The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
Culture Connect:
Experience the Culture of the World
A Standards-Linked Resource P...
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BROWN
The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
WELCOME!												
	 About These Materials						 3
	 Culture CaraVan: Br...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
Brown University’s Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology welcomes you to our...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
Culture CaraVan: Bringing the Museum to You!
The Haffenreffer Museum colle...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
National and State Education Curriculum Standards
Culture Connect provides...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
WIDA Consortium standards for English Language Learners
ELP Standard 1: (G...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
What is Culture?
Culture is, simply, the way of life shared by a group
of ...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
each culture has a different set of values, beliefs, and views of the worl...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
A person’s actions or conduct.
Something accepted as true by an individual...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
Internet Resources
The Gateway to Educational Materials
http://thegateway...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
Books
Books for Students
Faces Magazine: People, Places, and Cultures
Car...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
Lesson Plan One: What is Culture?
LESSON PLAN ONE
Students will understan...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
ELP Standard 1: (Gr. 1-2) Listening: Following Directions, level 	
	 3&4;...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
Activity One: Class Discussion,“What is Culture?”
You may use the previou...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
Activity Three: Homes Around the World
Every human needs shelter, but our...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
Three Objects, Three Cultures
We will begin our exploration of cultures o...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
Maya Huipiles
A huipil (we-peel) is a type of blouse worn by Highland May...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
At one time, each community or language-group made its own specific huipi...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
Huipiles from The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology’s collection; photo...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
HUIPILES AND THE HIGHLAND MAYA OF GUATEMALA
One type of loom that Highlan...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
Internet Resources
Traje en Guatemala
http://www.rutahsa.com/traje.html
T...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
For Teachers
Costume as Communication: Ethnographic Costumes and Textiles...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
Paj Ntaub and the Hmong of China and Southeast Asia
About the Hmong
Hmong...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
Paj Ntaub:“Flower Cloth”or Story Cloth
Hmong women are very skilled at ne...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
Evacuation Story,
Laos, 1985-1986
Tiger Story,
Laos, 1985-1986
Left: Ly P...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
PAJ NTAUB AND THE HMONG — VOCABULARY
Someone who does embroidery.
Detaile...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
Internet Resources
Hmong Needlework: Traditions Both Ancient and New
http...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
For Teachers
Hmong Means Free: Life in Laos and America
By Sucheng Chan
T...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
Cradleboards and the Kiowa and Comanche Peoples
of the Southern Plains, U...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
“V”shape by two cross pieces of wood. A piece of rawhide filled the gap i...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
The Meanings of Cradles
Creating and giving a cradle was a very special
a...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
Cradleboards Today
Non-native collectors bought cradleboards from Kiowa a...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
CRADLEBOARDS AND THE KIOWA AND COMANCHE — VOCABULARY
A specially favored ...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
Internet Resources
Taking Care of Babies
http://www.eiteljorg.org/ejm_Pla...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
Content Objectives
Language Objectives
(for English Language
Learners)
Ma...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
LESSON PLAN TWO
ELP Standard 1: (Gr. 1-2) Listening: Following Directions...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
Activity One: Readings
Depending on the reading levels of the students in...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
Activity Three: Design Your Own Huipil, Story Cloth, or Cradle Design
For...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
Activity Four (for grades 5-8): Research on the Regions
Keeping the teams...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
Activity Five: Making Connections
Discuss with your class the connections...
Teachers: Enlarge by 162% on 11x17 paper
Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology
Teachers:Enlargeby140%on11x17paper
HaffenrefferMuseumofAnthropology
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
Content Objectives
Language Objectives
(for English Language
Learners)
Ma...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
WIDA Consortium
standards for English
Language Learners:
ELP Standard 1: ...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
Activity One: A Discussion About Stereotypes
The most important lesson st...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
Would someone from another culture laugh at something we do? How does it ...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
Cultures in My Communitiy
Name:___________________________		 Date:_______...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
Research
Topic
Research and Questions
Dance Take a dance class or watch a...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
Literature /
Oral Story-
telling
Read a fiction book written by an author...
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The Haffenreffer
Museum of Anthropology
Acknowledgements
Project Director — Geralyn Hoffman,
Curator of Programs ...
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  1. 1. The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Culture Connect: Experience the Culture of the World A Standards-Linked Resource Packet for Teachers Enabling Teachers to Broaden their Tools for Teaching about Multiculturalism BROWN
  2. 2. 2 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology WELCOME! About These Materials 3 Culture CaraVan: Bringing the Museum to You! 4 Links to State Curriculum Standards 5 What is Culture? 7 Three Objects, Three Cultures 16 Huipiles and the Highland Maya of Guatemala 16 Paj Ntaub and the Hmong of Southeast Asia 23 Cradleboards and the Kiowa and Comanche Peoples of the Southern Plains, USA 29 Further Exploration 43 Acknowledgements 50 Cover Images Top Left: Larabanga, Ghana; photograph by Sarah Philbrick. Center Left: Cashinahua, Peru; photograph by Kenneth M. Kensinger. Right: Hmong, Rhode Island; photograh by Patricia Symonds Bottom Left: Hamar, Ethiopia; photograph by Anna Colaiace. CONTENTS
  3. 3. 3 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Brown University’s Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology welcomes you to our program, Culture Connect: Experience the cultures of the world! About These Materials The Haffenreffer Museum has developed these materials to provide you and your students with the opportunity to begin their exploration of world cultures. This packet expands on the themes that are covered during the Culture Connect Culture CaraVan outreach program, but activites in this packet can also be used independently of a Museum program. The first section introduces the question: “What is culture?”, the section that follows intro- duces three cultures, as well as three types of objects that those cultures made in the past and continue to make today. At the end of each section, we suggest activities for you and your students to do in the classroom. If your students are participating in our Culture Connect CaraVan program, these activites will help prepare your class for our visit. The final lesson plan proves a springbaord into the further exploration of other cultures. If your students are participating in the Culture Connect program, this section can be used to reinforce what your students learned during the program. You can adapt the information and activities provided in this packet to the appropriate learning levels of your students. We also suggest some websites and books that you and your students can use in your classroom to learn about cul- ture in general, as well the three cultures and objects described in this packet. Vocabulary words are in bold and are listed after each section. ABOUT THESE MATERIALS Learning Objectives To expose students to the life ways of a diversity of cultures around the world. To help students understand that all people need the same basic things and use what they have available in their environment to obtain those things. To teach students to respect cultural differences. 1. 2. 3.
  4. 4. 4 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Culture CaraVan: Bringing the Museum to You! The Haffenreffer Museum collects and maintains over 100,000 artifacts of human cultures from around the world. We have offered experiential educational programs to the public for over forty years. Through hands-on, object-based activities and inquiry-based teaching, our programs edu- cate students and teachers about people and societies from around the globe. Through our Culture CaraVan outreach program, we deliver the world’s cultures right to your classroom, enhancing the experience with objects from our world famous collections! Visit our web site to learn more about our Culture CaraVan programs. Culture Connect: Experience the Cultures of the World The Culture Connect outreach program is a two-hour interactive program where your students will travel the world with amazing objects from our collections to explore cultures of today and yesterday through clothing, food, shelter, religion, music, and art. Your students will become citizens of the world as they learn how similar people are and how exciting their cultural differences can be. We will bring objects from Africa, Asia, Europe, and North and South America to your classroom, turning it into a kaleidoscope of diversity and a multicultural laboratory for teaching inquiry-based lessons about tolerance and respect. Visit our website at brown.edu/Haffenreffer for more information. THE CULTURE CARAVAN OUTREACH PROGRAM
  5. 5. 5 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology National and State Education Curriculum Standards Culture Connect provides you with a uniquely powerful way to teach to standards set by the National Council for the Social Studies and curriculum standards used by the Rhode Island Department of Education and the Massachusetts Department of Education in the social sciences, sciences, arts, and English language arts. The standards this packet supports are listed below. National Council for the Social Studies (for all grades) I. Culture Standards a, b, c, d, e II. Time, Continuity and Change Standard e III. People, Places, and Environments Standards a, b, h IV. Individual Development and Identity Standards e, g VIII. Science, Technology, and Society Standards a, b IX. Global Connections Standard a Rhode Island Department of Education Grade Span Expectations Civics & Government: C&G5(K-6)-1; C&G5(K-6)-2 Historical Perspectives: HP1(K-8)-1; HP2(5-8)-1; HP2(K-4)-3; HP3(K-8)-2 Engineering and Technology: ET1.1(K-8); ET1.2(K-4) Reading: (K-8) R-3; R-7; R-11; R-13 Writing: (K-8) W-1; W-2; W-3; W-6; W-7; W-8; W-9; W-10; W-11 Oral Communication: (K-8) OC-1; OC-2 Visual Arts & Design: VAD2(K-12)-1; VAD3(K-8)-1c,d; VAD3(3-8)-2 Dance: D2(K-12 )-1 Music: M2(K-12)-1; M2(K-12)-2 Theater: T2(K-12)-1 Massachusetts Department of Education Frameworks Social Science: 1.9, 2.7, 2.8, 4.15ACD, 4.16, 5.6, SEAO.1, SEAO.2 Science and Technology (K-2): Life Sciences: 1, 6, 8; Technology/Engineering: 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 2.2 Science and Technology (Gr. 3-5): Life Sciences: 8&10, Technology/Engineering: 2.1 English Language Arts (Gr. K-8): General Standards 3, 8, 19, 23, 24 Arts (K-8): Visual Arts: 1.1, 1.2, 3.3, 3.5; 3.6, 3.7, 4.1, 4.2, 5.1, 5.2; 5.3, 5.6; Dance: 1.14, 3.6, 3.7, 4.5, 5.1; Music: 1.8, 3.9, 5.7; Theatre: 2.7, 3.2 CURRICULUM STANDARDS
  6. 6. 6 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology WIDA Consortium standards for English Language Learners ELP Standard 1: (Gr. 1-2) Listening: Following Directions, level 3&4; (Gr. 3-5) Listening: Following Direction, level 3&4; (Gr. 6-8) Reading: Use of Multiple Resources, level 3&4; Speaking: Instructions/assignments, level 3&4; Social Interaction, level 3 ELP Standard 2: (Gr. 3-5) Writing: Editing and Revising, level 3, 4, 5; (Gr. 6-8) Writing: Editing, level 3&4 ELP Standard 4: (Gr. K) Writing: Colors, level 3&4 ELP Standard 5: (Gr. K) Speaking: Clothing, level 3; Homes in a Community, level 3&4; (Gr. 1-2) Writing: Homes and Habitats, level 3&4; (Gr. 3-5) Speaking: Maps & Globes/Locations, level 3; Writing: Communities & Regions, level 3, 4, 5; (Gr. 6-8) Listening: Maps, level 3. CURRICULUM STANDARDS
  7. 7. 7 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology What is Culture? Culture is, simply, the way of life shared by a group of people. Humans all over the Earth need the same basic things. We need food, water, shelter, and clothing to survive. Although humans are mammals (we give birth to live young, nurse, and have hair), we are different from other animals in some important ways. We are most especially large- brained, bipedal (stand on two feet) and make tools to help us achieve our basic needs, including tools to help us harvest, make, and eat our food or drink our water. We create our own shelters (our homes) and clothing out of materials in our environment or materials made by other humans. Besides these basic needs, other aspects of culture include technology, art, dance, music, religion, and language. Culture is something that we learn from the people who live with and near us — our mothers and fathers, grandparents, other members of our families, our friends, the people with whom we go to school, our teachers, and our neighbors. Culture is passed down through each successive generation. We also learn a system of beliefs, values, and practices as we grow up. These beliefs and values are part of our cultural traditions. Culture is collective; we share our culture with a group of people, often the people we grew up with or the people who raised us. All humans have a culture; we may have the same basic needs, but From top to bottom: Uman Islander, Micronesia; photograph by Eileen McDermott Ethiopia; photograph by Anna Colaiace Passamaquoddy, Maine; photograph by Joan Lester Hopi, Arizona; photograph by Gino Conti Cachinahua, Peru; photograph by Kenneth Kensinger EXPLORE THE CULTURES OF THE WORLD
  8. 8. 8 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology each culture has a different set of values, beliefs, and views of the world. Your culture affects the things you do, including many of your behaviors, but you might not even be aware of it! Culture is only one thing that can shape your behaviors. Each person has his or her own taste, talents, and interests. Just as each culture is different, each individual within the culture is different as well. People can be part of more than one culture — for instance, one person can be Jewish, a New Englander, and an American. Another person might be Hopi, a Southwesterner, and also an American. Together they may share a common set of cultural values and behaviors as Americans. Independently, each may practice different behaviors or hold different beliefs based on their other cultural or sub-cultural traditions. Cachinahua, Peru; photograph by Kenneth M. Kensinger Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe, Massachusetts; photograph by Rip Gerry WHAT IS CULTURE?
  9. 9. 9 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology A person’s actions or conduct. Something accepted as true by an individual or group. The way of life shared by a group of people. A system of beliefs, values, and practices passed down to people through the people who come before them. Principles or standards considered worthwhile or desirable. WHAT IS CULTURE? — VOCABULARY Behaviors Beliefs Culture Traditions Values VOCABULARY
  10. 10. 10 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Internet Resources The Gateway to Educational Materials http://thegateway.org/ This consortium project, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education and intended to provide American teachers with“one-stop”access to web-based teaching resources, provides an excellent search engine for teachers to locate lesson plans and Internet resources. The Gateway provides access to over 50,000 resources. “Cultures of the World,”part of the American Library Association’s Great Web Sites for Kids. http://www.ala.org/greatsites This excellent webpage maintained by the American Library Association’s (ALA) ALSC Great Web Sites Committee, contains links to short descriptions of seventeen web pages with notations on their suitability for Pre-K, elementary, and middle school-aged youths. United Nations Cyber School Bus http:www.un.org/Pubs/CyberSchoolBus/index.asp Contains information about the United Nations and human rights issues for students and teachers. Features on-line activities appropriate for students ages 6 and older, dependent on the activity. Exploring Ancient World Cultures http://eawc.evansville.edu/index.htm Sponsored by the University of Evansville in Indiana, this site teaches visitors about eight ancient cultures and contains an index of internet sites for each. Peace Corps: World Wise Schools: Educators http://www.peacecorps.gov/wws/ As part of the Peace Corps’Coverdell World Wise Schools program, this site provides a wealth of information for educators on teaching about the world’s cultures. WHAT IS CULTURE? — REFERENCES
  11. 11. 11 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Books Books for Students Faces Magazine: People, Places, and Cultures Carus Publishing Reading level: Ages 9-14 Children Just Like Me By Susan Elizabeth Copsey, Barnabas Kindersley, Anabel Kindersley, and Harry Belafonte DK Publishing, 1995 Reading level: Ages 9-12 Children from Australia to Zimbabwe: A Photographic Journey Around the World By Maya Ajmera, Anna Rhesa Versola, and Marian‘Wright Edelman Charlesbridge Publishing; 2nd Revision edition, 2001 Reading level: Ages 9-12 Children Just Like Me: Celebrations! By Anabel Kindersley with Bamabas Kindersley (Photographer) DK Publishing, 1997 Reading level: Ages 9-12 Cultures Around the World By Kelly Doudna SandCastle, 2004 Reading level: Ages 4-8 People Around the World By Anthony Mason Kingfisher, 2002 Reading level: Ages 9-12 WHAT IS CULTURE? — REFERENCES
  12. 12. 12 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Lesson Plan One: What is Culture? LESSON PLAN ONE Students will understand the concept of culture. Students will learn about the cultures represented in the classroom. Students will make connections between their own cultures and cultures unfamiliar to them. Students will understand the term culture. Students will be able to explain their thoughts in writing and orally. Two sheets of poster paper, pencils, paper or blue-book for each student, map, pins for the map, books and magazines with photos of homes around the world, bulletin board. I. Culture Standards a, d, e III. People, Places, and Environments Standards b IV. Individual Development and Identity Standard e Civics & Government: C&G5(K-2)-1; C&G5(K-2)-2 Historical Perspectives: HP1(K-6)-1 Reading: (if“What is Culture”is assigned as a reading activity) (4-8) R-3; R-7; R-11; R-13 Writing: W(K-8)-1; W(K-8)-2; W(K-8)-8; W(K-8)-9; W(5-8)-10 Oral Communication: (K-8) OC-1; OC-2 Social Science: 1.9, 2.7, 2.8, 4.15 Science and Technology (K-2): Life Sciences: 1, 8 Science and Technology (Gr. 3-5): Life Sciences: 8, Technology/Engineering: 2.1 English Language Arts (Gr. K-8): General Standards 3, 8, 19, 23, 24 Content Objectives Language Objectives (for English Language Learners) Materials Educational Standards National Council for the Social Studies: Rhode Island Department of Education: Massachusetts Department of Education:
  13. 13. 13 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology ELP Standard 1: (Gr. 1-2) Listening: Following Directions, level 3&4; (Gr. 3-5) Listening: Following Direction, level 3&4; (Gr. 6-8) Speaking: Instructions/assignments, level 3&4; Social Interaction, level 3 ELP Standard 2: (Gr. 3-5) Writing: Editing and Revising, level 3, 4, 5; (Gr. 6-8) Writing: Editing, level 3&4 ELP Standard 5: (Gr. K) Homes in a Community, level 3&4; (Gr. 1-2) Writing: Homes and Habitats, level 3&4; (Gr. 3-5) Speaking: Maps & Globes/Locations, level 3; Writing: Communities & Regions, level 3, 4, 5; (Gr. 6-8) Listening: Maps, level 3. WIDA Consortium standards for English Language Learners:
  14. 14. 14 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Activity One: Class Discussion,“What is Culture?” You may use the previous“What is Culture”section as information for your discussion, or it may be used as a guided or independent reading activity. Initiate a class discussion about culture. What is culture? What are beliefs? What are values? Ask your students to think of examples of each. From your discussion, come up with a class definition of culture. Write this on a large piece of paper and hang it in a prominent place in your classroom. You can refer to this definition throughout your studies of culture. Activity Two: What Are Our Cultures? Ask students to identify the different cultures to which they belong by asking their parents and grandparents or guardians, this can also include the“American”culture in which they are participating. Perhaps your students can identify an Irish or Portuguese or Cambodian ethnicity within their families. Are there any cultural aspects of their ethnicity that are still practiced by their families? How are these cultures different? How are they alike? Try to have students think in broad categories like food, religion, wedding customs, etc. Have students list these on a piece of paper or in a blue book. (Grade K can draw pictures). Compile these into a class list on a large piece of paper and pin country locations on a map to show all the different cultures represented in your classroom. Have students in grades 5 to 8 write an essay about their families’backgrounds and give presentations to the class. Students can switch essays with a partner to have their essays edited. LESSON PLAN ONE — TEACHER INSTRUCTIONS · · · · · · · · ·
  15. 15. 15 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Activity Three: Homes Around the World Every human needs shelter, but our physical environment influences our culture, including the types of homes we construct and what we use to make them. Have your students search for pictures of homes around the world in books and magazines or on the web. Ask the students to create a classroom collage of different homes on a bulletin board. Have your students consider the following questions: Why are some homes made out of certain materials? Talk about the influences of the environment on culture and home construction. For example, why might a home in the mountains of Switzerland or Germany have a steeply pitched roof? (Snow) Why are so many homes in New England built using wood? What do all of our homes have in common? How are they different? Why? Activity Four: Celebrations in Our Families and Around the World As a class, discuss the different ways your students’families celebrate special days. What does each family do? How often do they celebrate or get together? What kinds of activities are done during this holiday? Have students bring in photographs or draw pictures of their family celebrations. Students can work individually or in teams to research one holiday that is celebrated in another culture. Have them write and illustrate a book about that holiday, addressing the following questions: What is the holiday? When is it? Is it the same time each year? How do people in that culture celebrate the holiday? What activities do they do? Do they eat special foods? Listen to special music? Play games? LESSON PLAN ONE — TEACHER INSTRUCTIONS · · · · · · · ·
  16. 16. 16 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Three Objects, Three Cultures We will begin our exploration of cultures of the world by closely examining three types of aesthetic objects, each with a significant connection to three different cultures. If your class plans to participate in the Culture Connect CaraVan outreach program, your students will get further acquainted with these three objects and three cultures during the program. Huipiles and the Highland Maya of Guatemala About the Maya The Maya are an indigenous ethnic group of people whose traditional homelands are in parts of Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador. In ancient times, the Maya had many large cities controlled by kings, and they built many large temples. In the 16th century, the Spanish conquered Maya lands that are now integrated within contemporary Latin American nations. The Maya traditionally practiced slash- and-burn agriculture; growing crops of corn, beans, and squash as staples along with fields of chilies, pumpkins, sweet potatoes, tomatoes and avocados. Turkeys, chickens, and rabbits are also available foods in this region. In ancient times, Maya women wore cotton blouses called huipiles and wrap-around skirts. Men wore loin cloths and cotton capes draped over the shoulders. Many Maya women today still wear huipiles and wrap-around skirts, while most men wear jeans and t-shirts. There is no single Maya language, but there are twenty-one related languages. Guatemalan Children; photographs by Margot Schevill EXPLORE THE CULTURES OF THE WORLD
  17. 17. 17 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Maya Huipiles A huipil (we-peel) is a type of blouse worn by Highland Maya women in Guatemala. A huipil is a rectangular piece of cloth with a hole in the center for one’s head. A design is woven onto the portions of the cloth that are visible when the huipil is worn over the shoulders. Most women wear wrap-around skirts without waistbands; the huipil is tucked in and held in place with a belt. Women weave huipiles for themselves and for their relatives. Sometimes women make them for other women in their village or for sale. It takes a long time to make a huipil. Huipiles are made out of cotton. In the past, the Highland Maya grew and harvested the cotton themselves, then spun and dyed the thread to prepare it for weaving. Today, Maya women purchase factory-spun cotton yarn. Women weave the yarn into huipiles using a backstrap loom. They use the loom by wrapping a strap around their hips and attaching the other end to a tree or a post. The designs they produce are very intricate and show the weaver’s skill, so it takes a long time to weave them as well. Since the loom produces a narrow strip of cloth, women must weave several strips and sew them together. Finally, the huipil is completed. Sacatepéquez, Guatemala; photographs by Margot Schevill HUIPILES AND THE HIGHLAND MAYA OF GUATEMALA
  18. 18. 18 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology At one time, each community or language-group made its own specific huipil designs. Without saying a word, a woman’s huipil could tell you which community she came from. Huipil designs can include geometric shapes, stars and suns, and natural objects such as flowers, birds, and butterflies. Since the Highland Maya make their living by farming, natural symbols like the sun are very important to them. The huipil designs may have religious meaning as well. The head hole may represent the sun and the center of the universe. When a woman puts on her huipil, she places herself in the center of that universe, surrounded by symbols of her family and community — in short, the symbols that are important to her and to her culture. Highland Maya women continue to make and wear huipiles and other traditional clothes, called traje (trah-hey), today, even with the availability of European-style clothing. Thousands of Highland Maya people were affected by the civil wars in Guatemala that lasted from 1960 to 1996. The Guatemalan army killed many Mayan people who were thought to be helping the rebels. In the 1980s, the army targeted women wearing huipiles with symbols that associated them with communities where the army thought rebels were based. To protect themselves, many Maya women disguised the symbols on their huipiles so that the army could not tell which communities they were from. Close-up of a huipil from The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology’s collection; Photograph by Sarah Philbrick HUIPILES AND THE HIGHLAND MAYA OF GUATEMALA
  19. 19. 19 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Huipiles from The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology’s collection; photographs by Sarah Philbrick Some examples of Maya Huipiles from the Haffenreffer Museum’s collection HUIPILES AND THE HIGHLAND MAYA OF GUATEMALA
  20. 20. 20 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology HUIPILES AND THE HIGHLAND MAYA OF GUATEMALA One type of loom that Highland Maya women use to weave huipiles. The country in Central America where many Highland Maya live. (we-peel) A woman’s blouse that is worn by the Highland Maya in Guatemala. (trah-hey) The name for traditional clothing worn by the Highland Maya in Guatemala. Backstrap loom Guatemala Huipil Traje VOCABULARY
  21. 21. 21 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Internet Resources Traje en Guatemala http://www.rutahsa.com/traje.html This web page, authored by Janie and Ric Finch, contains photographs and information about traje and huipiles worn by the Highland Maya. Books For Students Abuela’s Weave By Omar Castaneda Lee & Low Books, 1995 Reading level: Ages 4-8 Guatemala Rainbow by Gain Vecchiato Pomegranate, 1990 Reading level: Ages 4-8 Hands of the Maya: Villagers at Work and Play by Rachel Crandell Henry Holt & Company, Inc, 2002 Reading level: Ages 4-8 Guatemala: A Question and Answer Book By Mary Englar Capstone Press, 2005 Reading level: Ages 9-12 Guatemala: Land of the Maya By Nancy Johnson Black and Mary C. Turck Discovering Our Heritage Series Dillon Press, 1999 Reading level: Ages 9-12 HUIPILES AND THE HIGHLAND MAYA OF GUATEMALA — RESOURCES
  22. 22. 22 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology For Teachers Costume as Communication: Ethnographic Costumes and Textiles from Middle America and the Central Andes of South America By Margot Blum Schevill Bristol, RI: Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology, 1986. Maya Textiles of Guatemala By Margot Blum Schevill Austin, University of Texas Press, 1993 Textile Traditions of Mesoamerica and the Andes Edited by Margot Blum Schevill, Janet Catherine Berlo, and Edward B. Dwyer Austin, University of Texas Press, 1996 HUIPILES AND THE HIGHLAND MAYA OF GUATEMALA — RESOURCES
  23. 23. 23 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Paj Ntaub and the Hmong of China and Southeast Asia About the Hmong Hmong means“free man”or“free people” in the Hmong language. The Hmong live in mountainous areas of Southeast Asia, primarily in China, Laos, North Vietnam, and Thailand. It is thought that the Hmong originally came from Mongolia, Siberia or Tibet, and lived in China for almost 3,000 years. The Hmong were persecuted in China, and so many of them left for the highlands of Laos and Vietnam. At the beginning of the 20th century, some moved in to the highlands of Thailand. In the 1960s and 1970s, the Laotian civil war and the Vietnam War disrupted their home life. During the Vietnam War, many Hmong fought alongside the United States against the Communists. When the Communists took control of Laos in 1975, many Hmong had to flee into Thailand by crossing the Mekong River. They stayed in refugee camps in Thailand, and many later came to live in the United States. Others went to Australia, Europe, and French Guyana. Some Hmong settled in Providence, Rhode Island. In Southeast Asia, the Hmong use“slash-and-burn”agriculture, clearing the land for farming by cutting down trees and burning them. The Hmong grow rice, yams, potatoes, corn, and squash. They also grow hemp and cotton for textiles. The Hmong typically live in small villages, made up of approximately 8 families or households, although these households are quite large — some can have as many as 50 people! Entire villages move every few years since slash-and-burn agriculture quickly strips the soil of its nutrients. Hmong, Rhode Island; photograph by Patricia Symonds Hmong Hill Tribe, Thailand; photograph by Professors Douglas and Wanni Anderson EXPLORE THE CULTURES OF THE WORLD
  24. 24. 24 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Paj Ntaub:“Flower Cloth”or Story Cloth Hmong women are very skilled at needlework or embroidery. For centuries the women made all of their family’s cloth and embroidered them with beautiful colors. All of the needlework was called paj ntaub or pa ndhau (pandow) — literally“flower cloth”. These textiles traditionally had geometric designs or spirals, which expressed the religious beliefs of the Hmong. When they became refugees in Thailand they also began to sew cloth with stories or myths from Hmong history. These can be called story cloths. They are important to the Hmong because the Hmong had no written language until the 1950s, and relied on oral histories passed down from generation to generation. When they became refugees, they began to sew story cloths to preserve and share history. Hmong women, and more recently men, draw a picture on the cloth with the story that the embroiderer wants to tell. The embroiderer then sews brightly-colored thread into the fabric, transforming the drawn design into a brilliantly colored image. The stories on these cloths relate to Hmong culture. Some depict myths and their creation legends. Others show festivals, ceremonies, or scenes from Hmong daily life. After the Hmong migrated to Thailand, many of the refugees in camps began making a new kind of paj ntaub. These story cloths told the story of the war as experienced by the Hmong and their migration into Thailand. In this way, the Hmong preserved their culture by recording their experiences on their story cloths. Flower Cloths, Laos, 1985-1986 PAJ NTAUB AND THE HMONG OF CHINA AND SOUTHEAST ASIA
  25. 25. 25 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Evacuation Story, Laos, 1985-1986 Tiger Story, Laos, 1985-1986 Left: Ly Plia working on applique in her yard in South Providence, 1979 Right: Hmong women creating flower cloths in Providence PAJ NTAUB AND THE HMONG OF CHINA AND SOUTHEAST ASIA
  26. 26. 26 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology PAJ NTAUB AND THE HMONG — VOCABULARY Someone who does embroidery. Detailed stitches on fabric. This means“free man”or“free people.”The Hmong live in mountainous areas in Southeast Asia, primarily China, Laos, North Vietnam, and Thailand. Many live in the United States, including Providence, Rhode Island. Meaning“flower cloth.”These are the textiles that the Hmong make and embroider with symbols of their culture or to tell a story. A method used to clear the land for farming by cutting the trees down and then burning them. A word for cloth made by weaving or knitting. Embroiderer Embroidery Hmong Paj Ntaub “Slash-and- burn” Textile VOCABULARY
  27. 27. 27 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Internet Resources Hmong Needlework: Traditions Both Ancient and New http://www.womenfolk.com/quilting_history/hmong.htm This site explains the history of the Hmong and the story cloths. Books For Students Nine-In-One Grr! Grr!: A Folktale from the Hmong People of Laos by Blia Xiong with Nancy Hom (Illustrator) Children’s Book Press 1989 Reading level: Ages 4-8 Dai’s Story Cloth by Dai HCA with Chile Tahoe HCA (Illustrator), Nhia Thao Cha (Illustrator), Chue Cha (Illustrator), and Nhia Thao Cha (Illustrator) Lee & Low Books, 1998 Reading level: Ages 4-8 The Whispering Cloth: A Refugee’s Story By Pegi Dietz Shea with Anita Riggio (Illustrator) and You Yang (Ilustrator) Boyds Mills Press, 1996 Reading level: Ages 4-8 Hmong of Southeast Asia By Sandra Millett Lerner Publications, 2001 Reading level: Ages 9-12 Tangled Threads: A Hmong Girl’s Story By Pegi Dietz Shea Clarion Books, 2003 Reading level: Ages 9-12 PAJ NTAUB AND THE HMONG — REFERENCES
  28. 28. 28 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology For Teachers Hmong Means Free: Life in Laos and America By Sucheng Chan Temple University Press, 1994 The Transition of Hmong Immigrants to the United States: Oral Histories from Providence, Rhode Island By Jamie F. Metzl Brown University, 1986 PAJ NTAUB AND THE HMONG — REFERENCES
  29. 29. 29 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Cradleboards and the Kiowa and Comanche Peoples of the Southern Plains, USA About the Kiowa and Comanche Although many Kiowa and Comanche people live today in the Southern Plains of the United States, neither group started out there. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Kiowa lived in present-day Montana. They then moved to the Black Hills in South Dakota and into the Southern Plains — Oklahoma and Northern Texas — by the 1820s. The Comanche lived in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, along the Arkansas River. Kiowa and Comanche tribes were nomadic people and hunted bison as their primary food source. In 1867, the United States government assigned the Kiowa and Comanche people to a reservation in Southwestern Oklahoma. Their entire way of life changed. The government sent children to schools where they were not allowed to speak their own languages or dress in traditional ways. The government built houses for them instead of letting them live in tipis and they had to give up hunting bison to become farmers. The United States government closed the reservation in 1906, yet many Kiowa and Comanche people still live in the Southern Plains region. Cradles and Their Uses Many Native peoples in North America used cradleboards to hold their babies. Kiowa and Comanche men and women made beautiful lattice cradles for their babies. Many of the most highly decorated ones were made between 1870 and 1920. Men made the frames for the cradles, but the women, who made the beaded covers, were considered the cradle makers due to the long hours of work that they spent on the beadwork. Two long boards formed the base of the cradle frames. These were held in a Left: Vanessa Paukeigope Jennings, Kiowa, Oklahoma Above: American Buffalo or Bison EXPLORE THE CULTURES OF THE WORLD
  30. 30. 30 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology “V”shape by two cross pieces of wood. A piece of rawhide filled the gap in the middle of the “V”. Another curved rawhide piece was put on the frame above the baby’s head to protect it, and another was set below the baby’s feet to support them. The cradle maker covered the rawhide with animal hide, canvas, or wool to hold the baby. Women lined the inside with materials such as moss to cushion the baby and act as a diaper, which they would change when necessary. Women carried the cradleboard on their backs or in their arms, or hung it from a saddle pommel if they were riding a horse. It could stand upright or be hung from a tree branch while the mother was working. In this way, babies could be kept safe while their mothers traveled or worked. Babies typically spent much of their time in cradleboards, from the time they were born until they learned to walk. Left: Vanessa Paukeigope Jennings and her son, Kiowa, Oklahoma CRADLEBOARDS AND THE KIOWA AND COMANCHE PEOPLES
  31. 31. 31 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology The Meanings of Cradles Creating and giving a cradle was a very special act. Not every baby had a cradleboard. Not every woman did beadwork, and only some of those women made cradles. Kiowa families would sometimes give a cradleboard to an auday, a specially favored child who was usually the eldest child or first grandchild. Before making a cradleboard, family members would give thanks for their new baby and for the materials they used to make it. Women known for their bead work passed their skills down on to their daughters, granddaughters, nieces and cousins. Cradle makers sewed tiny beads onto the outsides of the cradle covers, using as many as four different stitches to decorate their surfaces with geometric or natural designs. A leaf was one of the most common Kiowa designs, but each bead worker created her own distinctive designs, which no one else would copy without permission. Comanche cradle makers often painted or incised designs on their cradle sticks. Some designs have special meanings, representing protection or origin. The intricate beadwork on the cradles testifies to the high value that Kiowa and Comanche men and women placed on their children. For the Kiowa and Comanche, the lattice cradle symbolizes the arrival of a new life. The Kiowa and Comanche started decorating cradles in the mid-nineteenth century, just as they were experiencing the difficult transition to reservation life and its many changes in their culture. Cradles symbolized a family identity and a connection to the past for many Kiowa and Comanche, and continue to do so today. Above: Kiowa woman from Vanessa Jennings Collection Left: Kiowa Cradle now at Gilcrease Museum, Tulsa, Oklahoma. CRADLEBOARDS AND THE KIOWA AND COMANCHE PEOPLES
  32. 32. 32 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Cradleboards Today Non-native collectors bought cradleboards from Kiowa and Comanche families in the early twentieth century. Times were difficult, so many families sold their cradles for cash. Many cradleboards are now owned by museums like the Haffenreffer Museum or by private collectors. Some Kiowa and Comanche female and male artists make cradles today, decorating them with beads and other materials. Families still use cradles for their children on special occasions such as family photographs. Many Kiowa and Comanche families share stories about the cradleboards that their grandmothers or great-grandmothers produced and still remember the names of cradle makers from earlier generations. Left: Lattice cradle, Kiowa, made by Daisy Mattonsaw (1871-1943), Oklahoma, 1880s Center and Right: Lattice cradle, Kiowa, made by Vanessa Paukeigope Jennings in 1998 CRADLEBOARDS AND THE KIOWA AND COMANCHE PEOPLES
  33. 33. 33 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology CRADLEBOARDS AND THE KIOWA AND COMANCHE — VOCABULARY A specially favored child, usually the eldest child or the first grandchild. The primary traditional food source for the Kiowa, Comanche and other Plains Native Peoples. Many Americans refer to bison as buffalo. Used by many Native people who lived on the Great Plains to carry their babies. Kiowa and Comanche women who embroidered cradleboards with beads. A type of cradleboard used by the Kiowa and Comanche between in the 19th and early 20th centuries. A tract of land that the United States Government set aside for Native Americans. The United States Government assigned Native peoples like the Kiowa and Comanche to reservations in Oklahoma. A portable dwelling used by many Native peoples of the Great Plains. Auday Bison Cradleboards Cradle makers Lattice cradles Reservation Tipi VOCABULARY
  34. 34. 34 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Internet Resources Taking Care of Babies http://www.eiteljorg.org/ejm_PlanYourVisit/PDFs/Family_Adventures.pdf A lesson plan about Cradleboards by the Eiteljorg Museum of American Indians and Western Art. Books For Students A Ride on Mother’s Back: A Day of Baby Carrying around the World by Emery Bernhard with Drug Bernhard (Illustrator) Harcourt, 1996 Reading level: Ages 4-8 Ways of Carrying Babies By Bobbie Neate and Christopher Clark Longman, 1994 Reading level: Ages 4-8 For Teachers Gifts of Pride and Love: Kiowa and Comanche Cradles Edited by Barbara A. Hail Bristol, RI: Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology, 2000. CRADLEBOARDS AND THE KIOWA AND COMANCHE — RESOURCES
  35. 35. 35 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Content Objectives Language Objectives (for English Language Learners) Materials Educational Standards National Council for the Social Studies Rhode Island Department of Education Massachusetts Department of Education After investigating an art form in each culture, all students will be able to make connections between cultures and understand how similar different cultures can be. Students in grades five through eight will additionally investigate three cultures in depth and will understand how people’s ways of life can be determined by available resources. All students will be able to orally discuss their own works of art to the class. Students in grades five through eight will be able to research, write, and give an oral presentation about the content. World map, map of the United States, map pins, photocopies of huipil outline, photocopies of cradleboard outline, 11X17 cardstock, markers, crayons, glue, beads, writing paper or blue books, pencils. I. Culture Standards a, b, c, d, e II. Time, Continuity and Change Standard e III. People, Places, and Environments Standards a, b, h VIII. Science, Technology, and Society Standards a, b IV. Individual Development and Identity Standard e IX. Global Connections Standard a Civics & Government: C&G5(K-6)-1; C&G5(K-6)-2 Historical Perspectives: HP1(K-8)-1; HP2(5-8)-1; HP2(K-4)-3 Engineering and Technology: ET1.1(K-8); ET1.2(K-4) Reading: (if“Three Objects, Three Cultures”is assigned as a reading activity) (4-8) R-3; R-7; R-11; R-13 Writing: W(K-8)-1; W(K-8)-2; W(K-8)-8; W(K-8)-9; W(5-8)-10 Oral Communication: (K-8) OC-1; OC-2 Visual Arts & Design: VAD2(K-12)-1; VAD3(K-8)-1c,d; VAD3(3-8)-2 Social Science: 4.15AD, 5.6, SEAO.1, SEAO.2 Science and Technology (K-2): Life Sciences: 1, 6, 8 Science and Technology (Gr. 3-5): Life Sciences: 8&10 English Language Arts (Gr. K-8): General Standards 3, 8, 19, 23, 24 Arts (K-8): Visual Arts: 1.1, 1.2, 3.3, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.6 Lesson Plan Two: Three Objects, Three Cultures LESSON PLAN TWO
  36. 36. 36 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology LESSON PLAN TWO ELP Standard 1: (Gr. 1-2) Listening: Following Directions, level 3&4; (Gr. 3-5) Listening: Following Direction, level 3&4; (Gr. 6-8) Reading: Use of Multiple Resources, level 3&4; Speaking: Instructions/assignments, level 3&4; Social Interaction, level 3 ELP Standard 2: (Gr. 3-5) Writing: Editing and Revising, level 3, 4, 5; (Gr. 6-8) Writing: Editing, level 3&4 ELP Standard 4: (Gr. K) Writing: Colors, level 3&4 ELP Standard 5: (Gr. K) Speaking: Clothing, level 3; (Gr. 3-5) Speaking: Maps & Globes/Locations, level 3; Writing: Communities & Regions, level 3, 4, 5; (Gr. 6-8) Listening: Maps, level 3. WIDA Consortium standards for English Language Learners:
  37. 37. 37 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Activity One: Readings Depending on the reading levels of the students in your class, you may choose to use the previous readings as information for yourself to present to the class. You may also use the readings as shared, group, or independent reading exercises. One option is to break the class up into teams of four to five students. Make each team responsible for reading one cultural section. Each team will then discuss their reading and list key points to present to the class. Activity Two: Locating the Three Cultures on a Map • As a class, have students locate Guatemala on a classroom map. Ask them to identify the mountains where the Highland Maya live. • Ask students to locate China, Laos, North Vietnam, and Thailand on a map. Ask them to locate Mongolia, Siberia and Tibet, where the Hmong came from. Have them recall when the Hmong lived in this area. • Ask them to locate the Mekong River on the border between Laos and Thailand. Have them recall when the Hmong left Laos for Thailand and why. • The Kiowa and Comanche lived in many different places in the western United States. Using a map of the United States or a map of the western United States, have your students find Montana, where the Kiowa originally lived. Then have them find South Dakota and the Black Hills. • To show your students where the Comanche lived, have them find the Rocky Mountains and Colorado. Have them recall when the Kiowa and Comanche lived in the northern and western Plains. • See if they can find where the Arkansas River is in the mountains in Colorado. Next, have them find Oklahoma. Have them find where the reservation was in Oklahoma on the classroom map. Explain that although the reservation ended in 1906, many Kiowa and Comanche people still live in the same lands allotted to them there. • Mark these locations on your classroom map with pins so students can refer to the map throughout this lesson. LESSON PLAN TWO — TEACHER INSTRUCTIONS
  38. 38. 38 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Activity Three: Design Your Own Huipil, Story Cloth, or Cradle Design For this exercise, students can choose which object they want to make. If your class worked in groups for the readings, you may wish to keep students in those groups for this activity. Huipil option Draw the outline of a huipil on a sheet of paper. Make one photocopy for each student making a huipil. Have students research some of the designs on traditional Mayan huipiles in books and on the internet. Using paper and markers, have students draw their own huipil designs based on their research. Students can also create their own symbols. Have students share their designs with the class and have them explain the significance of their chosen symbols. Story cloth option Have students research some of the histories and stories depicted on Hmong story cloths. Many images of story cloths can be found with an internet image search of“Hmong story cloths.” Students should also talk to their parents or caretakers about their own families’stories or histories. Then, based on what they have learned about the histories on Hmong story cloths, have students use large pieces of paper and markers or crayons to create their own story cloths about a part of their own or their family’s history. Some possible ideas include their family’s migration to the United States or a move to a new city or state, how their parents or grandparents met, or scenes from their daily life. Alternately, just as Hmong story cloths depict stories or myths, students could depict their own myths or stories on their story cloth (i.e. how the leopard got its spots, a story about a special day, etc.). Have students share their stories with the class. Cradleboard option Draw an outline of a cradle from the side. Make a copy for each student making a cradleboard. Have students research symbols and common colors used in Kiowa and Comanche cradleboards. They can find photographs in books or on the internet. Using markers, crayons, and even some beads to glue on, have students design their own cradleboards. They can also create their own symbols. Have students share their designs and explain the significance of their chosen symbols to the class. Larger cradle and huipil outlines are available at the end of this Activities section. LESSON PLAN TWO — TEACHER INSTRUCTIONS
  39. 39. 39 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Activity Four (for grades 5-8): Research on the Regions Keeping the teams from Session One, have students research the climate and resources available to the three cultures: Assign a team to research the climate of Highland Guatemala and find out what resources the Maya obtain from their environment to make food, clothing, and their homes. Assign a team to research the climate of the mountainous areas of China, Laos, North Vietnam, and Thailand. Have them find out what resources were available to the Hmong in their homelands. Assign a team to research why the Kiowa and Comanche moved from their northern homes to the southern Plains in the 1800s. Have them find out what resources were available in the north and what resources were available in the southern Plains. Each student will write an essay about their topic. Have students switch papers for peer editing. Each team will present their findings to the class. LESSON PLAN TWO — TEACHER INSTRUCTIONS
  40. 40. 40 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Activity Five: Making Connections Discuss with your class the connections between these three objects/cultures. Although each culture has a different form of art, each form served the purpose of communication. Each used symbols to tell a story or to convey meaning, i.e. although Maya women have access to contemporary clothing like t-shirts, many choose to continue to make and wear huipiles because they believe it is important to communicate their identities. The Hmong women traditionally embroidered on clothing, but when they were in refugee camps, they started making story cloths to record their history and past ways of life. Although Kiowa and Comanche women may use contemporary baby strollers for daily use, many still make traditional and decorative cradle boards for use on special occasions. This serves to continue a tradition and to communicate their heritage. It attests to the special treatment of babies in their culture. Discuss how each object is both utilitarian and aesthetic, i.e. huipiles are clothing but also have decorative weaving and embroidery; Hmong story cloths are forms of record-keeping and story telling but are also embroidered works of art; Kiowa and Comanche cradleboards were used to carry babies while keeping a woman’s arms free, but they are also works of art with intricate beadwork. Discuss how identity plays a role in the designs, symbolism, media, and colors used in each object. Have your students bring or wear an article of clothing that they feel expresses their culture or identity. Ask them to show the example to the class or a small group and describe why it is important to them. Have students discuss ways in which they record their history or stories, i.e. journals, diaries, letters to friends, blogs, twitters, or through painting, drawing, or sketching, etc. Have students ask their parents or guardians what was used to carry or hold them. Why did their parents use the baby carriers that they chose? (For instance, did they look for the safest car seat? Did they use a cradle that had been passed down in the family?) How did these change as they grew? LESSON PLAN TWO — TEACHER INSTRUCTIONS • • • •
  41. 41. Teachers: Enlarge by 162% on 11x17 paper Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology
  42. 42. Teachers:Enlargeby140%on11x17paper HaffenrefferMuseumofAnthropology
  43. 43. 43 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Content Objectives Language Objectives (for English Language Learners) Materials Educational Standards National Council for the Social Studies Rhode Island Department of Education Massachusetts Department of Education Students will learn to question stereotypes. By studying cultures in depth, students will gain tolerance and respect for classmates and people in their communities. Students will understand the term stereotype. Students in grades four through eight will be able to interview, take notes, research, and write a report. Photographs of stereotypes used in the media, photographs of peo- ple from around the world, drawing paper, pencils, crayons or mark- ers, recorders for interview (optional), blue books or paper. I. Culture Standards a, b, c, d, e II. Time, Continuity and Change Standard e IV. Individual Development and Identity Standards e, g IX. Global Connections Standard a Civics & Government: C&G5(K-6)-2 Historical Perspectives: HP2(5-8)-1; HP3(K-8)-2 Reading: (K-8) R-3; R-7; R-11; R-13 Writing: (K-8) W-1; W-2; W-3; W-6; W-7; W-8; W-9; W-10; W-11 Oral Communication: (K-8) OC-1; OC-2 Visual Arts & Design: VAD2(K-12)-1; VAD3(K-8)-1c,d; VAD3(3-8)-2 Dance: D2(6-8)-1 Music: M2(6-8)-1; M2(K-12)-2 Theater: T2(6-8)-1 Social Science: 1.9, 2.7, 2.8, 4.15, 4.16 English Language Arts (Gr. K-8): General Standards 3, 8, 19, 23, 24 Arts (K-8): Visual Arts: 1.1, 1.2, 3.3, 4.1, 4.2, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.6; Dance: 1.14, 3.6, 3.7, 4.5, 5.1; Music: 1.8, 3.9, 5.7; Theatre: 2.7, 3.2 This lesson plan is designed to help you recapitulate with your students the main ideas in the Culture Con- nect program. Lesson Plan Three: Further Explorations LESSON PLAN THREE
  44. 44. 44 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology WIDA Consortium standards for English Language Learners: ELP Standard 1: (Gr. 1-2) Listening: Following Directions, level 3&4; (Gr. 3-5) Listening: Following Direction, level 3&4; (Gr. 6-8) Reading: Use of Multiple Resources, level 3&4; Speaking: Instructions/assignments, level 3&4; Social Interaction, level 3 ELP Standard 4: (Gr. K) Writing: Colors, level 3&4 LESSON PLAN THREE
  45. 45. 45 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Activity One: A Discussion About Stereotypes The most important lesson students can take home with them after learning about the many cultures discussed in the Museum’s Culture Connect CaraVan program is that all people around the world are alike in that they need the same things for survival, and all people obtain and do those things differently based on their cultures. It is never too early to help students learn to tolerate and respect cultural differences, and to learn to recognize a stereotype. Gather magazine images or locate images on the internet from movies, television, cartoons, toys, and other consumer products that promote stereotypes, like this cigar store Indian once did. Ask your students what they think of when they see these images. Do they have a pre-conceived image in their minds when they hear“Indian”(Native American),“Asian,”“Hispanic,”“white,”or“African”? Ask them to draw and discuss in groups how they came up with these images. Find images of people on the internet that would challenge your students’pre-conceived ideas. Did your students laugh or say“gross”when they learned about a particular cultural practice during their studies (an example might be body tattooing)? Have students research that cultural practice further and have a class discussion about it. (Why do people have body tattoos? Does it have special meaning/significance? Is it for special ceremonies? Is it a form of beautification?) In your class discussion, connect the practice with something similar in American culture. (Do some Americans get tattoos? Why? What other things do we do to express meaning to others? Do we wear t-shirts or jewelry with symbols or phrases that tell others something about our personality? Do we wear special clothing or ornamentation when we go to church, funerals, weddings, or other ceremonies? What do we do to make ourselves“beautiful”?) Cigar Store Indian, 19th Century; Haffenreffer collections, photograph by Sarah Philbrick LESSON PLAN THREE — TEACHER INSTRUCTIONS • • • • •
  46. 46. 46 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Would someone from another culture laugh at something we do? How does it make us feel when someone laughs at us or calls us“weird,”“different,”or“gross”? Have a class discussion about the importance in having a deeper understanding of a person’s culture rather than making a quick judgment based on a stereotype. For example, discuss the difference between a stereotype of an“Indian”with the understanding of an aspect of Kiowa and Comanche culture. Use cultures examined in this packet and in the CaraVan program in your discussion. Lead the discussion so that students understand that having a deeper understanding of a culture can help them see the similarities and differences with their own cultures. Understanding cultural connections will better prepare them to appreciate rather than fear differences. Activity Two (for grades 4-8): Cultures in My Community Have your students research the cultures in their communities by interviewing community members. For Rhode Island, this might include the Cape Verdean, Narragansett, Wampanoag, Portuguese, Irish, or French Canadian communities, among many others. You can have your students work in teams or individually. Students may use recorders if available or take notes. Use the interview sheet on the following page as a guide. Fancy Shawl Dancers at Mashpee, Massachusetts; photograph by Rip Gerry • • LESSON PLAN THREE — TEACHER INSTRUCTIONS
  47. 47. 47 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Cultures in My Communitiy Name:___________________________ Date:_____________ Assignment: Interview someone who lives in your community who participates in a culture other than your own. On a separate sheet of paper, write your own interview questions. Use the questions below to guide you. Possible Interview Questions: What is life like for a child in your culture? Are there traditional games, stories, and toys? Does your family cook or buy traditional foods? What are they? Is it easy to find the ingredients for those foods in your neighborhood? Do you or anyone in your family wear clothing that represents your culture? What are they? What celebrations or holidays does your family observe? Are there other people in your neighborhood that share the same culture? Have you faced discrimination when practicing aspects of your culture? Do people of other cultures in your neighborhood welcome you? Are there aspects of your culture that your parents or grandparents practice that you no longer practice? Why? After your interview: Go to the library and research further about the person’s culture. What did you find out in your research about this culture? Based on your research, are there other questions you would like to ask this person? Your report to your teacher should include (1) your interview questions, (2) your interview notes, (3) an essay about your background research, (4) your bibliography. Bonus: Interview a second person and compare the experiences of the two people. Are there similarities and differences between the two cultures? Are there similarities and differences between each person’s experiences? LESSON PLAN THREE — STUDENT HANDOUT
  48. 48. 48 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Research Topic Research and Questions Dance Take a dance class or watch a performance. Research books in the library. How was the movement similar or different from what you are used to? Are there certain dances for certain occasions in this culture? What special clothing is worn / special music is played for this type of dance? Food Find a new recipe or take a cooking class of a food from a culture other than your own. Research the ingredients. Where can they be found? Is this recipe prepared for special occasions or is it a common meal? How was the food prepared traditionally and how is it prepared today? Share the recipe with your classmates and bring sample ingredients to school. Ask your teacher if there are concerns with food allergies before having your class- mates try any food. Religion Research another religion. Attend a service, but ask for permission first. How are the services structured? What do people wear? Who leads the service? What is proper behavior? Are there restrictions to who can attend? Ask if you can take photographs, or find photographs in books. Bring the photographs to school and share what you learned with your class. Sports / Games Research or watch a sport or game played by people from a culture other than your own. When is the sport or game played? Who can play it? What are the rules? Are there spectators? What is appropriate behavior for a spec- tator? How is the winner determined? Bring photographs to school to share with your class. Activity Five (for grades 6-8): Exploring Aspects of Culture An advanced assignment will give students their choice of a research topic. Have your students research their favorite aspect of culture and give an oral and visual report to the class. For example, a student that studies ballet might research a type of dance from another culture. That student can even take a dance class and use that experience in his/her report. A student who loves to read can read a book by an author from another culture. A student who likes sports can research a cultural sport unfamiliar to him/her. A student of art can research an artist and visit a local art museum. Some examples are given below with suggested research questions. There are endless possibilities, so feel free to come up with your own or invite your students to develop their own topics. LESSON PLAN THREE — TEACHER INSTRUCTIONS
  49. 49. 49 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Literature / Oral Story- telling Read a fiction book written by an author from a culture other than your own. Research information about the author. How is the author’s culture appar- ent in the work? You may choose instead to watch and interview a story- teller. Are there clues to other cultural aspects such as food, ceremonies, or daily life in the story? Bring the book, or photographs of the storyteller, to school and share with your class. Family Life Visit a family or research family life in another culture. How is the family structured? Do males and females, adults and children have different roles in the household? Are there expected customs when guests arrive? What is daily life like? Bring photographs to school and share with your class. Music Check out a CD from the library or attend a performance of music from a culture other than your own. What kinds of instruments are played? What is the music like? Are there certain forms of dance that accompany the mu- sic? Are traditional and modern pieces both included in the performance? Does the artist create new works using traditional instruments? Have the instruments been altered to make a modern sound? You may need to also research the instruments in the library or online to find these answers. Bring music or a video sample and photographs to school and share what you learned with your class. Visual Art (painting, pottery, other crafts) Attend a workshop to make a craft from a culture other than your own. You may choose to instead visit a museum to study a cultural artifact or modern work of art of an artist from a culture other than your own. What medium is used? What colors are used? How are the pigments made? How are the pigments applied? Are there colors and symbols that portray meaning? Re- search the background of the artist or craft at the library and on the internet. Is the craft or piece purely aesthetic or utilitarian? Bring the craft you made, or a photograph or sketch of the work of art you studied to school and share with the class. Clothing Research clothing styles from a culture other than your own. Try to visit a museum that has examples of clothing. What materials were traditionally used to make clothing? How did the people traditionally obtain the materi- als? Are different materials used now? How have styles changed over time? Do males and females, adults and children wear different styles? What sym- bols are used on the clothing? Are there different styles for everyday and ceremonial wear? Bring a photograph or sketch to school and share with your class. LESSON PLAN THREE — TEACHER INSTRUCTIONS
  50. 50. 50 BROWN The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Acknowledgements Project Director — Geralyn Hoffman, Curator of Programs and Education, Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology These materials were written by Marion Wingfield, Curator of Programs and Education (2005) and Geralyn Hoffman, Curator of Programs and Education (2010) Edited by Kevin P. Smith, Deputy Director, Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Special editing thank yous to Barbara Hail, Curator Emerita, at the Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology, for the“Cradleboards and the Kiowa and Comanche Peoples of the Southern Plains” section; Dr. Patricia Symonds, Brown University, Department of Anthropology, for the“Paj Ntaub and the Hmong of Southeast Asia”section; and Margot Schevill, Museum Anthropologist, for the“Huipil and the Highland Maya of Guatemala”section. Graphic Design and Illustrations by Sarah Philbrick, Graphics Coordinator, Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Photography coordination by Rip Gerry Photo Archivist, Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Evaluation We welcome questions and comments. Teacher feedback on the use of these materials in the class room is appreciated. Please email us at haffenrefferprograms@brown.edu. Creative Commons Attribution This publication may be copied or reproduced without prior permission when used for educational purposes. Please attribute the work to the Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc- nd/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 2010 The Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology 300 Tower Street Bristol, RI 02809 401-253-8388 www.brown.edu/Haffenreffer

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