1DesigningLearning and Teaching in HigherEducation/ LTHE Module PGCAP(#LTHESep12)Chrissi Nerantzi@chrissinerantzi@pgcap
2Intended learning outcomesBy the end of the session, students attending and engaging in the session will have had the opportunity to:• discuss and critically evaluate own design process and approaches used• explore innovative student-centred methods and active learning approaches when planning lectures, seminars, workshops and tutorials to maximise engagement• develop a better understanding of technology-enhanced curriculum design processes and explore applications in own context
3Decide• What are the 3 most important ingredients you need to take into account when planning a session/programme?
4planning a session: collaborativemindmap• http://www.text2mindmap.com/ (or• http: www.imindmap.com)
5Planning a session• Your learners• Group size• Title• Time/duration• Day/date, location• Aims and Learning Outcomes• Structure and Content• Methods/Activities• Aids and Resources• Assessment• Differentiation• Reflection/Evaluation• “If you fail to plan, you plan to fail!”
6Intended Learning Outcomes• “Descriptors of the ways that students will be expected to demonstrate the results of their learning.” Race (2000:10)
7A well-written learning outcomestatement should:• Contain an active verb , an object and a qualifying clause or phrase that provides a context or condition• Be written in the future tense• Identify important learning requirements: knowledge, understanding, skills, attitudes at each appropriate level• Be achievable and measurable• Use clear language, understandable by students• Relate to explicit statements of achievement
8Learning outcomes, minimumrequirements• Helps to balance a module‟s delivery nice could Independent learning, going beyond, SUSAN? should Must be delivered, essential ROBERT? Butcher et al (2006) Designing Learning. From Module outline to effective teaching, Oxon: Routledge. p. 59
9 The Cognitive Domain and Bloom’s Taxonomy evaluation creating synthesis evaluating analysis analysing application applying comprehension understanding knowledge remembering Bloom’s Taxonomoy (1956) Anderson and Krathwohl Revision (2001)Educational Psychology Interactive: The Cognitive Domain
11 use words likeavoid/use State... Describe... Explain... avoid words like List... Know... Evaluate... Understand... Identify... Really know... Distinguish between... Really understand... Analyse... Be familiar with... Outline... Become acquainted with... Summarize... Have a good grasp of... Represent graphically... Appreciate... Compare... Be interested in... Apply... Acquire a feeling for... Assess... Be aware of... Give examples of... Believe... Suggest reasons why... Have information about... Realize the significance of... Learn the basics of... Obtain working knowledge of...
12 Constructive alignment (Prof. John Biggs, 1999) outcomes outcomes outcomesdesigned to meet learning designed to meet learning designed to meet learning Learning Intended Assessment and Learning Method Teaching Outcomes activities •Students construct meaning from what they do to learn. •The teacher aligns the planned learning activities with the learning outcomes.
13Assessment• Research shows that inclusive assessment achieves higher levels of student satisfaction, provides increased opportunities for discussion and leads to improvements in student marks and grades.• Inclusive Assessments are built into course design and meet the assessment needs of the majority of students. Inclusive assessments are assessment concerned with equality of opportunity. It is an for learning approach that recognises that students have different learning styles and offers a range of assessment methods necessary to assess the different ways in which students can demonstrate the achievement of the learning assessment outcomes. of learning
14Would you like a break?• Back in 10min please
15Task: Designing a session for learningModule: Introduction to English cookery (1st yearundergraduates, 100 students, 10 weeks, kitchen,lecture theatre, seminar rooms, VLE)session: English Breakfast • Learners • Intended learning outcomes • Learning environment Designing for • Learning activity learning • Approach taken http://www.elearning.ac. • Inclusion uk/effprac/html/design_ • Assessment model.htm • Available technologyActivity based on JISC resource available at http://www.elearning.ac.uk/effprac/html/planner.htm
17Curriculum design• The bigger picture• Linking modules, How do we do this?
18Curriculum design: what is it?“A curriculum is an artefact, constructed within aframe. It has form and structure. It has dimensionsof time and space. It is experienced. The framing isimportant … what to place inside the frame andwhat to exclude. The critical decision thenconcerns how the contents within the frame arecomposed in relation to each other in order tocreate an integral and harmonious entity.”(Paul Kleiman, 2002. P.3) What is missing?
20Curriculum design modelsmodular approach, which one are you?• Lego (scaffold modules)• Satellite (free standing modules)• Jigsaw (connected modules)fitting it all together, approachespyramidspiral
• If content is everywhere and we have access to it anytime, what should we be doing with your students, planning for what?
22Threshold Concepts? (Meyer & Land, 2003)• Certain concepts are held to be central to the mastery of a subject• They have the following features: ▫ Transformative: Once understood, a threshold concept changes the way in which the student views the discipline. ▫ Troublesome: Threshold concepts are likely to be troublesome for the student. e.g when it is counter−intuitive. ▫ Irreversible: They are difficult to unlearn. ▫ Integrative: Threshold concepts, once learned, are likely to bring together different aspects of the subject that previously did not appear, to the student, to be related. ▫ Bounded: A threshold concept will probably delineate a particular conceptual space, serving a specific and limited purpose. ▫ Discursive: Crossing of a threshold will incorporate an enhanced and extended use of language.
23Discussion• Discuss within your groups.• What should be included in the module guide/ programme outline?• Check the module guides/programme outlines you brought with you. Compare!• Present findings
24Procedures• CHECK link: Quality Assurance – Academic Handbook http://www.governance.salford.ac.uk/page/aqa_handbook• consistent, rigorous, transparent and reliable systems of assessment;• equality of opportunity ... to demonstrate ability and achievement;• the provision of reliable information and guidance.• Annual programme monitoring & enhancement• Periodic programme review & re-approval• CHECK link: New Academic Regulations for Taught Programmes 2012/13http://www.governance.salford.ac.uk/page/ARTP_2010-11
25National bodies• Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) ▫ Frameworks for HE qualifications (FHEQ)- describe the achievement represented by higher education qualifications. ▫ Subject Benchmark statements for U/G ▫ Masters Degree Characteristics
26References• Biggs, J. (1999) Teaching for Quality Learning at University SRHE/OUP• Bloom, B.S. et al, Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Cognitive Domain New York: McKay• Bourner, T & Flowers, S (1998) Teaching and Learning Methods in Higher Education: A Glimpse of the Future. Reflections on HE, pp. 77-102.• Butcher, Davies & Highton (2006) Designing Learning: From Module Outline to Effective Teaching, Abingdon: Routledge• Hussey, T. and Smith, P. (2002) The Trouble with Learning Outcomes, Active Learning 3 (3) 220-233• Hussey, T. and Smith, P. (2003) The Uses of Learning Outcomes, Teaching in Higher Education 8 (3) 357-368• Hussey, T. and Smith, P. (2008) Learning Outcomes: a conceptual analysis, Teaching in Higher Education 13 (1) 107-115• Knight, P. (2002) Being a Teacher in Higher Education Buckingham: SRHE/OUP• Knight, P. (2001) „Complexity and curriculum: a process approach to curriculum making‟ in Teaching in HE Vol 6 No 3 pp369-381.• Laurillard, D. (2002) Rethinking University Teaching: A Framework for the Effective Use of Educational Technology London: Routledge• Light, G. and Cox, R. (2001) Learning and Teaching in Higher Education London: PCP publishing• Nixon, J. (2001) Not without dust and heat: the moral bases of the new academic professionalism, British Journal of Educational Studies, 49, 2. 173-186.• Meyer, J.H.F. and Land, R. (2003) Threshold concepts and troublesome knowledge: linkages to ways of thinking and practising, In: Rust, C. (ed.), Improving Student Learning - Theory and Practice Ten Years On. Oxford: Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development (OCSLD), pp 412-424.• Ramsden, P. (1992) Learning to Teach in Higher Education London: Routledge.• Schon D. A. (1983) The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action New York: Basic Books.• Shulman, L.S. (1987) „Knowledge and teaching: foundations of the new reform‟ in Harvard Educational Review February 57 (1) pp.1-22.• Steeples, C, Jones, CR & Goodyear, P (2002) Beyond e-learning: a future for networked learning. In C Steeples and CR Jones (Eds) Networked learning : principles and perspectives. London: Springer• Trigwell, K. (2001) Professionalism in the practice of teaching: the role of research ILT Conference - Keynote address University of York• Trigwell, K., Prosser, M., and Taylor, P. (1994) Qualitative differences in approaches to teaching first year university science, Higher Education 27,• pp75-84.• Universities UK (2004) Towards a Framework of Professional Teaching Standards: Consultation Document.• http://www.universitiesuk.ac.uk/consultations/UniversitiesUK/
27Resources:• Guide for Busy Academics: Using Learning Outcomes to Design a Course and Assess Learninghttp://www.itslifejimbutnotasweknowit.org.uk/fil es/CPLHE/Learnng%20outcomes%20for%20bu sy%20academics.rtf
28looking back and next weekToday• What did we do? What are you taking away?Next week• Using and experimenting• Play a mixed-reality game, meet in MCC• You will receive info via email and in BB
The “Sell your bargains” game• Stage 1: Select – Threshold concept (authentic problem (individual task)• Stage 2: Invest – creative intervention (collaborative task) – and the winners are…• Stage 3: Reflect on your idea and how it could be implemented in practice (individual task)
30DesigningLearning and Teaching in HigherEducation/ LTHE Module PGCAP(#LTHESep12)Chrissi Nerantzi@chrissinerantzi@pgcap
33Trigger 1: Is it fair?“Like the content in the last sentences of the firstchapter of Teaching for Quality Learning atUniversity (Biggs and Tang) “Is it fair to Susan todivert resources from her in order to deal withRobert”. This was a question that was whirling inmy head during the last few pages of the chapterand one I often ask myself in my own practice. ”source: http://despard.wordpress.com/2012/02/08/65/
34Trigger 2: What is best?“A teacher with limited time must decide how bestto support each student. The left has traditionallyargued „to each according to their need‟ and that ateacher should devote most time to supportingthose who need it most. In contrast, the right hasoften argued for equality of distribution ofresources, disregarding the inequality in existingresources and thus reinforcing it.”
35Trigger 3: I have to say...“Ihave to say attendance hasbeen quite poor recently, but thelevel of the students is quitegood.”