Abstract ExpressionismRyan Patin, Kyle Winter, Jenna Smith http://arcamax.com/zits/s-1130389- 355113?src=comicezine04222012
The Movement• Widespread between 1940s until 1960s• 1950 – Most important year of movement• Located mainly in New York• Center of Art World now moved from Paris to New York City• Unlike previous movement, these Artists very rare worked together
Influences• Political Instability Primitive mask• World War ll• Holocaust• Jungian Psychology• Primitive Cultureand Myths• Anxiety of the Cold War• The Great Depression
Art Influences • Modern European Art • Cubism • Fauvism • Dada • Surrealism • Abstractionism • RegionalismParks, the Circus, the Klan, the Press -Thomas Hart Benton
Characteristics• Dynamic gestures• Open Color Field• Communicates Emotion• Tapping into the Unconscious
• http://www.pureartspace.com/admin/editub b/UploadFile/20102251434798.jpg Blue and Yellow -
Characteristics (Con.)• Usually Very Large Canvas• Subjective• Elements of Chance, Gravity, Paint Viscosity• Lack of speculation and arrangement• Importance on Process
Number 5 – Jackson Pollock (1948)• http://1.bp.blogspot.com/- nN4X_z40N0U/T0D- DZIdEkI/AAAAAAAACSk/2gJtrX4SAdU/s1 600/Pollock_no-5.jpg
Action Painting vs. Color-FieldAction Painting: Color-Field Painting:• Loose, rapid K brushstrokes • Came slightly after Action Painting• Focus on the act of • Use of flat areas of color painting and the (compared to the texture and interaction with feel of AP) materials • “Simple pictorial imagery• Spontaneous dripping, designed to create emotional “vigorous” application, impact” and chance effects of • Large canvasses created spilling paint onto the intimate experience canvas
Action Painters Color-Field Painters • Jackson Pollock • Mark Rothko • William de Kooning • Barnett Newman • Robert Kline • Clyfford StillsJackson Pollock, Convergence, c. 1952.
Purpose• Tap into the “universal inner source”• Remake the world into a new image that everyone could understand through a collective unconscious• Envelop the audience• Express spiritual and emotional truths• Communicate emotions not story
Jackson Pollock“I have no fears about making changes, destroying the image, etc., because the painting had a life of its own”
Background• Alcoholic• Died prematurely in an alcohol related car crash• His father was never in his life• Thomas Hart Benton (famous social realistic painter) was his mentor• Married to artist Lee Krasner• Employed by WPA during his early work
Characteristics• Action Painter• Loops and Swirls of color• Depicted neither landscape nor figures• Poured, spattered, and dripped his paint onto the canvas• Used sticks, trowels, and knives• Often mixed paint with sand, broken glass, and other material around studio
Willem De Kooning “The attitude that nature is chaotic and that the artist puts order into it is a very absurd point of view, I think. All that we can hope for is to put some order into ourselves”
Background• Illegal Dutch Immigrant• Painted murals for WPA between 1935 – 1939• Inspired by Arshile Gorky to paint a series of males• Heavy Influenced by Picasso’s Cubism• Married Elaine Fried, another Abstract Expressionist• Hated the restriction that came with naming a movement
Characteristics• Cubism, Surrealism, and Expression• Combination of Figuration and Abstraction• Rework painting giving the appearance of incompletion• Portrayed violent encounters• Ambiguously blended figures• Dismembering and then re-assembling his figure, distorting them
The Artist and his Mother – Arshile Gorky Seated Woman – De Kooning (1926) (1940)
Woman I & Woman III – (1950 – 1952) & (1952 – 1953)
Hans Hoffman “Color is a plastic means of creating intervals... color harmonics produced by special relationships, or tensions. We differentiate now between formal tensions and color tensions, just as we differentiate in music between counterpoint and harmony.”
Background•Excelled in mathematics and science, invented radar devicefor ships.• At age sixteen, work with the Bavarian government asassistant to the director of Public Works.• Influenced by Impressionism, Pointillism, Pablo Picasso,and George Braque• Completely abstract works date from the 1940s.•Believed that abstract art was a way to get at theimportant reality.
Characteristics• Pictorial structure, spatial illusion, and colorrelationship.• “Push and Pull”•“Floating” rectangular forms• Volume in painting through contrasting colors, shapes,and surfaces• Built up impastos to give thicker color
Franz Jozef Kline (May 23, 1910 – May 13, 1962) “If you’re a painter, you are not alone. There’s no way to be alone. You think and you care and you’re with all the people who care. You think you care and you’re with all the people who care, including the young people who don’t know they do yet.”
Background• Was born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania• Attended Girard College and Boston University.• Married Elizabeth Vincent Parsons, a British balletdancer.• Died in New York City of a rheumatic heart disease.• Influenced by Japanese art styles, Willem de Kooning,Jackson Pollock, Rembrandt, Goya, Manet, Sargent,and Whistler.
Characteristics•Majority of paintings were Black and White, Re-introduced color into his paintings around 1955.•Painted what he saw during a day• Focused less on figures or imagery• Focused on actual brush strokes and use of canvas.• Translated animated subjects into quick, rudimentarystrokes.
Mark Rothko (1903-1970) “Silence is so accurate.”
Background• Born September 25, 1903 in Russia• Immigrated to United States at age 10• Attended Yale, but gave up studies and moved to New York in 1923• Taught at the Center Academy of Brooklyn Jewish Center for 20+ years• Max Weber Art Students League, he encouraged Rothko to paint in a figurative style (following Cezanne)• Milton Avery – “Simplified and colorful depictions of domestic subjects” influenced Rothko’s application of paint and the treatment of colors
Characteristics•Early Work - Mostly street scenes• Stressed emotional approach• More interested in perceptual experience;exploring the relationship between the paintingand the viewer• Influenced by Surrealism, focused on“painting without conscious control”• Loosened form• Diluted pigments = thin “glazed” layers• Large canvasses• Nonobjective compositions
Changing Towards Abstractionism Mark Rothko, Hierarchical Birds, c. 1944. (left) Mark Rothko, Untitled,c. 1948. (right)
Characteristics (con.)• Saturating the canvas with paint = soft, indistinct edges• More attention to color and tone = create different moods• 1950 “Signature Style” emerges: • Few floating rectangles aligned vertically • Similar style but different colors and tones • Oil and egg-based paints create more luminosity • Large canvasses show direction and texture
Mark Rothko, no. 17,c. 1949. Mark Rothko, no. 10, c. 1950.
White Center (Yellow, Pink, and Lavender on Rose) -1950.White Center - 1957.
Influences on other Movements• Pop Art• Op Art• Minimalism Gilbert Hsaio (Op Art)
Summary of Abstract Expressionism• Based in New York• Tap into the unconscious with the use of color and gestures in order to create a emotional response to the piece• Untraditional methods in the creation of the piece• Subjective• Use of many motifs• Importance on the process