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Publishing dynamics
Publishing dynamics
Publishing dynamics
Publishing dynamics
Publishing dynamics
Publishing dynamics
Publishing dynamics
Publishing dynamics
Publishing dynamics
Publishing dynamics
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Publishing dynamics

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Introduction …

Introduction
The paper traces the evolution of the multi-million industry of e-books. This has grown tremendously over the period since the period Gutenberg was formed. The paper attempts to make a detailed history of evolution the e-books. This paper will look at various technologies that have been used to make material s readable and avail them to the users. Some companies such as Amazon have innovative products offered to various markets. The publishers team up with these companies to offer their books to the user at a fee. This means that, protection in the form of security to ensure the companies gain as well as the publishers. This is because of practices such as piracy which threatens the publishers and copyrights owners. The e-book has also led to the growth of the publishing industry with the small players having got a platform to market their books through avenues such as Amazon.
Background of e-books
The field of electronic publishing started in the year 1971 when a gentleman named Michael Hart. He was a student of University of Illinois when he came up with the Gutenberg idea of putting books into digital content. The platform ensures everyone with the access of the internet can read and get the materials. This shows the internet as a powerful tool for spread of information. Hart built the Gutenberg library with the pioneer book being the Declaration of independence which was sent to colleagues and friend.
The library was built slowly with the digitalization of the King James Bible in 1989 and subsequent works of William Shakespeare. In 2003, the library had Magna Carta in the collection and now has a collection of million copies of books that are available for readers. Gutenberg library inspired other libraries to come up their online libraries such that, they would create and distribute materials to as many readers as possible. The major objective of the Gutenberg library was based on the philosophy of sharing and preserving knowledge. These efforts of Hart were met with a lot of challenges mainly from the typing tedious volumes of books. However, later the advances in the field of technology brought scanners and computers which simplified e-books creation. The slow speed of the internet also hampered greatly the efforts to digitize the volumes of copies of books. With the advent of the World Wide Web, the field of e-books was revolutionized in the 1970s. This is because the technologies improved a lot and led to the expansion and creation of more libraries. These include Oregon Library, Kansas library and library of the Congress of America. Other projects in the recent past include Carnegie which launched the Universal Digital library which one can access content in all field of human knowledge.

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  • 1. HISTORY OF E-BOOKS 1 Student Number: Institution: Subject: History of E-books Date of Submission: 30th November 2011 Word Count: 1743
  • 2. HISTORY OF E-BOOKS 2 Table of Contents Introduction ............................................................................................................................................3 Background of e-books............................................................................................................................3 Kinds of formats are used in electronic publishing ...................................................................................5 Devices are used to read e-books ............................................................................................................6 Digital rights management ......................................................................................................................6 Impacts of e-books on the publishing business and book prices...............................................................7 Bibliography..........................................................................................................................................10
  • 3. HISTORY OF E-BOOKS 3 Introduction The paper traces the evolution of the multi-million industry of e-books. This has grown tremendously over the period since the period Gutenberg was formed. The paper attempts to make a detailed history of evolution the e-books. This paper will look at various technologies that have been used to make material s readable and avail them to the users. Some companies such as Amazon have innovative products offered to various markets. The publishers team up with these companies to offer their books to the user at a fee. This means that, protection in the form of security to ensure the companies gain as well as the publishers. This is because of practices such as piracy which threatens the publishers and copyrights owners. The e-book has also led to the growth of the publishing industry with the small players having got a platform to market their books through avenues such as Amazon. Background of e-books The field of electronic publishing started in the year 1971 when a gentleman named Michael Hart. He was a student of University of Illinois when he came up with the Gutenberg idea of putting books into digital content. The platform ensures everyone with the access of the internet can read and get the materials. This shows the internet as a powerful tool for spread of
  • 4. HISTORY OF E-BOOKS 4 information. Hart built the Gutenberg library with the pioneer book being the Declaration of independence which was sent to colleagues and friend. 1 The library was built slowly with the digitalization of the King James Bible in 1989 and subsequent works of William Shakespeare. In 2003, the library had Magna Carta in the collection and now has a collection of million copies of books that are available for readers. Gutenberg library inspired other libraries to come up their online libraries such that, they would create and distribute materials to as many readers as possible. The major objective of the Gutenberg library was based on the philosophy of sharing and preserving knowledge. These efforts of Hart were met with a lot of challenges mainly from the typing tedious volumes of books. However, later the advances in the field of technology brought scanners and computers which simplified e-books creation. The slow speed of the internet also hampered greatly the efforts to digitize the volumes of copies of books. With the advent of the World Wide Web, the field of e-books was revolutionized in the 1970s. This is because the technologies improved a lot and led to the expansion and creation of more libraries. These include Oregon Library, Kansas library and library of the Congress of America. Other projects in the recent past include Carnegie which launched the Universal Digital library which one can access content in all field of human knowledge.2 The commercialization of e-books came into being due to the need to regulate content and for book publishers to get return on their efforts. Therefore, private e-books have come up with 1 (Howard, 2005). 2 (Howard, 2005)
  • 5. HISTORY OF E-BOOKS 5 revenue to pay restricted access to some of the sites. This means that user have to pay for the content they access on some of the sites and libraries. Most of the libraries have restrictions using passwords to allow only authorized users to get information.3 Kinds of formats are used in electronic publishing There are several formats that can be used in the digitizing books. Microsoft Word may be used originally to create documents as well as adobe acrobat. These programs are used to prepare file that can help in the digitization of the books. Portable document format is a format that does preserve the nature and the look of a document. This format mode is special since it allows the embedding, linking, searching and highlighting. Portable document format is capable of storing data elements such that it files appears in color, title and metadata. This enables users to have author, title and subject of the file for easier usage. It is often preferred when the files properties such as feel and accessibility are important4 . The pages of the books are scanned before they are converted to portable digital formats. The method is obviously simple and straight easy and involves the retention of the texture and the document. These formats make it possible to print digital copies. Hypertext transfer protocol is another useful format through which e-books are used5 . Other formats used in the e-books include the XML and page layout composition. Page layout is used in the creation of print products. This is used especially when the files are used in the revision and republication. However, they have their demerits which include the issue of storage. This is because they present the problem of compatibility since they are not acceptable 3 (Howard, 2005). 4 (Kasdorf, 2001). 5 (Polanka, 2011)
  • 6. HISTORY OF E-BOOKS 6 without the portable digital format. The main problem that can occur again is the software that has created the file. This can be lost and that means that the usage of the page layout is rendered impossible6 . Devices are used to read e-books There are various devices that are used to read the content used in the e-books. These include computers and personal digital assistants. Other includes laptops and desk computers. Some of the devices are portable and have backlights that enable to read electronically. Rocket e-book is also other devices that can be used to read electronic books. Palm computing device is software used to read e-books7 . Digital rights management This facility is intended to secure access and distribution of the content on internet. The other function is the software is to disconnect illegal distribution of information posted on the internet. Thus, it offers the management and enforcement of internet users. In management, it is usually about the right holders identifying the content which they own and develop business models so that, they can gain value for their money8 . Digital management rights ensure that the technologies are there to support the legal distribution of digital media with an objective of securing property rights of the contents in the internet. This means that it saves money for entertainment and media companies since practices such as piracy are curtailed. By securing 6 (Marshall, 2011) 7 (Howard, 2005) 8 (Greco, 2005)
  • 7. HISTORY OF E-BOOKS 7 specific rights of the publishers in e-books, they are made explicit. In the e-books, digital rights management is very crucial since it restricts what content can be displayed or not. The rights of the publisher and the user are recognized such that they co-exist (Marshall, 2011). The application of digital rights management has been done using several ways. These include the private key encryption which is a restriction based on the key which is found with the publisher of a book. Even the reader has the key; it is not possible to decode the contents. In the e-book, the digital rights managements are enabled such that they have specifications on the particular actions that can be taken. These include copying, printing and accessing the e-book. The rights also have specifications on the kind of software to use depending on software in current use9 . Impacts of e-books on the publishing business and book prices E-books emergence has seen unprecedented growth and expansion in the business of publishing. Many companies have continued to built new business partnerships and open new frontiers of business. Companies such as Google and Apple have been active in providing e-books on the platform such as Smartphone, tablets and personal computers. More companies are declaring massive profits from the sale of e-books10 . E-books evolution has seen the emergence of consolidation and the international rights sales. This means, that the publishers can sell part of their materials to other companies for use in video games, films and label. This has seen product innovation increasing rapidly. These include blockbusters books which are successful authors who attract a lot of attention from the audiences. That means that the companies will want to sell 9 (Marshall, 2011) 10 ( Greco, 2005)
  • 8. HISTORY OF E-BOOKS 8 the authors’ book since it goes to a higher rate11 . In addition, the growth of the e-books sector has seen the expansion in the bookstores and chain retailers. An example is the Barnes and Noble. Online booksellers such as Amazon have grown rapidly since they offer a convenient12 . Diversification is another impact that resulted from the growth of the books. The publishers are offering different products such as novels, movies and films. This is due to increased competition for e-books market niches. The publishers also have embraced technology to advertise their books as well receiving manuscripts in soft copies such that time is saved considerably13 . Conclusion The paper has discussed the evolution of e-books. It has traced the growth from the inceptions by Gutenberg ideas accounts for the current competitive marketing strategies. The paper has also shown the formats that have been used in the publishing of e-books. Portable document format and XML are some of the formats used in the publishing of e-books. The paper has also discussed the digital rights management which is the rights publishers have other over the contents in the internet. The users of the e-books such as Amazon have restriction on who can access their materials so that they gain from their efforts. Use of encryption keys is common in e- 11 (Biagi, 2011). 12 (Biagi, 2011). 13 (Biagi, 2011).
  • 9. HISTORY OF E-BOOKS 9 books to protect the distribution and access of the materials. The evolution of the e-books has seen considerable efforts made in the field of publishing. Various companies have diversified products which are offered to various books offered in the market. Consumers have also become aware of their needs prompting the companies to offer diversified products.
  • 10. HISTORY OF E-BOOKS 10 Bibliography Polanka, S. (2010) No shelf required: e-books in library Chicago: ALA Editions Marshall, C. (2009) Reading and writing the electronic book Morgan and Claypool Publishers Biagi, S. (2011) Media impact: An introduction to mass media Cengage learning Greco, A. (2005) the book publishing industry New Jersey Routledge Thompson, J. (2005) Books in the digital age: the transformation of the academic and higher education in Britain and the United States Cambridge: Polity Howard, N. (2005) the book: the life of a technology Greenwood Publishing

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