PGCAP learning and learning theories week 4


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PGCAP learning and learning theories week 4

  1. 1. learningPGCAP Programme Team
  2. 2.  To discuss how people learn Introduce major learning theoriesaims
  3. 3.  Discuss how people learn Discuss major theories in educationobjectives
  4. 4.  Write a definitionWhat is learning?
  5. 5. understanding theory throughboxes...
  6. 6. understanding theory throughboxes...
  7. 7. Driscoll (2000) defines learning as “apersisting change in human performance orperformance potential…[which] must comeabout as a result of the learner‟sexperience and interaction with the world”(p.11).Driscoll, M. (2000). Psychology of Learning for Instruction. NeedhamHeights, MA, Allyn & Bacon.learning, a definition
  8. 8. •you don‟t •you knowconscious competence learning matrix know what what you you don‟t don‟t know know unconscious conscious incompetence incompetence 5th stage: Reflective Competence unconscious conscious competence competence •you don‟t •you know have to think what you what you are know doing4 stages of learning
  9. 9. Unconscious incompetence - This basically means that youdont know what you dont know.Conscious incompetence - This is where the learner is awarethat s/he does not know something or can learn something new.Put more plainly, you realize that you are not as expert as perhapsyou thought.Conscious competence - This is where you have to think about atask or exercise in order to complete it correctly.Unconscious competence - Eventually you reach a point whereyou no longer have to think about what you are doing in order tocomplete it correctly. True experts often do things very well withoutthinking about it.4 stages of learning
  10. 10.  What is it? How can we nurture it in the classroom and beyond? How does learning power relate to values?Learning Power
  11. 11. Knowledge skills and understandingAttitudes,values,feelings,dispositions,motivationsDouble Helix of Learning(McGettrick 2002)
  12. 12.  Values carried in the relationships of life ◦ with self ◦ with others ◦ with an O/otherHolding it all together
  13. 13. factor analysis: what impacts on learning? Institutional Ethos Curriculum and Assessment Practices Worldviews and Pedagogy Traditions Self-regulation Self Esteem Awareness Skills and Capacities Sense of Self As Learner Learning Power Interest Self-efficacy Effort Dispositions Locus of Control Goal OrientationHome, Family and Community Peer Culture Cultural Tools
  14. 14. Changing and Being Stuck and weaknessstrength Learning Static Meaning Making Data Critical Curiosity Accumulation Creativity Passivity Learning Being Rule Bound Relationships Isolation & Strategic Dependence Awareness Being Robotic Resilience Fragility & Dependencethe 7 dimensions of learningpower
  15. 15. Belief & professional Covering thefacilitating inhibiting vision curriculum positive classroom results and targets culture performance collaborative teaching management positive relationships workload professional dialogue large numbers of & choice students golden moments OFSTED being empowered as a large numbers of professional classes in week lack of time lack of know howfacilitating/inhibiting learnercentredness
  16. 16. provide the vocabulary and a conceptual framework for interpreting the examples of learning that we observe suggest where to look for solutions to practical problemsabout learning theories
  17. 17. from transmission…
  18. 18. to constructing…
  19. 19. to co-constructing...
  20. 20. The “half-life of knowledge” is the time span fromwhen knowledge is gained to when it becomesobsolete. Half of what is known today was notknown 10 years ago. The amount of knowledge inthe world has doubled in the past 10 years and isdoubling every 18 months according to theAmerican Society of Training and Documentation(ASTD). To combat the shrinking half-life ofknowledge, organizations have been forced todevelop new methods of deploying instruction.”Source: today
  21. 21. “The shelf life of information isnow so short that knowingwhere to find information ismore valuable than knowingany particular piece ofinformation.” (p. 10)Source: Mason, R (2008) Chapter 1: Social networking as an educationaltool, in: Mason, R, E-learning and social networking handbook: resources forhigher education, Routledge, p.1-24Shelf life
  22. 22.  Many learners will move into a variety of different, possibly unrelated fields over the course of their lifetime. Informal learning is a significant aspect of our learning experience. Formal education no longer comprises the majority of our learning. Learning now occurs in a variety of ways – through communities of practice, personal networks, and through completion of work-related tasks. Learning is a continual process, lasting for a lifetime. Learning and work related activities are no longer separate. In many situations, they are the same. Technology is altering (rewiring) our brains. The tools we use define and shape our thinking. The organization and the individual are both learning organisms. Increased attention to knowledge management highlights the need for a theory that attempts to explain the link between individual and organizational learning. Many of the processes previously handled by learning theories (especially in cognitive information processing) can now be off-loaded to, or supported by, technology. Know-how and know-what is being supplemented with know-where (the understanding of where to find knowledge needed).Trends in learning
  23. 23. Behaviourism Cognitivism Humanism Constructivism Socio- Connectivismconstructivism CommunitiesGestalt Theory of practice
  24. 24. filling empty bucketstransmission of knowledge
  25. 25.  Behaviourism is a theory of animal and human learning that only focuses on objectively observable behaviours Learning is an acquisition of new behaviour through conditioning. Stimulus-response Learner is passive Uses reinforcement techniques (positive and negative)Pavlov: behaviourism
  26. 26.  learner is actively engaged in the formation of ideas. constructing knowledge experiential, based on previous knowledge sense-making in naturally embedded activities (active learning) and problem-solving authentic tasks in a meaningful context constructing and re-constructing through personal experienceconstructing knowledge
  27. 27. development comes before learningfocus on human cognitive development (children) throughadaptation and organisationJust being exposed to something new doesn‟t mean we willchange, there will be resistancesChanges are conceptualKnowledge expands and widens from withinBuilding knowledge structures through progressiveinternalization of actions based on previous knowledge andexperiencePiaget: constructivism
  28. 28. Building knowledge structures through progressiveinternalization of actions (constructivism)focus on learning through making, less on cognitivepotential – „diving-in approach‟how ideas get formed and transformed within a contextworked out by individual minds through reflection onexperiencesituated and pragmaticself-directed learningPapert: constructionism
  29. 29.  learning comes before development co-constructing knowledge within a community or culture learning as a dialogical process the connection between people collaborative construction of knowledge through social negotiationVygotsky: socio-constructivism
  30. 30. Old concept, new nameCommunities of practice are groups of peoplewho share a concern or a passion for somethingthey do and learn how to do it better as theyinteract regularly.Etienne Wenger:communities of practice
  31. 31. The domain: A community of practice is not merely a club of friends or a network ofconnections between people. It has an identity defined by a shared domain ofinterest. Membership therefore implies a commitment to the domain, and thereforea shared competence that distinguishes members from other people.The community: In pursuing their interest in their domain, members engage in jointactivities and discussions, help each other, and share information. They buildrelationships that enable them to learn from each other.The practice: A community of practice is not merely a community of interest--peoplewho like certain kinds of movies, for instance. Members of a community of practiceare practitioners. They develop a shared repertoire of resources: experiences,stories, tools, ways of addressing recurring problems—in short a shared practice.This takes time and sustained interaction.Etienne Wenger:communities of practice,3 characteristics
  32. 32. Connectivism is the integration of principles explored by chaos,network, and complexity and self-organization theories. Learningis a process that occurs within nebulous environments of shiftingcore elements – not entirely under the control of the individual.Learning (defined as actionable knowledge) can reside outside ofourselves (within an organization or a database), is focused onconnecting specialized information sets, and the connectionsthat enable us to learn more are more important than ourcurrent state of knowing.Connectivism is driven by the understanding that decisions arebased on rapidly altering foundations. New information iscontinually being acquired. The ability to draw distinctionsbetween important and unimportant information is vital. Theability to recognize when new information alters the landscapebased on decisions made yesterday is also critical.Siemens: connectivism
  33. 33. • Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions.• Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources.• Learning may reside in non-human appliances.• Capacity to know more is more critical than what is currently known• Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning.• Ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill.• Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) is the intent of all connectivist learning activities.• Decision-making is itself a learning process. Choosing what to learn and the meaning of incoming information is seen through the lens of a shifting reality. While there is a right answer now, it may be wrong tomorrow due to alterations in the information climate affecting the decision.Siemens: connectivism, principles
  34. 34. “The pipe is more important than the content within the pipe.Our ability to learn what we need for tomorrow is moreimportant than what we know today. A real challenge for anylearning theory is to actuate known knowledge at the point ofapplication. When knowledge, however, is needed, but notknown, the ability to plug into sources to meet therequirements becomes a vital skill. As knowledge continuesto grow and evolve, access to what is needed is moreimportant than what the learner currently possesses.”Siemens, G. (2004) Connectivism, A learning theory for the digital age,available at and tomorrow?
  35. 35.  Theories are best understood in their historical context. They reflect the social „climate‟ or current thinking at the time of their popularity. They first developed after the industrialisation when „schools‟ appeared and „formal‟ teaching began.Learning theories
  36. 36.  There are two perspectives on how people learn most effectively: Psychological Socialemphasis on the emphasis on the individual social context „situated‟Learning theories
  37. 37.  Behaviourism Cognitivism Humanism GestaltLearning theories-psychological
  38. 38. Behaviourism
  39. 39.  Based on stimulus response (S-R) Dominant theory in the 19th century Based on application of science to Observable, measurable behaviour Why the popularity? Pavlov (Russian physicist 1849-1936)Behaviourism
  40. 40.  Pavlov – (1849-1936) Russian physicist – experiments with dogs -conditioned reflexes - conditioningBehaviourists
  41. 41.  Skinner FB 1904 - 1990  Skinner – known for experiments with rats.  Rejected reflex as the only source of behaviour – recognised feelings as existing but not as causes of behaviourNeo-behaviourists
  42. 42. Skinner’s box
  43. 43.  ‘Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and Ill guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select – doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant- chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors.’J B Watson 1878-1958nature v nurture debate
  44. 44.  A scientific approach is based on structure and measurement. What sort of teaching is a behaviourist approach likely to encourage? How does behaviourism still influence teaching?Behaviourism: Discuss!
  45. 45.  Teacher-centred Aims & outcomes Schemes of work Lesson plans Feedback and reward systems Grading seen as important – measurability paramountMain contributions
  46. 46.  What do you think would be the criticisms of this approach? „reductive‟ – humans are more complex than animals.Criticisms
  47. 47. Cognitivism
  48. 48.  Mid 20th century - A rejection of behaviourism in favour of a theory based on the principle that learning occurs through logically presented information in which the learner organises information received and makes sense of it.Cognitivism
  49. 49.  Used the analogy of the brain as a computer – people are able to sort and sift information and add it to previous knowledge Popular late 50‟s early ‟60‟s Why?Cognitivism
  50. 50.  Dewey (1859-1952 Chair of Philosophy) Education is „intelligent action‟ Learning is based on meaning The classroom cannot be separated from the environment of which it is a part. „Education is not a mere means to life. Education is a life’Cognitivism
  51. 51.  Dewey Library cataloguing system Enquiry based learning Problem solving Learning outcomes which privilege thinking skillsCognitivism
  52. 52.  How do you feel about this theory? What might the criticisms of this theory be? Another example of reductionism – human beings are more complex than machinesCognitivism
  53. 53. Humanism
  54. 54.  Also a reaction to behaviourism Saw learners as „whole people‟ therefore needs and feelings important to the process of learning Popular ‟60‟s and early „70‟sHumanism
  55. 55.  Developed in 1960‟s America as a reaction against behaviourism Maslow (1890-1970)(hierarchy of needs) Carl Rogers (also influential in counselling) Scientific approach „sterile & dehumanising‟ – people should be viewed as „whole beings‟Humanism
  56. 56. Maslow
  57. 57.  Teacher as „facilitator’ Concept of „readiness to learn’ How useful are these concepts in your work?Carl Rogers 1902- 1987
  58. 58. Gestalt
  59. 59.  Gestalt means pattern or structure The theory is concerned with perception Also known as „insight learning‟ The „eureka‟ phenomenon Teachers must structure learning so that learners reach an understanding and overview of the whole.Gestalt
  60. 60.  German word for pattern or structure Stressed the importance of learner perception of the overall pattern. Process:1. Learner explores and defines problem2. Incubates3. Illumination – EurekaGestalt
  61. 61. What do you see?
  62. 62. What do you see?
  63. 63. What do you see?
  64. 64. What do you see?
  65. 65. Young girl or old woman?
  66. 66.  How useful is a concept?Gestalt
  67. 67.  Which of the theories we‟ve looked at most approximate to yours? Which of the theories we‟ve examined do you find most convincing?Learning theories
  68. 68. Social learning theories
  69. 69.  This body of theorists reject the individual focus of the preceding theories. The emphasis is on how people learn in communal or community settings. Vygotsky Lave & WengerSocial learning theories
  70. 70. Vygotsky’s Zone of ProximalDevelopment:
  71. 71.  Lave & Wenger‟s „Communities of practice‟ People absorb the practices, attitudes and beliefs of the community they want to join. They learn „how to be‟ something – teacher, doctor, dancer. Develop language, stance etc. initially through peripheral involvement.Situated learning
  72. 72. Gestalt Situated learning Humanist Cognitivist ExpertBehaviourist Proficient performer Competent performer Advanced beginner Novice Rule based learningLinks to learning theories
  73. 73. … education was a sieve. The weaker students were „seived out‟and they left the classroom for the world of work, while the ablestudents were retained for the next level. „Drop outs‟ wereplanned for, and seen not just as inevitable but as desirable. Putbluntly, the aim was to discover those who could not cope, andget rid of them.
  74. 74. Once learners were thought to have a genetic disposition for learning,or not, which was measured by their „IQ‟. This placed an upper limit ontheir possible achievement. Some students were thought to reach their„ceiling‟ after which further teaching would be in vain.This is no longer thought to be the case. Experts on the brain andon learning now stress that everyone can learn more, if they aretaught appropriately, whatever they have previously achieved.A vivid illustration of this is provided by the work of Professor ReuvenFeuerstein (theory of Mediated Learning Experience MLE).
  75. 75. Education is a ladder, and we expect every learner to climb asfast and as high as they are able. „Drop outs‟ are seen as awasted opportunity, for the learners, and for society as a whole.Once teachers taught courses, subjects and classes. But nomore. Now they are teaching individuals…
  76. 76. flashcards: learning power
  77. 77. Growth-orientation v being stuck & staticI see learning as something I can get betterat, and myself as an improving learner. Thisoften reflects a more general interest in ‘self-improvement’, and faith that this is possible. Ihave a sense of history and of hope. I tend totake ownership of my own learning, and liketo be responsible for what I’m learning andhow I go about it. I’m usually quite ready to‘sign up’ to learning tasks that are presentedto me
  78. 78. Meaning making v Data accumulationI tend to look for patterns, connectionsand coherence in what I am learning,and to seek links between newsituations and what I already know oram interested in. I’m on the look-out for‘horizontal meaning’ I like to makesense of new things in terms of my ownexperience, and I like learning aboutwhat matters to me.
  79. 79. Critical curiosity v passivity I like to get below the surface of things and see what is really going on. I like to work things out for myself, and to ask my own questions. I tend to go looking for things to understand better, rather than just responding to problems that come my way. I am usually excited by the prospect of learning, and have a good deal of energy for learning tasks and situations. In general, I’m attracted to learning and enjoy a challenge. I value getting at the truth.
  80. 80. Creativity v RuleboundI like new situations, and will sometimes createnovelty and uncertainty ‘just to see what happens’. I’llspice things up to stop them being boring. I likeplaying with possibilities and imagining how situationscould be otherwise. I am able to look at problemsfrom different perspectives. I like trying things outeven if I don’t know where they will lead. I sometimesget my best ideas when I just let my mind float freely,and I don’t mind ‘giving up mental control’ for a whileto see what bubbles up. I often use my imaginationwhen I’m learning, and pay attention to images andphysical promptings as well as rational thoughts.
  81. 81. Positive learning relationships v IsolationI like working on problems with other people, especiallymy friends. I have no difficulty sharing thoughts andideas with others, and find it useful. I am quite capableof working away at problems on my own, andsometimes prefer it. I don’t feel I have to stick with thecrowd for fear of being lonely or isolated, when I’mlearning. I have important people at home and in mycommunity who share with me in my learning. I amready to draw on these when it seems helpful. I feel thatI live within a supportive social context.
  82. 82. Strategic Awareness vRoboticI tend to think about my learning, and plan how I amgoing to go about it. I usually have a fair idea howlong something is going to take me, what resources Iam going to need, and my chances of beingsuccessful.I am able to talk about the process of learning – how Igo about things – and about myself as a learner –what my habits, preferences, aspirations, strengthsand weaknesses are.
  83. 83. Resilience - dependence and fragilityI tend to stick at things for a while, even when they aredifficult. I don’t give up easily. I often enjoy grappling withthings that aren’t easy.I can handle the feelings that tend to crop up duringlearning: frustration, confusion, apprehension and so on. Ihave quite a high degree of emotional tolerance when itcomes to learning. I’m not easily upset or embarrassedwhen I can’t immediately figure something outI don’t immediately look for someone to help me out when Iam finding things difficult, or when I get stuck. I’m usuallyhappy to keep trying on my own for a while. I don’t mind ifthere’s nobody around to ‘rescue’ me.
  84. 84. Banking model“This model of education sees pupils or students asdepositories to be filled up by teachers who havealready been filled up. The contents are pre-produced as an abstract body of knowledge, byresearchers whose intellectual labour is alreadydivided by subject area, and distributed through thecurriculum by teachers in schools and otherinstitutions which are factories for filling minds.” (p.79)Fox, S (2002) Studying Networked Learning: Some Implications from Socially SituatedLearning Theory and Actor Network Theory, in: Steeples, C, Jones C (eds.) NetworkedLearning: Perspectives and Issues, London: Springer, pp. 77-91.
  85. 85. Banking model“This model of education sees pupils or students asdepositories to be filled up by teachers who havealready been filled up. The contents are pre-produced as an abstract body of knowledge, byresearchers whose intellectual labour is alreadydivided by subject area, and distributed through thecurriculum by teachers in schools and otherinstitutions which are factories for filling minds.” (p.79)Fox, S (2002) Studying Networked Learning: Some Implications from Socially SituatedLearning Theory and Actor Network Theory, in: Steeples, C, Jones C (eds.) NetworkedLearning: Perspectives and Issues, London: Springer, pp. 77-91.
  86. 86. learning Core Module TeamChrissi Nerantzi & Neil Currant Twitter @pgcap