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Advising is not a profession...or is it?  slideshare version Advising is not a profession...or is it? slideshare version Presentation Transcript

  • Advising is Not a Profession…or is it? Josh Larson, Anna Adams,Jason Barkemeyer, Sharon Aiken-Wisniewski University of Utah
  • Test Your Clicker – What state are you from?1. Alaska2. Oregon3. Washington4. Yukon Territory5. Montana6. Idaho7. Alberta8. Outside Region 89. (British Colombia)
  • How many years have you been advising?A. Less than 3B. 3-6C. 7-10D. 11-15E. 16-29F. 30+
  • Are you a full time or part time advisor?1. Full time (30 hrs +)2. Part time
  • What is your highest education level?1. No degree2. Associate’s3. Certificate4. Bachelor’s5. Master’s6. Doctorate
  • Is Academic Advising a profession?1. Yes2. No
  • Do you think advising should be considered a profession?1. Yes2. No3. Not Sure
  • Objectives For Our Presentation Consider the historical development and current state of the field of advising. Discuss the term “Profession” and how it relates to the occupation of advising. Discuss how advising might change if it obtained the status of a profession.
  • Advising Timeline Highlights 1600’s (1636) Harvard College is founded with the president responsible for advising students. 1800’s(1841) Kenyon College introduces the (1876) John Hopkins University first known formal system of advising establishes a faculty advising system Early 1900’s (1906) Universities begin using (1920) Duties begin to be split amongadvisor systems to supervise selection entities on campus and away from of courses faculty
  • Mid 1900’s(1930s) “Student personnel work” was (1932) University of Chicagocoined. Advising was rooted under this implements faculty departmental term counselors 1940-1960 (1941) A call goes out to end the (1959) Faculty advisors still recognizedperpetual tension between faculty and as primary academic advisor for professional advisors students 1961-1972 (1972) Carnegie Commission on Higher(1961) Terms “advising” & “counseling” Ed recommends an enhanced emphasis differentiated on advising
  • 1972Crookston & O’Banion establish student development theories in advising, in separate, independent articles 1976 First statewide academic advising conference held in California Late 1970’s (1977) First national academic (1979) NACADA established with theadvising conference held in Vermont purpose of professionalization
  • 1981 First NACADA Journal published 1999 The Mentor: An Academic Advising Journal, first published 2000’s(2003) Kansas State offers Graduate (2008) Kansas State offers M.S. in Certificate in Academic Advising Academic Advising
  • What is a profession? Sole jurisdiction EducationSelf regulation Profession w/theoretical background Field is a public service
  • What is a profession? Sole jurisdiction EducationSelf regulation Profession w/theoretical background Field is a public service
  • Tertiary Education• Long, tertiary education with theoretical learning – Education is based in theory - Not step by step or prescriptive – Cannot just be learned on the job – Usually PhD but could be MS/MA
  • Educational Programs• NACADA Clearinghouse currently lists 29 institutions with graduate programs that mention academic advising in their profile.• Certificate – Kansas State University (2003) – Sam Houston State University (2008) – Eastern Michigan University (2010)• Graduate Degree – Kansas State University (2008) THAT’S ABOUT IT…
  • Why is that all?• Need research to offer a degree.• Need a theory of advising to guide research, education, and practice McGillin (2000) states in her chapter in Academic Advising: A Comprehensive Handbook, “We must first clarify what advising is and is not by generating a theory of academic advising.”
  • Do you think the Advising Occupation warrants a long-tertiary education?1. Yes2. No
  • What is a profession? Sole jurisdiction EducationSelf regulation Profession w/theoretical background Field is a public service
  • Self Regulation• Create a Professional organization that advocates for profession and provides professional guidelines or standards• No managers, other colleagues monitor• Determine the scope of practice and responsibilities• Other Advisors enforce standards and practices – remove professional title when necessary
  • Are you aware of NACADA or CAS standards?1. Yes2. No3. Not sure
  • Do we currently self-regulate? NACADA“The NATIONAL ACADEMIC ADVISING ASSOCIATION (NACADA), promotes and supports quality academic advising in institutions of higher education to enhance the educational development of students. NACADA provides a forum for discussion, debate, and the exchange of ideas pertaining to academic advising through numerous activities and publications.” ~Retrieved electronically May 12, 2011 from http://www.nacada.ksu.edu/AboutNACADA/index.htm
  • CAS“The Mission of the Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS) is to promote the improvement of programs and services to enhance the quality of student learning and development. CAS is a consortium of professional associations who work collaboratively to develop and promulgate standards and guidelines and to encourage self-assessment.”“The primary purpose of Academic Advising Programs (AAP) is to assist students in the development of meaningful educational plans.”Retrieved electronically April 18, 2011 from http://www.cas.edu/getpdf.cfm?PDF=E864D2C4-D655-8F74-2E647CDECD29B7D0.
  • Scope of practice: Common Advisor Responsibilities registration materials Prepare Evaluate transfer credit Monitor degree audits 1/3 ofprograms Coordinate orientation programs Train advisors campus-wide 1/2 of Develop advising handbooksprograms Participate in academic policy committees Allprograms General education guidance Liaison to academic 0 50 100 departments/schools Maintaining academic records
  • Advisor roles (2000): Advising at theMillennium • Results reported from a survey to NACADA members • Generalizability is limited.• Survey Demographics (n=2,597)  76% Female  61% advising 1-10 years  62% master’s degrees  89% FT advising appointment  40% from public research institution
  • Reported areas of advising responsibilities (byinstitution type) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 public 20 private 10 2 year 0 total
  • Circled responsibilities are most consistent withgraduate level education? 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 public 20 private 10 0 2 year total
  • What is a profession? Sole jurisdiction EducationSelf regulation Profession w/theoretical background Field is a public service
  • Public Service• The service is needed by individuals• The client is vulnerable, an expert is needed and great trust is placed on individuals• Moral and professional obligation to client regardless of time, pay, preference, or other “9-5 norms”.
  • Vulnerable Population?• Only 30% of the US population will earn a bachelor degree or higher. – 40% of the population does not even attempt college – For the 60% that attend college, only ½ will earn a bachelor degree or higher.• Education is a costly, life-changing event: – $8,244 per year, public four-year colleges – $14,092 more per year with a Bachelor’s Degree than w/o – $16,952 Associate Degree and more than a person with “some college, no degree” – 42% less likely to be unemployed with a Bachelor’s Degree than those with “some college, no degree.” – The more educated the longer the life-span
  • Academic Advising as a Necessary Public Service 1980 Empirical link between student satisfaction with academic advising & retention (1st National Survey of “What Works in Student Retention”) 2007-2009 (2009) Students who experienced congruence between (2007) Academic Advising does not negatively affect their preferred style and their advisors’ style were more underprepared students’ chance of success, as was likely to be and feel integrated into the campus previously theorized in the “cooling out” phenomenon environment. 2010Since the 1980 survey, over 50% of colleges have improved or developed academic advising programs to increase retention (4th national survey)
  • What is a profession? Sole jurisdiction EducationSelf regulation Profession w/theoretical background Field is a public service
  • Sole Jurisdiction– Legally recognized sole jurisdiction over profession • No one else creates the rules, laws, or standards that govern the profession• No one else can practice as an advisor• Often requiring licensure or additional certifications
  • Who else practices as an advisor?1. Students2. Faculty3. Any one available (AA, Chair, etc.)4. Other offices1. No one (you)2. The person before you3. Chairs4. Students5. The institution
  • Impact on advising? Sole Masters Degree or HigherOnly Credentialed Advisors jurisdiction (in the field) - cannot be learned on the job Increased Pay AutonomyLoss of “9to 5norms” Education Self regulation Profession w/theoretical background Recognition and RespectNational standards Increasedcreated by other Field is a public service responsibilityadvising professionals and culpability
  • Get your clickers ready….!
  • I _____ that advisors should be involved with these types of these activities: ~general education guidance ~new student orientation ~develop advising handbooks ~evaluate transfer credit ~monitor degree audits ~liaison to academic departments/schools1. Strongly Agree2. Agree3. Disagree4. Strongly Disagree
  • I _____ that advisors should be involved with these types of activities: ~research & publications ~curriculum: assessment & development ~service (academic committees, national committees) ~accreditation ~student mentoring1. Strongly Agree2. Agree3. Depends4. Disagree5. Strongly Disagree
  • If the occupation of advising required advisors to conduct research and assessment, publish scholarly articles, participate in curriculum development and accreditation,complete service activities (serve on academic committees,volunteer time), what should be the minimum educational requirement for an academic advisor?1. Certification2. Bachelor’s3. Master’s4. Doctorate5. Licensure w/ Degree
  • Advisors provide a necessary public service to avulnerable population who relies heavily on the advising expert?1. Strongly Agree2. Agree3. Disagree4. Strongly Disagree
  • The occupation of advising (the duties, norms, and skills) should:1. Be relatively consistent nationally2. Be determined within a State3. Be local to each institution
  • Are you willing to forgo 9-5 norms (guaranteed hours, schedules, sleep) to become a profession?1. Yes2. No3. Maybe
  • Last TwoQuestions
  • Is Academic Advising a Profession?1. Yes2. No
  • Should Academic Advising become a profession?1. Yes2. No3. No, but career opportunities need to be provided
  • THANK YOU!• Anna Adams – anna.adams@utah.edu• Jason Barkemeyer – jason.barkemeyer@utah.edu• Josh Larson – joshua.larson@health.utah.edu• Sharon Aiken-Wisniewski – saiken@uc.utah.edu
  • ReferencesAnalytic Quality Glossary. www.qualityresearchinternational.com/glossary/profession/htm.Bahr, P.R. (2007). Cooling Out in the Community College: What is the effect of Academic Advising on Students’ Chance of Success?Beal, RE. & Noel, L. (1980). What Works in Student Retention: The Report on American College Testing Program and National Center for Higher Education Management Systems.Boston Globe: http://www.boston.com/news/health/blog/2008/03/life_expectancy.htmlBureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey: http://www.bls.gov/emp/ep_chart_001.htmCollege Board: http://www.collegeboard.com/student/pay/add-it-up/4494.htmlCook, Sandra. Important Events in the Development of Academic Advising in the United States. NACADA Journal. Vol 29 (2). Fall 2009. pp. 18-26.
  • Crookston, B.B. A Developmental View of Academic Advising As Teaching. Journal of College Student Personnel. Vol 13, January 13, pp. 395-415.Evetts, Julia. The Sociological Analysis of Professionalism, Occupational Change in the Modern World. International Sociology. Vol 18(2), June, 2003. pp. 395-415.Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget. Standard Occupational Classification Manual: What is a Profession?, pp. xxviii and 51.Gordon V. & Habley, W. Academic Advising: A Comprehensive Handbook. 2000.Habley, W., Valiga, M., McClanahan, R. & Burkum, K. (2010). What Works in Student Retention. Fourth National Survey. Public Four-Year Colleges and Universities Report. Retrieved electronically from: http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED515220.pdf.
  • References continuedHale, M., Graham, D., Johnson, D. & Donald, M. (2009). Are Students More Satisfied with Academic Advising When There is Congruence between Current and Preferred Advising Styles. College Student Journal, v43, n2, pp 313-324.Kolb, Robert W., Editor. Encyclopedia of Business Ethics and Society, 4th Ed., Pgs. 1694-1696Klass, Alan A., M.D., What is a Profession? Canadian M. A. J., Sept. 16, 1961, vol. 85, pp. 698 – 701.Lumina Foundation: http://www.luminafoundation.org/publications/A_stronger_nation.pdfMcGillin, V. A. (2000). Current issues in advising research. In V. N. Gordon & W. R. Habley (Eds.), Academic advising: A comprehensive handbook: San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • References continuedO*Net Online Help. www.onetonline.org/help/online/zones, www.onetonline.org/help/online/scales.O’Banion, Terry. An Academic Advising Model. Junior College Journal. Vol 42, 1972. pp. 62, 64, & 66-69.Shaffer, Leigh S. et al. (2010) The professionalization of Academic Advising: Where are we in 2010? NACADA Journal, Volume 30(1), pp. 66-77.Tuttle, Kathryn Nemeth. Academic Advising. New Directions For Higher Education, no. 111, Fall 2000. pp. 15-24Wilensky, Harold L. The Professionalization of Everyone. The American Journal of Sociology, Volume LXX, Number 2, September, 1964. p. 137-158.