PARETO CHART A Pareto chart, also called a Pareto distribution diagram, is a vertical bar graph in which values are plotted in decreasing order of relative frequency from left to right. Pareto charts are extremely useful for analyzing what problems need attention first because the taller bars on the chart, which represent frequency, clearly illustrate which variables have the greatest cumulative effect on a given system. In 1906, Pareto noted that 20% of the population in Italy owned 80% of the property. He proposed that this ratio could be found many places in the physical world and theorized it might be a natural law, where 80% of the outcomes are determined by 20% of the inputs.
CAUSE AND EFFECT ANALYSIS Cause and Effect Analysis was devised by professor Kaoru Ishikawa, a pioneer of quality management, in the 1960s. The technique was then published in his 1990 book, "Introduction to Quality Control." The diagrams that you create with Cause and Effect Analysis are known as Ishikawa Diagrams or Fishbone Diagrams (because a completed diagram can look like the skeleton of a fish). Cause and Effect Analysis was originally developed as a quality control tool, but you can use the technique just as well in other ways. For instance, you can use it to: Discover the root cause of a problem. Uncover bottlenecks in your processes. Identify where and why a process isnt working.
RUN CHART A run chart, also known as a run-sequence plot is a graph that displays observed data in a time sequence. Often, the data displayed represent some aspect of the output or performance of a manufacturing or other business process.
DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS (DOE)WHAT IF ANALYSIS In general usage, design of experiments (DOE) or experimental design is the design of any information-gathering exercises where variation is present, whether under the full control of the experimenter or not. However, in statistics, these terms are usually used for controlled experiments. Formal planned experimentation is often used in evaluating physical objects, chemical formulations, structures, components, and materials. Other types of study, and their design, are discussed in the articles on opinion polls and statistical surveys (which are types of observational study), natural experiments and quasi- experiments (for example, quasi-experimental design). See Experiment for the distinction between these types of experiments or studies.