Cognitive principles of instruction (edet 722) ctml
Cognitive Theory of Multi-Media Learning : Guiding Principles for Designing Media Presentations Based upon Research-Based Principles of Multimedia Learning By Richard E. Mayer
Cognitive Theory of Multi-Media Learning• The multi-media learning theory posits that learning is enhanced by a combination of words and pictures rather than from words alone. What this means is that the brain does not interpret a multimedia presentation of words, pictures, and auditory information in a mutually exclusive fashion; rather, these elements are selected and organized dynamically to produce logical mental constructs.• Design principles including providing coherent verbal, pictorial information, guiding the learners to select relevant words and images, and reducing the load for a single processing channel etc. can be entailed from this theory.
Theoretical Assumptions• The theory is based on three main assumptions: there are two separate channels (auditory and visual) for processing information; there is limited channel capacity; and that learning is an active process of filtering, selecting, organizing, and integrating information. The theory proposes three main assumptions when it comes to learning with multimedia:• Dual-Channels: There are two separate channels (auditory and visual) for processing information.• Each channel has a limited capacity.• Learning is an active process of filtering, selecting, organizing, and integrating information based upon prior knowledge.
Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning MULT IMEDIA SENSORY LONG-T ERMP RESENT AT ION MEM ORY WO RK ING M EMORY MEM ORY selecting Sounds organizing Verbal Words Ears words words Model int egrat ing PP rior rior Knowledge Knowledge selecting Images organizing P ict orial P ict ures Eyes im ages im ages Model
Five Cognitive Processes for Meaningful Learning1. Selecting words2. Selecting images3. Organizing words4. Organizing images5. Integrating
Three Demands on Multimedia LearningExtraneous processing Cognitive processing that is not related to the objective of the lesson. Involves no learning processes.Essential processing Basic cognitive processing that is relevant to the objective of the lesson. Involves selecting and some organizing.Generative processing Deep cognitive processing that is relevant to the objective of the lesson. Involves organizing and integrating.
Cognitive Capacity = Extraneous Processing + Essential Processing + Generative ProcessingExtraneous Overload Extraneous processing exhausts cognitive capacity. Occurs when lesson contains extraneous material or is poorly designed.Essential Overload Essential processing exhausts cognitive capacity. Occurs when lesson is difficult, lesson is presented at a fast pace, and the learner is unfamiliar with the material.Generative Underutilization Learner has cognitive capacity available but does not engage in sufficient generative processing. Occurs when learner lacks motivation, does not exert effort.