chapter 12 noun clauses

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chapter 12 noun clauses

  1. 1. GRAMMAR 4 CHAPTER 12 Noun Clauses
  2. 2. What is a clause? A clause is a group of words containing a subject and a verb Examples: 1. Sue lives in Tokyo. 2. Where does Sue live?
  3. 3. What is an Independent Clause? An independent clause is a COMPLETE SENTENCE. It contains the main subject and verb of a sentence. INDEPENDENT CLAUSE is also called a MAIN CLAUSE
  4. 4. What is a dependent clause? A dependent clause is NOT a complete sentence  It must be connected to an independent clause  Example: good The book which is on the table is very
  5. 5. Study now The book which is on the table is very good The book is very good is the main clause which is on the table is the dependent clause
  6. 6. The book which is on the table is very good What is the main clause here? • The book is very good. What is the dependent clause here? which is on the table Can a dependent clause stand alone?
  7. 7. Page 240 NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH A QUESTION WORD
  8. 8. Noun Clauses beginning with WHETHER or IF When a yes/no question is changed to a noun clause, whether or if is used to introduce the clause
  9. 9. EXAMPLES OF YES/NO QUESTIONS Yes/No question: Will she come?  I don’t know whether she will come.  I don’t know if she will come. Note how be-verb changes its position
  10. 10. Does he need help?  I wonder whether he needs help  I wonder if he needs help
  11. 11. Notice the patterns when or not is used I wonder whether or not she will come. I wonder whether she will come or not. I wonder if she will come or not
  12. 12. Page No 247 Question words (when, where, how, who, whom, whose, what, which) and whether may be followed by an infinitive. I don’t know what I should do.  I don’t know what to do. Both have the same meanings 
  13. 13. Examples of infinitive Please tell me how I can get to the airport. Please tell me how to get to the airport.
  14. 14. Jim told us where we could find it Jim told us where to find it
  15. 15. Noun clauses beginning with that Page 248 Statement: He is a good actor I think that he is a good actor. that he is a good actor is a noun clause, as the object of the verb think We know (that) the world is round. Bracket shows its optional
  16. 16. See the difference But when that and it are used as subject , they are compulsory and can't be removed. That Ali is good at English is known to all. In this sentence we can’t remove that because that here introduces noun clause which is the subject of the sentence
  17. 17. More examples That the world is round is a fact. Here that introduces a noun clause and so can’t be omitted. 2. It is a fact that world is round. Here it is the subject and so can’t be omitted
  18. 18. QUOTED SPEECH What is a quoted speech? a. b. c. She said, “My brother is a student.” “My brother is a student,” she said. “My brother,” she said, “is a student.” Note: All the three quoted speeches have the same meanings; only style or pattern of quotation is different.

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