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Pmbok 4th edition   chapter 10 - Project Communication Management
 

Pmbok 4th edition chapter 10 - Project Communication Management

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I am Continuously seeking to improve my competencies and skills to provide first class professional Project Management training courses; and develop my scope experience in Project Management ...

I am Continuously seeking to improve my competencies and skills to provide first class professional Project Management training courses; and develop my scope experience in Project Management functions.
I am confident that my innovative and results-focused approach would make significant contribution to the continued success of your organization.

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    Pmbok 4th edition   chapter 10 - Project Communication Management Pmbok 4th edition chapter 10 - Project Communication Management Presentation Transcript

    • CHAPTER 10PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENTPROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT Ahmad H. Maharma PMP®
    • PM Knowledge Areas & Process GroupsPM Process Initiating Process Planning Process Group Executing Process Monitoring & Controlling ClosingGroups / Group Group Process Group ProcessKnowledge GroupArea ProcessesProject Develop Project Charter Develop Project Management Direct and Manage Project Monitor and Control Project Work Close ProjectManagement Plan Execution Integrated Change ControlIntegrationProject Scope Collect requirements Verify ScopeManagement Define Scope Control Scope Create WBSProject Time Define Activity Schedule ControlManagement Sequence Activity Estimating Resource Estimating Duration Develop ScheduleProject Cost Estimating Cost Control CostManagement Budgeting CostProject Quality Quality Planning Perform Quality Assurance Perform Quality ControlManagementProject HR Human Resources Planning Acquire Project TeamManagement Develop Project Team Manage Project TeamProject Identify Stakeholders Plan Communications Distribute Information Performance ReportingCommunications Manage stakeholdersManagement expectationsProject Risk Plan Risk Management Risk Monitoring and ControlManagement Risk Identification Qualitative / Quantitative Risk Analysis A l i Risk Response PlanningProject Plan procurement Conduct procurement Administer Contract CloseProcurement procurementManagement
    • Project Communication Management Monitoring & Controlling Processes Planning Processes Enter phase/ Initiating Closing Exit phase/ Start project Processes Processes End project Executing Processes ProcessKnowledge Area Monitoring & g Initiating I iti ti Planning Pl i Executing E ti Closing Cl i Contol Distribute Information Indentify Plan ReportCommunication Communication C i ti Manage Stakeholders - g Performance P f Stakeholder St k h ld Expectations
    • Project Communication Management• The process required to ensure timely and appropriate generation,  collection, distribution, storage, retrieval, and ultimate disposition of  project information. j i f i• Project managers spend the majority of their time to communicate.• Some potential dimensions of communication activity: – Internal – external – Formal – Formal informal – Vertical – horizontal – Official – unofficial – Written – oral – Verbal –non‐verbal
    • Stakeholder Analysis• A technique of systematically gathering and analyzing  quantitative & qualitative information to determine whose  interests should be taken into account throughout the project. i t t h ld b t k i t t th h t th j t High •F •D • Step 1: Identify all potential  Keep  Manage Satisfied Closely project stakeholders and relevant  j t t k h ld d l t information •C •G •A Power • Step 2: Identify the potential  •H impact or support each  Monitor •B Keep (Minimum Effort) stakeholder could generate and  Informed classify them so as to define an  •E approach strategy. approach strategy Low Interest High • Step 3: Assess how key  stakeholder are likely to react or  Sample grid showing classification model respond in various situation
    • Output of Identify Stakeholder• Stakeholder Register Role in Contact C Department/ D / Attitude b A i d aboutName Project Company Impact Influence Main expectations Major requirement Information Supervisor the project• Stakeholder Management Strategy - Defines an approach to increase the support and minimize negative impacts of stakeholder. - The information could be too sensitive to be shared. - A common way of representing is by using a stakeholder analysis matrix. Stakeholder Stakeholder interest(s) in Assessment of impact Potential strategies for gaining the project support or reducing obstacles
    • Communication Requirement Analysis• Includes communicating in all directions • Consider the number of potential communication channels or paths Customer, sponsor, Functional managers, managers and Team Members Other Thee Project P j t Other Managers Project Projects Other Stakeholders• Determine and limit who will communicate • Formula: with whom and who will receive what information. N ( N − 1 ) 2
    • Communication Model• Basic Communication Model – The components in the model need to be taken into account when discussing project communications. comm nications – The sender is responsible for making information clear and complete so that the receiver can receive it correctly, and for confirming that it is properly understood. Noise Encode Encode Sender Mediu Sender m Decode Decode Noise • To make effective communication, sender/receiver need to be aware of these factors: - Nonverbal: 55% of all communication is nonverbal - Paralingual: pitch and tone of voice - Effective listening
    • Communication Methods• Interactive Communication – Most efficient way to ensure a common understanding –EE.g. meetings, phone calls, video conferencing i h ll id f i• Push Communication – Does not certify that it reached or understood – E.g. letters, email, press release, faxes, voice mail• Pull communication – Used for very large information volumes, very large Used for very large information volumes, very large  audiences – E.g. intranet site, e‐learnin communications but should try to control to Project manager cannot control all prevent miscommunication, unclear directions, and scope creeps.
    • Communication Management PlanSample
    • Managing Stakeholder Expectations• Actively managing the expectation of stakeholders. – Increase the likelihood of project acceptance by negotiating Increase the likelihood of project acceptance by negotiating. – Influencing their desire to achieve & maintain project goals.• Add Addressing concerns that have not become issues yet  i th t h tb i t (anticipation).• Clarifying and resolving issues that have been identified.
    • ExerciseSituation Communication TypeUpdating the project plan Formal WrittenPresentations to management Formal VerbalTrying to solve a complex problem Formal WrittenMaking notes regarding a telephone conversation Informal WrittenMaking changes to a contact g g Formal WrittenInforming a team member of poor performance (first notice) Informal VerbalInforming a team member of poor performance (second notice) Formal WrittenScheduling a meeting Informal WrittenClarifying a work package Formal WrittenRequesting additional resources Informal VerbalTrying to discover the root cause of a problem Informal VerbalSending an email to ask for clarification of an issue Informal WrittenHolding a milestone party Informal VerbalConducting a bidder conference Formal Verbal Table taken from PMP Exam Prep 6th Edition, Rita Mulcahy.
    • PM Skills• Interpersonal skills • Leadership • Political & cultural Political & cultural  • Team building awareness • Motivation • Negotiation • Communication • Et Etc. • Influencing • Decision making• Management skills • Presentation skills • Negotiation • Writing skill • Public speaking Public speaking • Etc.
    • Effective Meeting• Plan or prepare the meeting – Set a time/schedule and determine the participants. – Have a clear purpose for each meeting & communicate it in the invitation. p p g – Create the agenda and distribute it in advance.• Stick to the plan (discipline) – Begin on time, end on time. – Introduce the moderator and stipulate who will keep the minutes. – End every agenda with a summary and consensus of the participants.• Good follow‐up – Send the minutes showing the result along with the to do list. – Get feedback  from the participants. – Monitor the status of all action items.
    • Project Communications ManagementProject Communications Management includes the processesrequired to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection,distribution, storage, retrieval, and ultimate didi t ib ti t ti l d lti t disposition of iti fproject information.Project managers spend the majority of their time communicating with teammembers and other project stakeholders, whether they are internal (at allorganizational levels) or external to the organization.Effective communication creates a bridge between diverse stakeholdersinvolved in a project connecting various cultural and organizational project,backgrounds, different levels of expertise, and various perspectives andinterests in the project execution or outcome.
    • Project Communications Management Processes10.1 ldentify Stakeholders ‐ The process of identifying all people or organizations impacted by the project, and documenting relevant information regarding their interests, involvement, and impact g g , , p on project success.10.2 Plan Communications ‐ The process of determining the project stakeholder information needs and defining a communication approach.10.3 Distribute lnformation ‐ The process 0f making relevant information available to project stakeholders as planned planned.10.4 Manage Stakeholder Expectations‐The process 0f communicating and working with stakeholders t0 meet their needs and addressing issues as they occur occur,10.5 Report Performance‐The process 0f collecting and distributing performance information, including status rep0rts, progress measurements, and forecasts.
    • Project Communications ManagementCommunication activity has many potential dimensions,including:• lnternal (within the project) and external (customer other (customer, projects, the media, the public),• Formal (reports, memos, briefings) and informal (emails, ad‐ hoc discussions),• Vertical (up and down the organization) and horizontal (with peers), peers)• Official (newsletters, annual report) and unofficial (off the record communications),• Written and oral, and• Verbal and non‐verbal (voice inflections, body language).
    • Project Communications ManagementMost communication skills are common for general management and project management, such as, but not limited to:• Listening actively and effectively,• Questioning, probing ideas and situations to ensure better understanding,• Educating to increase team s knowledge so that they can be more  Educating to increase teams knowledge so that they can be more effective,• Fact‐finding to identify or confirm information,• Setting and managing expectations, Setting and managing expectations• Persuading a person or organization to perform an action,• Negotiating to achieve mutually acceptable agreements between parties,• Resolving conflict to prevent disruptive impacts, and• Summarizing, recapping, and identifying the next steps.
    • 10.1 Identify StakeholdersIdentify Stakeholders is the process of identifying all people or organizationsimpacted by the project, and documenting relevant information regardingtheir interests, involvement, and impact on project success.Project stakeholders are persons and organizations such as customers,sponsors, the performing organization, and the public that are activelyinvolved in the project, or whose interests may be positively or negativelyaffected by the execution or completion of the project.They may also exert influence over the project and its deliverables.Stakeholders may be at different levels within the organization and maypossess different authority levels, or may be external to the performingorganization for the project. p j y y p jIt is critical for project success to identify the stakeholders early in the project, and to analyze their levels of interest, expectations, importance and influence.
    • 10.1.1 ldentify Stakeholders: lnputs.1  Project Charter: The project charter can provide information about internal  and external parties involved in and affected by the project,  such as project sponsors, customers, team members, groups  and departments participating in the project, and other  p p p g p j , people or organizations affected by the project.2 Procurement Documents: If a project is the result of a procurement activity or is based  on an established contract, the parties in that contract are key  on an established contract the parties in that contract are key project stakeholders. 0ther relevant parties, such as suppliers,  should also be considered as part of the project stakeholders  list.
    • 10.1.1 ldentify Stakeholders: lnputs.3  Enterprise Environmental Factors: The enterprise environmental factors that can influence the  ldentify Stakeholders process include, but are not limited to: • Organizational or company culture and structure, and • Go ernmental or ind str standards (e g reg lations Governmental or industry standards (e.g. regulations,  product standards)..4  0rganizational Process Assets: g The organizational process assets that can influence the  ldentify Stakeholders process include, but are not limited to: • Stakeholder register templates, • Lessons learned from previous projects, and • Stakeholder registers from previous projects Stakeholder registers from previous projects.
    • 10.1.2 ldentify Stakeholders: Tools and Techniques.1 Stakeholder Analysis: Stakeholder analysis is a process of systematically gathering and analyzing quantitative and qualitative information to determine whose interests should be taken into account throughout the project. g p j lt identifies the interests, expectations, and influence of the stakeholders and relates them to the purpose of the project. It also helps identify stakeholder relationships that can be leveraged to build coalitions and potential partnerships to enhance the projects chance of success. project s Stakeholder analysis generally f0llows the steps described next:
    • 10.1.2 ldentify Stakeholders: Tools and TechniquesStep 1: ldentify all potential project stakeholders and relevantinformation, such as their roles, departments, interests,knowledge l l expectations, and i flk l d levels, t ti d influence l l levels.Key stakeholders are usually easy to identify.They include anyone in a decision‐making or management rolewho is impacted by the project outcome, such as the sponsor,the project manager, and the primary customer.• ld tif i other stakeholders i usually d ldentifying th t k h ld is ll done b i t i i by interviewing identified stakeholders and expanding the list until all potential stakeholders are included.
    • 10.1.2 ldentify Stakeholders: Tools and TechniquesStep 2: ldentify the potential impact or support each stakeholder could generate, andclassify them so as to define an approach strategy.ln large stakeholder communities, ii is important to prioritize the key stakeholders toensure the efficient use of effort to communicate and manage their expectations expectations.There are multiple classification models available including, but not limited to:• Power/interest grid grouping the stakeholders based on their level of authority grid, ("power") and their level or concern ("interest") regarding the project outcomes;• Power/influence grid, grouping the stakeholders based on their level of authority ( power ) ("power") and their active involvement ("influence") in the project; ( influence )• lnfluence/impact grid, grouping the stakeh0lders based on their active involvement ("influence") in the project and their ability to effect changes to the projects planning or execution ("impact"); and• Salience model, describing classes of stakeholders based on their power (ability to impose their will), urgency (need for immediate attention), and legitimacy (their involvement is appropriate).
    • 10.1.2 ldentify Stakeholders: Tools and TechniquesStep 3: Assess how key stakeholders are likely to react or respond in various situations, in order to plan how to influence them to enhance their support and mitigate potential negative th t h th i t d iti t t ti l tiimpacts.
    • 10.1.2 ldentify Stakeholders: Tools and Techniques.2  Expert Judgment To ensure comprehensive identification and listing of  stakeholders, judgment and expertise should be sought from  stakeholders judgment and expertise should be sought from groups or individuals with specialized training or knowledge  on the subject area such as: • Senior management, • 0ther units within the organization, • ld ifi d k ldentified key stakeholders, k h ld • Project managers who have worked on projects in the  same area (directly or through lessons learned), same area (directly or through lessons learned), • Subject matter experts (SMEs) in business or project area, • lndustry groups and consultants, and  • Professional and technical associations. 
    • 10.1 .3 ldentify Stakeholders: Outputs.1 Stakeholder Register: The main output of the ldentify Stakeholders process is the stakeholder register This contains all details related to the identified stakeholders including, but not limited to: • ldentification information: Name organizational position Name, position, location, role in the project, contact information; • Assessment information: Major requirements, main expectations, potential influence in the project, phase in the life cycle with the most interest; and • Stakeholder Classification: lnternal/external Stakeholder Classification: lnternal/external,   supporter/neutral/resistor, etc.
    • 10.1 .3 ldentify Stakeholders: Outputs.2 Stakeholder Management Strategy: The stakeholder management strategy defines an approach to increase the support and minimize negative impacts of stakeholders throughout the entire project Iife cycle. lt includes elements such as: • Key stakeholders who can significantly impact the project, • Level of participation in the project desired for each p p p j identified stakeholder, and • Stakeholder groups and their management (as groups). A common way of representing the stakeholder management strategy is a stakeholder analysis matrix. An example of a blank matrix with column headers is provided p p in Figure 10‐5.
    • 10.2 Plan CommunicationsPlan Communications is the process of determining the projectstakeholder information needs and defining a communicationapproach. hThe Plan Communications process responds to the informationand communications needs of the stakeholders; for example,who needs what information, when they will need it, how it willbe ib given to them, and b whom. h d by hWhile all projects share the need to communicate projectinformation, the informational needs and methods ofdistribution vary widely. Identifying the information needs of thestakeholders and d k h ld d determining a suitable means of meeting those bl f hneeds are important factors for project success.
    • 10.2 Plan Communicationsimproper communication planning will lead to problems such as delay inmessage delivery, communication of sensitive information to the wrongaudience, or lack of communication to some of the required stakeholders.A communication plan allows the project manager to document the approachto communicate most efficiently and effectively with stakeholders.Effective communication means that the information is provided in the rightformat, at the right time, and with the right impact. , g , g pEfficient communication means providing only the information that isneeded.The Plan Communications process is tightly linked with enterpriseenvironmental factors since the organizations structure will have a major factors, organization seffect on the projects communications requirements.
    • 10.2.1 Plan Communications: lnputs.1  Stakeholder Register: The stakeholder register is described in Section 10.1 .3.1 ..2  Stakeholder Management Strategy Stakeholder management strategy is described in Section  10.1 .3.2.3  Enterprise Environmental Factors All enterprise environmental factors are used as inputs for this  All enterprise environmental factors are used as inputs for this process since communication must be adapted to the project  environment.
    • 10.2.1 Plan Communications: lnputs.4 Organizational Process Assets: All organizational process assets are used as inputs for the Plan Communications process. 0f these, lessons learned and historical information are of particular importance because they can provide insights on both the decisions taken regarding communications issues and the results of those decisions in previous similar projects. These can b used as guiding i f Th be d idi information to plan the i l h communication activities for the current project.
    • 10.2.2 Plan Communications: Tools and Techniques.1 Communication Requirements Analysis: The analysis of the communication requirements determines the information needs of the project stakeholders. d f h k h ld These requirements are defined by combining the type and format of information needed with an analysis of the value of that information Project resources are information. expended only on communicating information that contributes to success, or where a lack of communication can lead to failure. The project manager should also consider the number of potential communication channels or paths as an indicator of the complexity of a projects communications. The total number of potential communication channels is n(n‐1)/2,wherer n represents the number of stakeholders. Thus, a project with 10 stakeholders has 10(10‐1)/2 = 45 potential communication channels. A k component of planning th projects actual communications, h l key t f l i the j t t l i ti therefore, is to determine and limit who will communicate with whom and who will receive what information,
    • 10.2.2 Plan Communications: Tools and TechniquesInformation typically used to determine project communication requirementsincludes:• 0rganization charts,• Project organization and stakeholder responsibility relationships,• Disciplines, departments, Disciplines departments and specialties involved in the project project,• Logistics of how many persons will be involved with the project and at which locations,• Internal information needs (e g communicating across organizations) (e.g., organizations),• External information needs (e.g., communicating with the media, public, or contractors), and• St k h ld i f Stakeholder information f ti from th stakeholder register and th stakeh0lder the t k h ld it d the t k h0ld management strategy.
    • 10.2.2 Plan Communications: Tools and Techniques.2 Communication Technology: The methods used to transfer information among project stakeholders can vary significantly. For e ample a project team ma use techniq es from brief example, may se techniques conversati0ns all the way through to extended meetings, or from simple written documents to material (e.g., schedules and databases) that is accessible online as methods of communication.
    • 10.2.2 Plan Communications: Tools and TechniquesFactors that can affect the communication requirements of a project include:• Urgency of the need for information. Is project success dependent upon g y p j p p having frequently updated information available on a moments notice, or would regularly issued written reports suffice?• Availability of technology. Are appropriate systems already in place or do y gy pp p y y p project needs warrant change?• Expected project staffing. Are the proposed communication systems compatible with the experience and expertise 0f the project participants, p p p p j p p , or is extensive training and learning required?• Duration of the project. ls the available technology likely to change before the project is over? p j• Project environment. Does the team meet and operate on a face{o‐face basis or in a virtual environment?
    • 10.2.2 Plan Communications: Tools and Techniques.3 Communication Models: A basic model of communication, shown in Figure 10‐8, demonstrates how information is sent and received between two parties, defined as the sender and the receiver. The key components of the model include: • Encode. To translate thoughts or ideas into a language that is g g g understood by others. • Message and feedback‐message. The output of encoding. • Medium. The method used to convey the message. • Noise. Anything that interferes with the transmissi0n and understanding of the message (e.g., distance, unfamiliar technology, lack of background information). • Decode. To translate the message back into meaningful thoughts or ideas.
    • 10.2.2 Plan Communications: Tools and TechniquesFigure 10‐8 is a basic communication model:lnherent in the model is an action to acknowledge a message message.Acknowledgement means that the receiver signals receipt of the message,but not necessarily agreement with the message.Another action is the response to a message, which means that the receiverhas decoded, understands, and is replying to the message.AsA part of th communications process, th sender i responsible f making t f the i ti the d is ibl for kithe lnformation clear and complete so that the receiver can receive itcorrectly, and for confirming that it is properly understood.The receiver is responsible for making sure that the information is received inits entirety, understood correctly, and acknowledged. A failure incommunication can negatively impact the project project.
    • 10.2.2 Plan Communications: Tools and Techniques.4 Communication Methods: There are several communication methods used to share information among project stakeholders. These methods can be broadly classified into: • lnteractive communication Between two or more parties communication. performing a multidirectional exchange of information. lt is the most efficient way to ensure a common understanding by ll b all participants on specified topics, and i l d meetings, i i ifi d i d includes i phone calls, video conferencing, etc.
    • 10.2.2 Plan Communications: Tools and Techniques• Push communication. Sent to specific recipients who need to know the information. This ensures that the information is distributed but does not certify th t it actually reached or was di t ib t d b t d t tif that t ll h d understood by the intended audience. Push communication includes letters, memos, reports, emails, faxes, voice mails, , , p , , , , press releases etc.• Pull communication. Used for very large volumes of information, or f very l i f i for large audiences, that requires the di h i h recipients to access the communication content at their own discretion. These methods include intranet sites, e‐learning, and knowledge repositories, etc. The project manager decides, based on communication requirements, what, how, requirements what how and when communication methods are to be used in the project.
    • 10.2.3 Plan Communications: 0utputs.1 Communications Management Plan: The communications management plan is contained in or is a subsidiary of the project management plan (Section 4.2‐3. 1). The communications management plan can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, and based on the , g y y , needs of the project. The communications management plan can also include guidelines and templates for project status meetings, project team meetings, e‐meetings, and e‐mail. The use of a project e meetings, e mail. website and project management software can also be included if they are used in the project.
    • 10.2.3 Plan Communications: 0utputsThe communications management plan usually provides:• Stakeholder communication requirements;• lnformation to be communicated, including language, format, content, and level of detail;• Reason for the distrib tion of that information distribution information;• Time frame and frequency for the distribution of required information;;• Person responsible for communicating the information;• Person responsible for authorizing release of confidential information;• Person or groups who will receive the information;• Methods or technologies used to convey the information information, such as memos, e‐mail, and/or press releases;
    • 10.2.3 Plan Communications: 0utputs• Resources allocated for communication activities, including time and budget;• Escalation process identifying time frames and the management chain (names) for escalation of issues that cannot be resolved at a lower staff level; ;• Method for updating and refining the communications management plan as the project progresses and develops;• Glossary of common terminology;• Flow charts of the information flow in the project, workflows with possible sequence of authorization list of reports and authorization, reports, meeting plans, etc.; and• Communication constraints, usually derived from specific legislation or regulation, technology, and organizational policies, etc.
    • 10.2.3 Plan Communications: 0utputs.2   Project Document Updates Project documents that may be updated include but are not  limited to: • Project schedule, • Stakeholder register and Stakeholder register, and • Stakeholder management strategy.
    • 10.3 Distribute lnformationDistribute information is the process of making relevantinformation available to pr0ject stakeholders as planned. SeeFigures 10 9 and 10 10Fi 10‐9 d 10‐10.lt is performed throughout the entire project life cycle and in allmanagement processes The focus here is mainly in the processes.execution process, which includes implementing thecommunications management plan, as well as responding tounexpected requests for information
    • 10.3 Distribute lnformationEffective information distribution includes a number of techniques including:• Sender‐receiver models. Feedback loops and barriers to communication,• Choice of media. Situation specifics of when to communicate in writing versus orally when to write an informal memo versus a formal report and orally, report, when to communicate face‐to‐face versus by e‐mail.• Writing style. Active versus passive voice, sentence structure, and word choice,• Meeting management techniques. Preparing an agenda and dealing with conflicts.• Presentation techniques Body language and design of visual aids techniques. aids.• Facilitation techniques. Building consensus and overcoming obstacles.
    • 10.3.1 Distribute Information: lnputs.1 Project Management Plan: The project management plan (Section 4.2.3. 1) contains the communications management plan described in Section 10.2.3,1 ..2 Performance Reports: Performance reports are used to distribute project performance and status information, should be made available prior to project meetings, and should be as precise and current as possible. Forecasts are updated and reissued based on work performance measurements provided as the project is executed. Forecast information is often generated using earned value methods, but may use other methods such as analogy with past projects, re‐estimating remaining work, inclusion of impact of external events in the schedule, and others.
    • 10.3.1 Distribute Information: lnputs.3  0rganizational Process Assets: The organizational process assets (see Section 2.4.3)that can  influence the Distribute lnformation process include, but are  not limited to: • Policies procedures and guidelines regarding information Policies, procedures, and guidelines regarding information  distribution, • Templates, and • Historical information and lessons learned.
    • 10.3.2 Distribute lnformation: Tools and Techniques.1 Communication Methods: lndividual and group meetings, video and audio conferences, computer chats, and other remote communications methods are used to distribute , information..2 lnformation Distribution Tools: 2 Project information can be distributed using a variety of tools, including: • Hard‐copy document distribution, manual filing systems, press releases, and shared access electronic databases; shared‐access • Electronic communication and conferencing tools, such as e‐mail, fax, voice mail, telephone, video and web conferencing, websites and web publishing; and • Electronic tools for project management, such as web interfaces to scheduling and project management software, meeting & virtual office support software portals and collaborative work management tools software, tools.
    • 10.3.3 Distribute lnformation: 0utputs.1 Organizational Process Assets Updates: The organizational process assets which may be updated include, include but are not limited to: • Stakeholder notifications. lnformation may be provided to stakeholders about resolved issues, approved changes, and general project status. • Project reports. Formal and informal project reports describe project status and include lessons learned, issues logs, project closure reports, and outputs from other Knowledge Areas . • Project presentations. The project team provides information formally or informally to any or all of the project stakeholders. The information and presentation method should be relevant to the needs of the audience.
    • 10.3.3 Distribute lnformation: 0utputs• Project records. Project records can include correspondence, memos, meeting minutes, and other documents describing the project. This information should, to the extent possible and appropriate, be maintained in i an organized manner. P j i d Project team members can also maintain records b l i i d in a project notebook or register, which could be physical or electronic.• Feedback from stakeholders. information received from stakeholders concerning project operations can be distributed and used to modify or improve future performance of the project.• Lessons learned documentation. Documentation includes the causes of issues, reasoning behind the corrective action chosen, and other types of lessons learned about information distribution. Lessons learned are documented and distributed so that they become part of the historical database for both the project and the performing organization.
    • 10.4 Manage Stakeholder ExpectationsManage Stakeholder Expectations is the process ofcommunicating and working with stakeholders to meettheir needs and addressing issues as they occur.Manage Stakeholder Expectations involves communicationactivities directed toward project stakeholders to influence theirexpectations, address concerns, and resolve issues, such as:• Actively managing the expectations of stakeholders to increase the likelihood of project acceptance by negotiating and influencing their desires to achieve and maintain the project goals
    • 10.4 Manage Stakeholder Expectations• Addressing concerns that have not become issues yet, usually related to the anticipation of future problems. These concerns need t b uncovered and di d to be d d discussed, and th risks need t b d d the i k d to be assessed, and• Clarifying and resolving issues that have been identified. The y g g resolution may result in a change request or may be addressed outside of the project, for example, postponed for another projector phase or deferred to another organizational entity.The project manager is responsible for stakeholder expectationsmanagement. Actively managing stakeholder expectationsdecreases the risk that the project will fail to meet its g0als andobjectives due to unresolved stakeholder issues and limits issues,disrupti0ns during the project.
    • 10.4.1 Manage Stakeholder Expectations: lnputs.1  Stakeholder Register: The stakeholder register (see Section 1 0.1 .3.1) is a list of the  relevant stakeholders for the project. It is used to ensure that  all stakeholders are included in the project communications..2  Stakeholder Management Strategy: An understanding of stakeholder goals and objectives is used  g g j to determine a strategy to manage stakeholder expectations.  The strategy is documented in the stakeholder management  strategy document (see Section 10.1 .3,2). strategy document (see Section 10 1 3 2)
    • 10.4.1 Manage Stakeholder Expectations: lnputs.3 P j 3 Project M Management Pl Plan: The project management plan (Section 4.2.3.1) contains the communications management plan described in Section 10.2.3.1 . Stakeholder requirements and expectations provide an understanding of stakeholder goals, objectives, and level of communication required during the project. q g p j The needs and expectations are identified, analyzed, and documented in the communications management plan, which is a subsidiary of the project management plan plan..4 lssue Log: An issue l0g or action item log can be used t0 document and monitor the resolution of issues. It can be used to facilitate communication and ensure a common understanding of issues. Issues do not usually rise to the importance of becoming a project or activity but are usually addressed in order to maintain good, constructive working relationships among various stakeholders, including team members.
    • 10.4.1 Manage Stakeholder Expectations: lnputs.5 Change Log: A change Iog is used to document changes that occur during a  project. These changes and their impact to the project in  terms of time, cost, and risk, must be communicated to the  appropriate stakeholders. pp p.6  Organizational Process Assets: The organizational process assets that can influence the  Manage Stakeholder Expectations process include, but are not limited to: • OOrganizational communication requirements, i ti l i ti i t • lssue management procedures, • Change control procedures and Change control procedures, and • Historical information about previous projects.
    • 10.4.2 Manage Stakeholder Expectations: Tools and Techniques.1 Communication Methods: The methods of communication identified for each  stakeholder in the communications management plan are utilized during stakeholder management..2  Interpersonal Skills: 2 Interpersonal Skills The project manager applies appropriate interpersonal skills  to manage stakeholder expectations. g p For example: • Building Trust, • Resolving conflict, • Active listening, and • Overcoming resistance to change. h
    • 10.4.2 Manage Stakeholder Expectations: Tools and Techniques.3 Management Skills: Management is the act 0f directing and controlling a group of people for the purpose of coordinating and harmonizing the group towards accomplishing a goal beyond the scope of individual effort. Management skills used by the project manager include but are not limited to: • Presentation skills, • Negotiating, • W iti skills, and Writing kill d • Public speaking,
    • 10.4.3 Manage Stakeholder Expectations: 0utputs.1 0 1 0rganizational P i ti l Process A t U d t Assets Updates: Organizational process assets that may be updated include, but are not limited to: • Causes of issues, • Reasoning behind corrective actions chosen, and • Lessons learned from managing stakeholder expectations..2 Change Requests: Managing stakeholder expectations may result in a change request t0 the product or the project. It may also include corrective or preventive actions as appropriate..3 Project Management Plan Updates: Elements of the project management plan that may be updated include include, but are not limited to, a communications management plan. This is updated when new or changed communication requirements are identified.
    • 10.4.3 Manage Stakeholder Expectations: 0utputs.4 Project Document Updates: Project documents that may be updated include, but are not limited to: • Stakeholder management strategy. This is updated as a result of addressing concerns and resolving issues‐ For example, it may be determined that a stakeholder has additional informational needs. • Stakeholder register. This is updated as information on stakeholders change, when new stakeholders are identified or if registered stakeholders are no longer involved in or impacted by the project, or other updates for specific stakeholders are required. • lssue log. This is updated as new issues are identified and current issues are resolved.
    • 10.5 Report PerformanceReport Performance is the process of collecting and distributingperformance information, including status reports, progressmeasurements, and f t d forecasts. S Fi t See Figures 10 13 and 10 14 10‐13 d 10‐14.The performance reporting process involves the periodiccollection and analysis of baseline versus actual data tounderstand and communicate the project progress andperformance as well as to f f ll forecast the project results. h j lPerformance reports need to provide information at anappropriate level for each audience.The format may range from a simple status report to moreelaborate reports.
    • 10.5 Report PerformanceMore elaborate reports may include: • Analysis of past performance, • Current status of risks and issues, • Work completed during the period, • Work to be completed next, • Summary of changes approved in the period, and • Other relevant information which must be reviewed and Other relevant information which must be reviewed and  discussedA complete report should also include forecasted project completion (including time and cost). These reports may be prepared regularly or on an exception basis.
    • 10.5.1 Report Performance: lnputs.1 Project Management Plan:The project management plan provides information on projectbaselines.baselinesThe performance measurement baseline is an approved plan forthe project work to which the project execution is compared, anddeviations are measured f management control.d d for lThe performance measurement baseline typically integrates scope,schedule, and cost parameters of a project, but may also include , p p j , ytechnical and quality parameters..2 Work Performance lnformation: Information f f from project activities is collected on performance ll d f results such as: , • Deliverables status, • Schedule progress, and • Costs incurred.
    • 10.5.1 Report Performance: lnputs.3  Work Performance Measurements: Work performance information is used to generate project  activity metrics to evaluate actual activity metrics to evaluate actual progress compared to planned progress. These metrics  include, but are not limited to: • Planned versus actual schedule performance, • Planned versus actual cost performance, and • Planned versus actual technical performance..4  Budget Forecasts: Budget forecast information from the Control Cost (7.3.3.2 )  B d tf ti f ti f th C t l C t (7 3 3 2 ) provide information on the additional funds that are expected  to be required for the remaining work, as well as estimates for  the completion of the total project work.
    • 10.5.1 Report Performance: lnputs.5 0rganizational Process Assets: The organizational process assets ihat can influence the  Report Performance process include, but are not limited to: • Report templates, • Policies and proced res that define the meas res and Policies and procedures that define the measures and  indicators t0 be used, and • 0rganizationally defined variance limits. g y
    • 10.5.2 Report Performance: Tools and Techniques.1 Variance Analysis: Variance analysis is an after‐the‐fact look at what caused a difference between the baseline and the actual performance. The process for performing variance analysis may vary depending on the application area, the standard used, and the industry. Common steps are: • Verify the quality of the information collected to ensure that it is complete, consistent with past data, and credible when comparing with other project or status information information, • Determine variances, comparing the actual information with the project baseline and noting all differences both favorable and unfavorable to the project outcome. Earned value management uses specific equations to quantify variances. • Determine the impact of the variances in the project cost and p p j schedule as well as in other areas of the project (i.e., quality performance adjustments and scope changes, etc.).
    • 10.5.2 Report Performance: Tools and Techniques.2 Forecasting Methods: Forecasting is the process of predicting future project performance based on the actual performance to date date. Forecasting methods may be classified in different categories:• Time series methods. Time series methods use historical data as the basis for estimating future outcomes. Examples of methods in this category may include earned value, moving average, extrapolation, linear prediction, trend estimation, and growth curve.• Causal/econometric methods. Some forecasting methods use the / g assumption that it is possible to identify the underlying factors that might influence the variable that is being forecasted, For example, sales of umbrellas might be associated with weather conditions.
    • 10.5.2 Report Performance: Tools and Techniques• Judgmental methods. Judgmental forecasting methods incorporate intuitive judgments, opinions, and probability estimates. Examples of methods in this category are composite forecasts, surveys, Delphi method, scenario building, technology f0recasting, and forecast by analogy.• Other methods. 0ther methods may include simulation, probabilistic forecasting, and ensemble forecasting..3 Communication Methods: Status review meetings can be used to exchange and analyze information about the project progress and performance. The project manager generally uses a push communication technique as d fi d i 10 2 2 41 to di ib h i defined in 10.2.2.41 distribute performance f reports.
    • 10.5.2 Report Performance: Tools and Techniques.4 Reporting Systems: A reporting system provides a standard tool for the project manager to capture, store, and distribute information to stakeholders about the project cost, schedule progress, and p performance. Software packages allow the project manager to consolidate reports from several systems and facilitate report distribution to the project stakeholders. h j k h ld Examples of distribution formats may include table reporting, reporting spreadsheet analysis and presentations Graphic analysis, presentations. capabilities can be used to create visual representations of project performance information.
    • 10.5.3 Report Performance: Outputs.1 Performance Reports: Performance reports organize and summarize the information gathered, and present the results of any analysis as compared t0 the performance measurement baseline. Reports should provide the status and progress information information, at the level of detail required by various stakeholders, as documented in the communications management plan. Common f C formats f performance reports i l d b for f include bar charts, S‐curves, histograms, and tables. Variance analysis, earned value analysis, and forecast data is often included as pan of performance reporting. Figure 10‐1 5 gives a tabular view of earned value data (Section 7.3.2.1 ).
    • 10.5.3 Report Performance: OutputsMore elaborate reports may include:• Analysis of past performance,• Current status of risks and issues,• Work completed during the reporting period,• Work to be completed during the next reporting period,• Summary 0f changes approved in the period,• Results of variance analysis Results of variance analysis,• Forecasted project completion (including time and cost), and• Other relevant information to be reviewed and discussed. Other relevant information to be reviewed and discussed.
    • 10.5.3 Report Performance: Outputs.2 Organizational Process Assets Updates: The organizational process assets that can be updated include, but are not limited to, report formats and lessons learned documentation, including the causes of issues, reasoning behind the corrective action chosen, and other g , types of lessons learned about performance reporting. Lessons learned are documented so that they become part of the historical database for both this project and the performing organization.
    • 10.5.3 Report Performance: Outputs.3 Change Requests: Analysis of project performance often generates change requests. These change requests are processed through the Perform lntegrated Change Control process (Section 4.5) as follows: • Recommended corrective actions include changes that bring the expected future performance of the project in line with the project management plan, and ih h j l d • Recommended preventive actions can reduce the probability of incurring future negative project performance.
    • For more information do not hesitate to  contact me. Ahmad H. Maharma ‐ PMP®• Ramallah, Palestine • Phone: + (972) (2) 2968644• Mobile: + (972) (599) 001155 E‐Mail: ahmad.maharma@gmail.com