Welcome to the presentation on the new Work at Height Regulations Introduction – I am [insert name] from [insert organisation]. My back ground is [insert information]. The presentation will last approximately 30 minutes. If you have any questions during the presentation please keep a note of them as there is time at the end for these. I may not be able to answer all of your questions today, but I will forward information for those that I cannot answer to you by [insert date].
[OPTIONAL SLIDE] The aim of the Falls Programme is to deliver the Public Service Agreement which is set by the Government. Putting together the WAHR forms part of this. The main PSA target that we work to is to reduce the number of of deaths and major injuries at work by 10% by 2010. There are specific targets for the programme within that overarching aim. We are moving towards a project based and much more targeted approach. We are continuing to research on why people fall and where this is most likely to happen. We are then targeting these areas and working with employers, employees and representative bodies to help them improve safety. Where necessary we are using inspectors to target visits and “blitz” particular areas. The construction and transport sectors continue to take a great deal of our focus. We are also looking to work with people in the caretaker sector to increase awareness of work at height issues, and we have recently put some information on a website which is well used by people in this sector. We are planning to work with the facilities management sector as this is a growth area with an expanding workforce. We are interested in working with companies within this area on safe systems of work. We are also planning to improve awareness of work at height issues in the mechanical and electrical maintenance sectors. For example, we are working with EEF to help them update their work at height fact sheets.
The presentation will cover; Background - The background to the Regulations, where they came from, why have Regulations? Scope - What is work at height. Who and what is covered by the Regulations. Managing risks – What duty holders need to do. The hierarchy. Selecting the right equipment – How to make sure that the equipment selected is safe and fit for purpose. Other Requirements – What else needs to be considered or put in place to ensure people work at height safely.
Falls from height are the biggest work place killer. There were 67 fatalities in 2003/04. A significant proportion of these were falls from ladders. [How many are there.] Traditionally falls make up the second biggest cause of major accidents. There were almost 4000 in 2003/04. The majority of major injuries were caused by low falls. Again, a significant proportion of these were falls from ladders.[How many are there?] [Insert further information or sector specific statistics of interest to the audience see link below for background.] http://www.hse.gov.uk/statistics/index.htm
In 2001 the European Union adopted the Temporary Work at Height Directive (2001/45/EC) which was the 2 nd amendment to the Use of Work Equipment Directive (1989/655/EEC) and set out minimum health and safety requirements for the safe use of work equipment, when working at height. The Health and Safety Commission is responsible for introducing legislation to implement this Directive and has taken this opportunity to consolidate its requirements with existing Regulations on work at height. The Work at Height Regulations (WAHR) are goal setting and risk based and seek to maintain and improve current standards. They bring together duties from; The Workplace Regulations 1992, The Construction (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1996, The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998,
The Regulations were consulted upon during 2004 including a focused consultation on retaining the requirements for particular precautions for construction work at or above 2mtrs. [It may be appropriate to discuss the 2 metre rule and why it was not retained.The main points are; The TWAH Directive and the Work at Height Regulation makes no reference to any specific height. The 2-metre rule has been misrepresented – the Construction Regulations say that suitable and sufficient steps shall be taken , s. f.a.i.r.p., to prevent any person falling’ – 2 metres applied only where particular work equipment should be used. In fact several fatal and two thirds of major injury accidents occur at heights below two metres and it is important that action is taken to stop them. ] The Regulations have been in force since 6 April 2005. There is no transitional period as the regulations consolidate what should be existing good practice. However it is understood that industry will need to familiarise themselves with the regulations and ensure that what they do is sufficient to comply. There is no Approved Code of Practice (ACOP) produced for the new Regulations. HSE are taking a different approach to communicate the Regulations. This is based on A Brief Guide to the Regulations and promoting sector specific guidance. More on this later.
In this part of the presentation we will look more closely at the Work at Height Regulations, Who is covered, The arrangements you should have in place for work at height, The hierarchy for controlling the risk form work at height; avoid work at height where possible, prevent falls where work must take place at height and minimise the consequences of a possible fall. We will also look at the selection of the right work equipment and what other precautions that may need to be taken when planning or working at height. And finally, some key messages from HSE about the Regulations and their affect on the work place.
Scope - The Work at Height Regulations cover work in any place from which a person could fall a distance liable to cause personal injury. Potentially anyone at work can work at height at some stage of their tasks. Some work at height is more obvious, for example a steeplejack on top of a chimney or window cleaners in a cradle. Others less so, for example librarians using a kick stool, or someone loading or unloading a vehicle. The Regulations also cover access to and egress from the place of work and work at or below ground level where there is a risk of a fall, so miners working underground are included in the Regulations, provided there is risk of a fall. It does not include falls on permanent stairways or slips and trips on the level. As these are covered in Management (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations.
The Regulations cover all industries and work activities where work at height is involved [except those paid to lead or train others in climbing or caving, where separate arrangements are to be made]. This includes construction work, agriculture, manufacturing, maintenance, retail, entertainment etc. Duty holders in the regulations include employers, the self-employed and persons in control of people at work to the extent of their control. For example [insert example/ case study relevant to audience]. There are also specific duties placed on employees to use equipment provided in accordance with the training received and the instructions given. To report any defect or activity that is likely to endanger the safety of the employee or another person.
All work at height should be properly planned and appropriately supervised. This includes planning for an emergency or rescue should the need occur. Generally, you should take sensible precautions to protect against bad weather. However, work at height should not be carried out when weather conditions might endanger health and safety. This could be in high winds or where low temperatures make surfaces slippery. The emergency services are excluded from this part of the Regulations, although they must still do what they reasonably can to protect their employees. Those working at height should be competent to do so or if being trained they should be supervised by a competent person. There is no definition of “competent” in the Regulations. However a competent person would generally be expected to have had the right level of , formal training, experience, and/ or instruction for them to be able to do their job to the level of responsibility required. Competence also includes involvement in organisation, planning, supervision, and the supply and maintenance of equipment.
Risk assessment – All work should be risk based, well organised and planned in advance. There is a requirement to complete a risk assessment for work at height. If you employ 5 or more persons you should keep a written record of this risk assessment. For many tasks your risk assessment might be simple and straightforward. For example it will often be enough to follow good practice for the task you are doing, e.g. using a kick stool. But in other case where what you are doing is more complicated a more detailed risk assessment might be needed. For further information, HSE has produced “5 steps to risk assessment” which is available from the HSE website.
Avoid – Prevent – Minimise risk – There is a simple hierarchy for managing and selecting equipment for work at height. Duty holders must: avoid work at height where they can; There are a number of things that can be put in place to avoid work at height, [provide examples that will fit audience e.g. installing adjustable lighting that can be lowered to ground level to change bulbs or maintain, use extension arms for cleaning windows, construct at ground level and move into position etc.] Prevent Falls This can be done through either using an existing place of work at height or an existing means of access, which has suitable and sufficient features to prevent a fall e.g. a sound, flat roof with parapets or guardrails. [provide a photographic example suitable for audience] Use work equipment or other measures to prevent falls where they cannot avoid working at height. For example install temporary guardrails around the roof edge to prevent falls. and
Where they cannot eliminate the risk of a fall, use work equipment or other measures to minimise the distance and consequences of a fall should one occur. For example install netting, use air bags or bean bags etc. The system should be designed and installed to minimise the height that a person could fall from. [again amend the above to give examples suitable for the audience.] If collective protection is not appropriate consider using personal protective equipment. For example rope systems [again, use relevant examples]. Other measures to prevent injury This will include instruction in safe working, information on the control measures in place and safe working practices, training in the required task and use of safety equipment provided.
This chart sets out what should be considered when selecting work equipment. Start by considering how a fall can be prevented using collective protection. If this is not reasonably practicable consider personal prevention equipment. Otherwise minimise the risk with collective equipment. If this is not reasonably practicable look at minimising the risk with personal equipment. Ladders, stilts etc come at the bottom of the hierarchy.
The Regulations require that duty holders consider the use of collective protection equipment before anything else. This is the top of the hierarchy. Examples of collective protection are on the slide. There are many types of collective protection on the market. It is good practice to keep up to date with the equipment available.
In addition to selecting collective methods before personal you should also consider how other aspects of the work might determine the selection of work equipment. Considerations should include: Working conditions: i.e. the conditions where the work is to be carried out or the equipment is to be erected Access and egress: i.e. getting to and from the point of work Distance and likely consequences of any fall: how far might a person fall and what will they fall onto? What are the likely consequences? The duration and frequency of the use of the equipment or the task: how often does this task need to be performed how long will the equipment be used for on each occasion? Ease of rescue or evacuation: given the equipment what arrangements are in place should a rescue or evacuation be required – could this be effected easily? The relative risks of installing, using and removing the work equipment that could be selected: given the task and the available equipment would the risks be reduced if one form of equipment was selected over another?
The work at height regulations has some detailed requirements regarding particular types of work equipment including Guardrails: These must be suitable and sufficient for the task. In construction work they should be at least 950mm and have no gap of more than 470mm. Working platforms: (including scaffolding and mewps) these must be suitable and sufficient for the task and number of workers involved. Nets/airbags: these should only be used where other preventative safeguards are not appropriate. Personal fall protection systems: These include work restraints, fall arrest systems, rope access and positioning and work positioning equipment. Among other requirements these should only be used if other types of equipment are not appropriate. Ladders and stepladders: ladders and stepladders are common place across industry and need to be treated with respect. They should only be used for short duration, low risk activities or where there are site features which cannot be changed. Suitable arrangements should be taken to prevent the ladder from slipping this could include tying the ladder at the top or bottom or using an effective anti slip, or other stability devices.
[OPTIONAL SLIDE] Between a ¼ and a 1/3 of all falls from height are from ladders. Duty holders should think carefully before specifying ladder use and consider if other safer access equipment can be used. Operatives must use ladders sensibly and safely. The Work at Height Regulations impose particular duties for the use of ladders (in Schedule 6). You should only use a ladder where a risk assessment demonstrates the task is; Low risk (e.g. inspection, cleaning a small window, changing a light bulb) Short duration work. Not more than 15 – 30 minutes working from a ladder, depending upon the task being performed. The person can resume the operation after a suitable break if necessary. Or there are features on site which cannot be changed that means that other more suitable equipment cannot be deployed safely or effectively. When using a ladder always follow good practice, Choose the right ladder for the task, Make sure it is in good condition, Make sure the surface it rests on is suitable, The ladder is stable, is secured where possible, and has effective anti slip devices, It is long enough and positioned properly to allow good access to the work area. Do not stretch or over-reach while on a ladder.
Extensions are fitted to window cleaning equipment to prevent need to use a ladder. The bridge is built on the level and then tunnelled under.
Mobile Elevated Work Platform
Must look at placement to minimise the height of any fall.
Fall factors – always try to connect above the worker. Make sure the operative is trained to use the equipment properly.
Fragile Surfaces: work on or near fragile surfaces should be avoided. Where this is not reasonably practicable suitable precautions should be taken following the principles of the hierarchy; avoid – prevent – mitigation. Where necessary fragile surfaces should be indicated by means of warning notices or other means. [If relevant give examples or case history relevant to the audience.] Falling Objects: arrangements should be made to ensure the risks from falling objects are properly controlled. Danger Areas: arrangements should be made to ensure access to areas where there is a risk of a fall or being struck by a falling object is properly controlled; Inspecting work equipment: work equipment for work at height should be inspected and maintained in the same way as they currently should be under the Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 and the Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998; Checking places of work at height: where reasonably practicable places of work at height should be checked visually before being used. Duties on Employees: employees should report any safety hazards to their employer and use the equipment supplied to them (including safety devices) properly, following any training and instruction.
What HSE have done; The Work at Height Regulations, Work at Height Regulations a brief guide, Q and A for Construction Industry, What HSE would like to do; Knowledge Warehouse – to make it easy to find the information that is available, FAQs – to have a list of FAQs and work on answers, Use experts - to produce a raft of knowledge and fill gaps in the knowledge we have now, Articles in sector magazines etc. - to promote the regulations, Sector specific guidance - to help people to develop relevant guidance that fits what they do. Recognises that the people best placed to make workplaces safer from harm are the staff and managers who work in them. They do this best by working together. How will HSE know if they are getting it right? Each step has a built in review and the results of the review will be fed in to the other parts of the plan.
Key messages – The key messages to duty holders are: those following good practice for work at height now should already be doing enough to comply with these Regulations; follow the risk assessments you have carried out for work at height activities and make sure all work at height is planned, organised and carried out by competent persons; follow the hierarchy for managing risks from work at height - take steps to avoid, prevent or reduce risks; and choose the right work equipment and select collective measures to prevent falls (such as guardrails and working platforms) before other measures which may only mitigate the distance and consequences of a fall (such as nets or airbags) or which may only provide personal protection from a fall. The people best placed to make workplaces safer from harm are the staff and managers who work in them. They do this best by working together.
Work At Height Regulations
Work at Height Regulations Health and Safety Executive
FALLS PROGRAMME <ul><li>Reduce death and major injuries from falls from height. </li></ul><ul><li>HSC/ HSE targets 10% reduction in death and major injuries by 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>Working with sectors were falls are an issue; </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caretakers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Facilities Management Companies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance fitters </li></ul></ul></ul>
Summary <ul><li>The Work at Height Regulations </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scope </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Managing risks from work at height </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting the right equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other Requirements </li></ul></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Biggest Killer 67 Fatal Accidents 2003/04 </li></ul><ul><li>3884 Major Accidents 2003/04 </li></ul><ul><li>Until this year always 2 nd biggest cause of major accidents </li></ul><ul><li>2/3 of all major injuries caused by ‘low falls’ (below 2mtrs) </li></ul>Background: Statistics
<ul><li>Temporary Work at Height Directive (2001/45/EC) </li></ul><ul><li>Bring existing legislation together into risk based regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain and improve standards </li></ul>Background : Objectives
<ul><li>Came into force on 6 April 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>No transitional period proposed – Regulations consolidate good practice </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge to communicate the WAH message effectively </li></ul>Current position
<ul><li>Scope </li></ul><ul><li>Risk assessment/organisation/planning </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid – Prevent – Minimise </li></ul><ul><li>Select the right Work Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Other Precautions </li></ul><ul><li>Key messages </li></ul>WaH Regulations: Overview
<ul><li>Work in any place from which a person could fall a distance liable to cause personal injury </li></ul><ul><li>Includes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>access and egress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>work at or below ground level; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>but not stairways or slips or trips on the level </li></ul></ul></ul>Scope: What is work at height?
<ul><li>Covers all industries: e.g. construction, agriculture, manufacturing, retail, maintenance,warehouse etc; but not those paid to lead or train climbing and caving </li></ul><ul><li>Duty holders are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>employers; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>self-employed; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>those in control of people at work, to the extent of their control </li></ul></ul>Scope: What Sectors are covered?
<ul><li>Work at height should be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Properly planned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriately supervised </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not carried out if weather conditions jeopardise health and safety </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Those working at height should be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>competent or if being trained supervised by a competent person </li></ul></ul>Organisation, Planning, Competence
<ul><li>Regulation 3 of the Management of Health and Safety at work Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Do a risk assessment </li></ul>Risk Assessment
<ul><li>Avoid work at height </li></ul><ul><ul><li>if you don’t have to go up there DON’T! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevent falls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use an existing place or means of access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the most suitable way of working </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select the most suitable equipment </li></ul></ul>Avoid - Prevent - Minimise
<ul><li>Minimise the distance and consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Minimise the consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Take other measures to prevent injury eg instruction, information and training </li></ul>Avoid – Prevent - Minimise
<ul><li>Collective protection before personal protection </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Select guardrails/working platforms before personal fall prevention (eg work restraint) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Select nets/airbags before personal fall arrest </li></ul></ul></ul>Select the right work equipment
<ul><li>Working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Access and Egress </li></ul><ul><li>Distance and consequences of a fall </li></ul><ul><li>Duration and frequency of use/task </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of rescue/evacuation </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of use, installation and removal of equipment </li></ul>Select the right work equipment
Types of Work Equipment <ul><li>Guardrails </li></ul><ul><li>Working platforms (scaffolds/MEWPS etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Nets/Airbags </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Fall Protection systems </li></ul><ul><li>Ladders </li></ul>
LADDERS USE <ul><li>Risk assessment must justify use; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low risk, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short duration, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or Site conditions dictate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Follow good practice </li></ul>
Examples of Work Equipment <ul><li>. </li></ul>Avoiding work at height
Personal Fall Arrest Fall Arrest Work Positioning
Other Requirements <ul><li>Avoid risks from Fragile Surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent Falling Objects </li></ul><ul><li>Warn about Danger Areas </li></ul><ul><li>Inspect work equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Persons at work should </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Follow instructions and training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advise employer of hazards/risks to health and safety </li></ul></ul></ul>
Communication <ul><li>What HSE have done </li></ul><ul><li>What HSE would like you to do </li></ul><ul><li>How will HSE know if they are getting it right? </li></ul>
<ul><li>If you follow good practice you should be doing enough to comply </li></ul><ul><li>Do a risk assessment, plan and organise your work properly </li></ul><ul><li>Follow the hierarchy: avoid – prevent – minimise </li></ul><ul><li>Choose the right equipment - select collective protection before personal </li></ul><ul><li>Guide supported by Industry Specific Guidance. </li></ul>KEY MESSAGES