End of Life Issues for Muslims
APC 2010 Annual Conference
Prepared by: Kifah A. Mustapha
                                 ...
End of Life Issues for Muslims
APC 2010 Annual Conference       4/19/2010   2
→ Believing in God - (Allah)
                             → Believing in God’s Angels
                             → Belie...
“Say: He is Allah (God). The One and only. Allah (God) the
         everlasting Refuge. He does not beget. Nor was he bego...
Muslims believe that angels are pure entities,
                                 created from light, cannot disobey God and...
Torah




                     “Now We have sent down to you, (O Mohammad), the
             Scripture (of the Quran) with...
“Say, (O Believers): We believe in (One)
                                 God, and (in) all that has been sent down
      ...
→ Muslims    believe that all humans will stand for trial at
                   the Day of Judgment.


                   ...
Knowledge: Muslims believe that God (Allah) has full
                          knowledge of everything in the universe whe...
→ The Witness (Shahadah)
                         → The Prayers (Salat)
                         → The Charity (Zakat)
   ...
Simply by saying with conviction,
                   that you bear witness to:

                         “La ilaha illa Al...
→   The Five daily prayers regulate a
                                     Muslim’s day.

                                ...
TWO kinds of charities in Islam:

                                 the obligatory and the voluntary.

                    ...
Ramadan is the 9th month of the Islamic
  calendar. A month of increased prayer, fasting,
  charity and good deeds.



  M...
→ It  is mandatory on every Muslim
                                 once during their lifetime.

                         ...
End of Life Issues for Muslims
APC 2010 Annual Conference       4/19/2010   16
Demographics

                                 Muslims in USA

                                     Clergy

              ...
→ 1.57 billion Muslims worldwide
    (almost ¼ of the world’s population)

→ 57 countries with Muslims as a
    majority o...
→ Gallup reveals that Muslim
                                 Americans      are    the   most
                           ...
Imam – is the person who can lead the
    prayer in Arabic and has basic
    knowledge in Islam

    Sheikh – is the perso...
→        Mosques are places where Muslims meet to offer prayers to God.

               →    Mosques could be major buildi...
End of Life Issues for Muslims
APC 2010 Annual Conference       4/19/2010   22
→ Muslims believe that their main purpose
                                 in life is to worship God at all times.

      ...
→         The Sacredness of Life

        →         A Muslim should Seek Cure

        →         Allah is the Healer

    ...
→   In Islam life is considered a gift from God.
                                 No one has the right to harm life but th...
Seeking cure in time of illness is something that Islam urges.


                               The prophet (PBUH) said:
 ...
Muslims understand that all healing
    is in the Hand of God and that
    medicine or seeking cure is just the
    tool.
...
Muslims believe in the healing power of the
                                 words of God when recited next to an ill
    ...
→ Harm should not be removed by
              causing another equivalent harm
               or bigger.

      → Necessity...
Ending the life of an ill person for
                                 the purpose of easing his pain
                     ...
Social support is seen as an act of worship in Islam:

             The prophet (PBUH) said, “Allah said in the Holy Hadit...
→ Short visits.
                                 → Supplications to the ill person.
                                 → Opt...
Although illness is considered as
    one of the reasons to ease the
    practices of Islam, there are still
    some prac...
In case of illness that prevents a person from
                                 standing for prayer, it is permissible to ...
When praying, Muslims face the direction of the
  city of Mecca. Which is Northeast in the USA.



  Allah said: “We have ...
End of Life Issues for Muslims
APC 2010 Annual Conference       4/19/2010   36
Due to different schools of thought in Islam and the
                   different cultures that Muslims represent, you mig...
→        It is appropriate to keep physical space when dealing with
                      members of the Muslim community....
YES




                                 NO




End of Life Issues for Muslims
APC 2010 Annual Conference                 ...
Muslims balance between the reality of death that affect their life
         emotionally through loss and grief and betwee...
Muslims recognize that God
                                 (Allah) is the One who granted
                               ...
Kalimah




      Sacred Mosque              Quran     Closing Eyes   Announcing His Death




End of Life Issues for Musl...
Muslims are urged to offer condolences
     and help for the family of the deceased.



     The prophet (PBUH) said:
    ...
Wakes in Islam are meant to be simple, non costly and a chance for the
      grieving family to find support by the presen...
Quick Burial          Visit Family or Friends




                                      Offer Prayers


End of Life Issues...
There are certain
                                 things to be done
                                 before burying a
   ...
Every Muslim must be given a   The body after the wash must be
               bath before burial.         covered with she...
Each deceased body
 must be honored by
 performing prayers
 on their behalf.




End of Life Issues for Muslims
APC 2010 A...
End of Life Issues for Muslims
APC 2010 Annual Conference       4/19/2010   49
→ Pulling the Plug
                                 → Brain Death
                                 → Vegetative State
    ...
Death is defined when the soul is
                                 separated from the body.

                             ...
The Muslim Law (Sharia) Council of Great Britain resolved that:

         “The medical profession is the proper authority ...
Although many Scholars of Islam
    limit their approval to remove
    machines only on those declared
    brain dead, som...
Under the same concept of
                                 the sacredness of life, Islam
                                 ...
1. Harm (in the patient) should not be removed by causing an
                                    equivalent or bigger harm...
Autopsies are only permitted
                                 under the concept of necessity.

                           ...
1. A legitimate reason must be valid.
        2. The consent of the deceased is required
           before his/her death i...
Islam did not allow abortion after the real
                                 existence of the fetus in his mother’s womb.
...
1. Abortions before 42 days is allowed with
       approval of both parents.

    2. Abortion between 42 and 120 days is
 ...
In Islam it is urged for every Muslim
                                 to write his will before he dies.


               ...
4/19/2010   61
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End of life issues for Muslims

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  • You are welcome sir , I'm a Veterinarian and wish seriously one day I'll come to USA where I can serve all the American people , Muslims and non-muslims with my veterinary experience in such modern , modest , non-terroristic or racially discriminating Islamic creed.

    I just wanna show all the American people , the American government that we , REAL MUSLIMS , are WORTHY of their respect , admiration and serious consideration inside the American land.

    We , the REAL MUSLIMS , can seriously contribute to the further advancement and development of America with our OWN ISLAMIC MODERN BELIEFS and THOUGHTS.

    Now , our great Egyptian Muslim professor and former NOBEL PRIZE UNSHARED WINNER , : Prof. Dr.: Ahmed H. Zewail is really proving this to the Americans , he is now a very well appreciated there in USA and Mr.: Obama chose him among the greatest scientists in USA to be in such committee for the better future of America, May God bless his efforts there and help me to come to USA to complete such efforts.

    Thank you Mr.: kifah , May God peace be upon you sir.
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  • Thank you for your kind comments
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  • It's indeed a very good brief introduction and knowledge about the basic fundamentals of Islam religion & Muslims for all the world and also about death in Islam and how to deal with it in an Islamic tradition and rules so I VOTE UP for this presentation.

    Mohsen Al-bashbeeshi
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End of life issues for Muslims

  1. 1. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference Prepared by: Kifah A. Mustapha 4/19/2010 1
  2. 2. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 2
  3. 3. → Believing in God - (Allah) → Believing in God’s Angels → Believing in God’s Books → Believing in God’s Prophets and Messengers → Believing in the Day of Judgment → Believing in Divine Predestination (Al-Qadar) End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 3
  4. 4. “Say: He is Allah (God). The One and only. Allah (God) the everlasting Refuge. He does not beget. Nor was he begotten. And comparable to Him, there is none.” Quran 112:1-4 “(O Believers!) You shall worship God (alone). And you shall not associate anything with Him (therein).” Quran 4:36 End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 4
  5. 5. Muslims believe that angels are pure entities, created from light, cannot disobey God and have no divine nature. Muslims believe that angel’s duties are assigned by God: Some angels bring revelation to prophets like Gabriel, some angels record the actions of humans, some angels only praise God, etc… End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 5
  6. 6. Torah “Now We have sent down to you, (O Mohammad), the Scripture (of the Quran) with the truth, as a confirmation of all the Scripture that preceded it – and as a guardian over it (to preserve divine guidance).” Quran 5:48 End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 6
  7. 7. “Say, (O Believers): We believe in (One) God, and (in) all that has been sent down to us (in the Quran): and (in) all that has been sent down to Abraham, and Ishmael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and (to) the (prophets of the) Tribes (of Israel): and (in) all that was given to Moses and (to) Jesus: and (in) all that was given to (all) the (other) prophets from their Lord. We do not differentiate (in Faith) between any of them. Thus are we Muslims, in willing submission to Him (alone).” Quran 21:36 End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 7
  8. 8. → Muslims believe that all humans will stand for trial at the Day of Judgment. → Rewarded in Heaven shall be those who were righteous, and punished in Hell shall be those who were evil. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 8
  9. 9. Knowledge: Muslims believe that God (Allah) has full knowledge of everything in the universe whether minor or major. Written Destiny: Muslims believe that God (Allah) has recorded everything in a Book that was kept with Him in Heaven: it is called “The Preserved Book”. Divine Will: Muslims believe that nothing happens but by God’s (Allah) permission and Will. It is when God (Allah) wishes something it happens. Creation: Muslims believe that Allah is the sole creator of all creation and that He endowed them with their attributes and abilities. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 9
  10. 10. → The Witness (Shahadah) → The Prayers (Salat) → The Charity (Zakat) → The Fasting (Sawm) → The Pilgrimage (Hajj) End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 10
  11. 11. Simply by saying with conviction, that you bear witness to: “La ilaha illa Allah, Mohammedan Rasoolullah” One becomes a Muslim. “I bear witness that there is no God but Allah, And I bear witness that Mohammad is the Messenger of Allah.” End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 11
  12. 12. → The Five daily prayers regulate a Muslim’s day. → Prayers are performed at dawn, noon, afternoon, sunset and night. → Prayer in Islam is a direct link between the worshipper and God. → Muslims face Mecca in their prayers. → Prayers involve ablution (wudu), calling to prayer (athan), standing, bowing, prostrating, sitting postures. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 12
  13. 13. TWO kinds of charities in Islam: the obligatory and the voluntary. The obligatory charity is called ZAKAT. while the voluntary charity is called SADAQAH. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 13
  14. 14. Ramadan is the 9th month of the Islamic calendar. A month of increased prayer, fasting, charity and good deeds. Muslims are ordered to fast by the Quran: “Oh ye who believe! Fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you, that you may (learn) self-restraint”. Quran 2:183 End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 14
  15. 15. → It is mandatory on every Muslim once during their lifetime. → Only those who are financially unable to afford the expense and/or ill people are excused from this trip. → One of the greatest expressions of unity in the world. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 15
  16. 16. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 16
  17. 17. Demographics Muslims in USA Clergy Role of Mosques End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 17
  18. 18. → 1.57 billion Muslims worldwide (almost ¼ of the world’s population) → 57 countries with Muslims as a majority of the population, including 22 Arab countries. → Only 18-20% of Muslims are Arabs → Country with the largest Muslim population is Indonesia. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 18
  19. 19. → Gallup reveals that Muslim Americans are the most racially diverse religious group surveyed in the USA. → Muslims are estimated to be between 7 to 8 million in the USA. → Islam is one of the growing religions in followers. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 19 4/19/2010
  20. 20. Imam – is the person who can lead the prayer in Arabic and has basic knowledge in Islam Sheikh – is the person who has solid knowledge about Islam and serves the religious needs of people. Scholar – is the person who can interpret the text and make rulings or judgments. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 20
  21. 21. → Mosques are places where Muslims meet to offer prayers to God. → Mosques could be major buildings with minarets and domes or they could be simple rented places. → Services offered at Mosques include, prayers, funerals, arbitration, marriages, divorces, counseling, youth activities, voter registration, religious education, civic and social services, etc… End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 21
  22. 22. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 22
  23. 23. → Muslims believe that their main purpose in life is to worship God at all times. → Muslims understand that life is a test that can be of many dimensions including sickness, death, loss of property, etc… → Muslims honor life as an investment in righteous deeds even when sick or ill. → A Muslim when encountering illness or hardships of any type would be urged to see it as a sign of love from God. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 23
  24. 24. → The Sacredness of Life → A Muslim should Seek Cure → Allah is the Healer → Healing in recitation of the Quran → General Rules of Islamic Medical Ethics → Mercy Killing! End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 24
  25. 25. → In Islam life is considered a gift from God. No one has the right to harm life but through a court of law based on a crime that makes the person liable for punishment. → Saving a life is one of the most honorable things a person can do and it is considered as if humanity is being saved. Allah said: “and whoever saves a life, it shall be (reckoned) as though he has saved the life of all humankind.” Quran 5:32 End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 25
  26. 26. Seeking cure in time of illness is something that Islam urges. The prophet (PBUH) said: “Allah has created illness and Allah has created cure; so (seek) cure.” Hadith narrated by Ibn Abdel Birr End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 26
  27. 27. Muslims understand that all healing is in the Hand of God and that medicine or seeking cure is just the tool. Allah said: (on behalf of Abraham): {and He is the One who feeds me and gives me drink. And when I become ill, He (is the one who) heals me.} Quran 26:79-80 End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 27
  28. 28. Muslims believe in the healing power of the words of God when recited next to an ill person. “Thus do We send down (in the verses) of the Quran that which is healing (for body and soul), and a mercy to the believers.” Quran 17:82 End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 28
  29. 29. → Harm should not be removed by causing another equivalent harm or bigger. → Necessity overrides prohibition. → Removing harm has priority over bringing benefit. → Public interest overrides individual interest. → Harm is removed as needed. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 29
  30. 30. Ending the life of an ill person for the purpose of easing his pain (mercy killing) is not allowed in Islam. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 30
  31. 31. Social support is seen as an act of worship in Islam: The prophet (PBUH) said, “Allah said in the Holy Hadith; O son of Adam, I (God) was ill and you did not visit me! (The servant) will say: my Lord, how would I visit You and You are the Lord of all that exists! (Allah) will say: Didn’t you know that my servant (so & so) got sick and you didn’t visit him! Didn’t you know, that if you had visited him you would have found Me by him!” Hadith narrated by Imam Muslim. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 31
  32. 32. → Short visits. → Supplications to the ill person. → Optimistic words. → Offering support and help for the family. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 32
  33. 33. Although illness is considered as one of the reasons to ease the practices of Islam, there are still some practices that should be performed in a matter that does not burden the person or worsen his/her condition. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 33
  34. 34. In case of illness that prevents a person from standing for prayer, it is permissible to pray while sitting or even laying down. “Those who remember Allah (always, and in prayers) standing, sitting, and lying down on their sides, and think deeply about the creation of the heavens and earth.” Quran 3:191 End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 34
  35. 35. When praying, Muslims face the direction of the city of Mecca. Which is Northeast in the USA. Allah said: “We have seen the turning of your (Muhammad’s) face towards the heaven. Surely, We shall turn you to a Qiblah (prayer direction) that shall please you, so turn your face in the direction of Al-Masjid Al-Haram (at Mecca). And where so ever you people are, turn your faces (in prayer) in that direction.” Quran 2:144 End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 35
  36. 36. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 36
  37. 37. Due to different schools of thought in Islam and the different cultures that Muslims represent, you might experience some differences in how people practice their religious life. Gender Relations Dietary Restrictions End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 37
  38. 38. → It is appropriate to keep physical space when dealing with members of the Muslim community. → Some Muslims may be uncomfortable with gestures that include any touching, especially from the opposite gender. → While speaking to Muslims of the opposite gender, you may notice that some will avoid direct eye contact. → Many Muslims are reluctant to shake hands with the opposite sex. → Muslim women may want to keep their bodies covered. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 38
  39. 39. YES NO End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 39
  40. 40. Muslims balance between the reality of death that affect their life emotionally through loss and grief and between the fact that no one is immortal. Muslims cope with death and seek healing through faith and patience. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 40
  41. 41. Muslims recognize that God (Allah) is the One who granted us life and thus He is the One who is in control of our death. Muslims look at death as a moment of submission to the Will of God (Allah). Muslims believe that each person is returning to His Lord at time of death. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 41
  42. 42. Kalimah Sacred Mosque Quran Closing Eyes Announcing His Death End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 42
  43. 43. Muslims are urged to offer condolences and help for the family of the deceased. The prophet (PBUH) said: “Whoever offers his brother the believer condolences because of an affliction, Allah will cover (dress) him of the honorable garments at the Day of Judgment.” Hadith narrated by Imam Ibn Asaker End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 43
  44. 44. Wakes in Islam are meant to be simple, non costly and a chance for the grieving family to find support by the presence of people offering condolences. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 44
  45. 45. Quick Burial Visit Family or Friends Offer Prayers End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 45
  46. 46. There are certain things to be done before burying a Muslims body. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 46
  47. 47. Every Muslim must be given a The body after the wash must be bath before burial. covered with sheets of cloth covering all the body. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 47
  48. 48. Each deceased body must be honored by performing prayers on their behalf. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 48
  49. 49. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 49
  50. 50. → Pulling the Plug → Brain Death → Vegetative State → Organ Donations → Autopsies → Abortions → Power of Attorney → Writing a Will End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 50
  51. 51. Death is defined when the soul is separated from the body. Since this is something that cannot be verified by senses, scholars of Islam referred to death as when: 1. The heart stopped working. 2. No more breathing. 3. Relaxation of body parts while body being cold. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 51
  52. 52. The Muslim Law (Sharia) Council of Great Britain resolved that: “The medical profession is the proper authority to define signs of death. The current medical knowledge considers brain stem death to be a proper definition of death. The Council accepts brain stem death as constituting the end of life.” End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 52
  53. 53. Although many Scholars of Islam limit their approval to remove machines only on those declared brain dead, some other scholars and medical Muslim professionals have a different view. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 53
  54. 54. Under the same concept of the sacredness of life, Islam urges Muslims to save lives even if it means to donate organs from one body to another but with conditions. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 54
  55. 55. 1. Harm (in the patient) should not be removed by causing an equivalent or bigger harm (for the one to donate). 2. Harm (in the patient) should be removed as needed. 3. If artificial organs can be used then there shall be no need for human organs. 4. Honoring life prohibits the business and profit intentions behind donating organs. 5. Honoring life means prohibiting the donation of any organ that will disfigure the shape of the body. 6. Honoring the free choice of each person means that personal approval should be obtained legally before death. 7. Honoring the body by burial means, donating organs should not delay the process of burial only if required by law. 8. Honoring the body means that female bodies should be exposed to females only and male bodies for males only as much as possible. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 55
  56. 56. Autopsies are only permitted under the concept of necessity. Honoring the human life is respected during life and after death. If performing autopsies conditions do apply. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 56
  57. 57. 1. A legitimate reason must be valid. 2. The consent of the deceased is required before his/her death if the autopsy was for research purpose. 3. Consultation with Muslims Scholars is required for the final approval. 4. Autopsies should be limited to what is needed. 5. Disfiguring the body is prohibited. The prophet (PBUH) said: “breaking the bones of a dead person is like breaking the bones of a live one.” Hadith narrated by Imam Abu Daoud End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 57
  58. 58. Islam did not allow abortion after the real existence of the fetus in his mother’s womb. Scholars of Islam have different views on when to declare that the life of the infant exists. Some scholars declare that life starts after (intercourse) or fertilization happens. According to their view no abortion is allowed after that at all unless the life of the mother is in danger. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 58
  59. 59. 1. Abortions before 42 days is allowed with approval of both parents. 2. Abortion between 42 and 120 days is allowed only in these cases: a. In case of rape or adultery b. In case of proven medical major disability for the infant. c. In case of harm of the mother’s life. 3. Abortion after 120 days is only allowed if it harms the mother’s life. End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 59
  60. 60. In Islam it is urged for every Muslim to write his will before he dies. The prophet (PBUH) said: “the true fact of every Muslim that he owns something (worth) of (writing) a will, (should not) sleep for two nights but his will is written (and) with him.” Hadith narrated by Imam Bukhari End of Life Issues for Muslims APC 2010 Annual Conference 4/19/2010 60
  61. 61. 4/19/2010 61
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