect to the employees. An employee must feel like he is important for the organization and his opinion matters. This would highly increase his motivation level to perform efficiently.
  29. 29. 29 References Atchison, T. A. (2003). Exposing the myths of employee satisfaction.Healthcare Executive, Vol. 17(3), PP. 20. Alen et al, 2011. Employee Motivation Using Non Monetory Rewards , available on :http://www.scribd.com/doc/28893219/Employee-Motivation-Using-Non-Monetary- Rewards , Assessed on: 3rd April, 2013 Bartel & Locke. 2000. Incentive and motivation , In Rynes, S.L. & Gerhart. Compenstion and organization current Research and Pratice , 107-47. Condly, S. J., Clark, R. E., & Stolvitch, H. D. (2003). The effects of incentives onworkplace performance: A meta-analytic review of research studies. PerformanceImprovement Quarterly, 16(3), 7-24 Drafke, M.W. & Kossen, S. 2002. The human side of organisations. 8th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Herzberg.F, (2003), „One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees‟, Harvard Business Review, Vol-81, pp.87-96. Garg.P&Rastogi.R, (2006), „New Model of Job Design: Motivating Employees‟ Performance‟, Journal of Management Development, Vol 25 no 6, pp.572-587 Gould-Williams, J. (2003). The importance of HR practices and workplace trust in achieving superior performance: a study of public-sector organizations. International Journal of Human Resource Management. 14 (1), 28-54. Kinicki.(2009). Organizational Behavior.3rd Ed. India: Tata McGraw Hill. Kuo, H. P. 2004. The relationship between Human Resource Management practices, employee commitment, and operational performance in the healthcare institutions. National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. Kathryn W. Hegar, 2011, Modern Human Relations at Work, Ed 11th ,CengageLearnin Jyothi, P. and Venkatesh, D.N. 2006. “Human Resource Management”, New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
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  31. 31. 31 Appendix Please identify your gender Female Male Please Identify your age range 15 t 25 years 26 to 35 years 36 to 45 years How much does the job assigned to you motivates you Highly motivated Satisfactory level Motivated Moderately motivated No motivation from work For how long have you been working with this organization? 6 months or less than 1 year 1 year and above 3 to 5 years More than 5 years Which out of the following factors affects your motivation the most? Competition Salary and Bonus packages Opportunity in career growth Friendly and comfortable environment Jon security Does the change in organization affect your work? Inspired by the working conditions and changes in the environment Affect the efficiency and performance Neutral Does not affect work Do you feel the need to show your work in between other employees? Strongly need to show work At times Undecided No need to show work
  32. 32. 32 How much does the security (social and physical) helps you to perform better? Very Important Important Not important Do you want your opinion to count in order to perform better in the organization? Recognition for opinion highly affects performance Undecided Somehow helps to perform better or worse

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