How to differentiate instruction in a mixed ability classroom

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  • Page 74-75
  • See cubing example on page 80 Interacting journals page 82
  • What kinds of questions can we ask students to focus on
  • Simplified for readers of varying levels Provided background Defined crimes – as slavery, provided a synonym for purged (abolished) What does this document tell us about how John Brown felt about slavery?
  • What modifications to you observe? How can this document be used? I could further focus this document by posing the question – What was John Rankin’s purpose for writing the letter?
  • Trainer should place table vocabulary cards on each subject area table group. Trainer will introduce the vocabulary and how it relates to Bloom’s and Cubing/Think Dots activities. After the whole group discussion of cubing statements slide #7, participants will be given Bloom’s Taxonomy (Handout B) to use with the Active Learning activity.
  • Trainer will lead a discussion on the various reasons of why Cubing/Think Dots is an effective strategy for differentiated instruction.
  • Trainer will lead a discussion on when Cubing/Think Dots could be used in the classroom.
  • Trainer will discuss the directions for cubing using slide 10 as a guide. Participants will have a paper copy to refer to throughout the discussion.
  • Trainer will discuss the example and make reference to the use of levels of questioning.
  • Continue with example.
  • Continue with example.
  • Presenter will explain the directions for Think Dots. Participants will have a paper copy at their tables to refer to throughout the discussion. A created example of the product would be helpful to show as the presenter discusses the directions.
  • Presenter will discuss the example of a Think Dots template completed for a Math level 1.
  • Continue with example.
  • Continue with example.
  • Presenter will discuss some different uses for Cubing/Think Dots and how these activities can be changed to fit a teacher’s needs.
  • Presenter will continue with some other ideas and suggestions.
  • Trainer will discuss the reasoning behind the use of assessment.
  • Participants will use the Cubing/Think Dots Rubric to assess the Cube or Think Dots example that they created. Trainer might use the option of a peer evaluation if time permits.
  • How to differentiate instruction in a mixed ability classroom

    1. 1. How to Differentiate Instruction in a Mixed Ability Classroom Presenters: Anetria and Sherrie
    2. 2. 3 characteristics of students that guide differentiation <ul><li>Readiness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A student’s skills and understanding of a topic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A task that ignites curiosity or passion in a student </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning Profile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Task encourages students to work in a preferred manner </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Differentiating Curriculum by content, process, and product <ul><li>Content is the “input” of teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We can adapt what we teach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We can adapt or modify how we give students access to what we want them to learn </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process means sense making, the opportunity for learners to process the content or ideas and skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process is usually the “sense-making activity” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically short and focuses on one, or just a few, key understandings and skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Product assignments help students rethink, use, and extend what they have learned over a period of time (unit, semester, year…) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product should represent students’ extensive understandings and applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes students to think about, apply, and even expand on key understandings and skills </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Strategies for differentiating content <ul><li>Curriculum compacting </li></ul><ul><li>Adjusting Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Using varied text and resource materials </li></ul><ul><li>Learning contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Varied support systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Note taking-organizers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading partners </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Process can be differentiated in response to student readiness, interest, and learning profile <ul><li>Differentiating process according to readiness means matching the complexity of a task to a student’s current level of understanding or skill </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiating process according to student interest involves giving students choices about facets of a topic in which to specialize or helping them link a personal interest to a sense-making goal </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiating process according to student learning profile generally means encouraging students to make sense of an idea in a preferred way of learning </li></ul>
    6. 6. Strategies that support differentiated processing <ul><li>Learning logs </li></ul><ul><li>Journals </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic organizers </li></ul><ul><li>Learning centers </li></ul><ul><li>Interest centers </li></ul><ul><li>Literature circles </li></ul><ul><li>Choice Boards </li></ul><ul><li>Tiered Assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Cubing </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>It is difficult and somewhat unnatural to carve apart the curricular elements of content, process, and product, because students process ideas as they read content, think while they create products, and conjure ideas for products while they encounter ideas in the material they use. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Carol Ann Tomlinson </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. ADAPTING PRIMARY SOURCES FOR STRUGGLING READERS <ul><li>Differentiating Content </li></ul>
    9. 9. Tampering with history <ul><li>Many teachers shy away from primary source documents because they believe that the documents are difficult for their students to read. Do you agree or disagree and why? </li></ul><ul><li>With a partner, read the Tampering With History article. Pay close attention to the three step process for simplifying information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focusing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Differentiate!!! <ul><li>Focusing – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use excerpts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>focus in on main idea using guiding question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>limit length to 200-300 words </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simplification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modify complex sentences and syntax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conventionalize spelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change vocabulary to make document more accessible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Presentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Present in large font (at least 16 pt) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate white space </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Primary Source Document 1 How can we FOCUS this document?
    12. 12. Provide Background An abolitionist named John Brown decided to fight slavery on his own. In 1859, he tried to start a rebellion against slavery by attacking a U.S. Army post at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia. Soldiers quickly surrounded his group and captured Brown. The government accused Brown of treason. At his trial, he insisted that he had done “no wrong but right.” Brown was found guilty and hanged. Many northerners saw Brown as a hero. Southerners saw him as a violent man out to destroy their way of life.
    13. 13. How was this adapted? On the day of his death, December 2, 1859, John Brown wrote, (Original version) “ I John Brown am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away, but with Blood. I had as I now think vainly flattered myself that without very much bloodshed; it might be done.&quot; (Modified version) I am sure that the only way slavery will be abolished is through bloodshed (war). I should not have thought that I could have done it myself in a peaceful way.
    14. 14. Excerpt from Letters on Slavery (Original Version) MY DEARBROTHER: I received yours of the 2d December, with mingled sensations of pleasure and pain; it gave me pleasure to hear of your health, and pain to hear of your purchasing slaves. I consider involuntary slavery a never-failing fountain of the grossest immorality, and one of the deepest sources of human misery; it hangs like the mantle of night over our republic, and shrouds its rising glories. (Modified Version) My Dear Brother: I received your letter from December 2 nd , with mixed feelings of happiness and sadness. I was happy to hear of your health, but said to hear you purchased slaves. I believe slavery is a horrible problem. It causes humans to suffer. It is a cloud of negativity hanging over our country. John Rankin, an abolitionist living in Ohio, wrote a series of anti-slavery to his brother Thomas, a slave-owner. The letters convinced his brother to free his slaves. Eventually, the letters were published as a book . This book, Letters on Slavery, was widely read by abolitionists across the United States. John Rankin aided slaves as part of the Underground Railroad. His family would raise a lantern on a flagpole to signal to slaves in Kentucky when it was safe for them to cross the Ohio River. Slaves traveled through Ohio to reach freedom. This is a view form a window in the Rankin house.
    15. 15. CUBING AND THINK DOTS <ul><li>Processing Strategy </li></ul>
    16. 16. CUBING STATEMENTS <ul><li>Describe it: Look at the subject closely (perhaps with your physical senses as well as your mind). </li></ul><ul><li>Compare it: What is it similar to? What is it different from? </li></ul><ul><li>Associate it; What does it make you think of? What comes to your mind when you think of it? Perhaps people? Places? Things? Feelings? Let your mind go and see what feelings you have for the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze it: Tell how it is made. What are it is traits and attributes? </li></ul><ul><li>Apply it: Tell what you can do with it. How can it be used? </li></ul><ul><li>Argue for or against: Take a stand. Use any kind of reasoning you want-logical, silly, anywhere in between. </li></ul>
    17. 17. WHY WOULD YOU USE CUBING/THINK DOTS? <ul><li>To engage your students in idea and information processing activities. </li></ul><ul><li>To match your students learning profiles and current needs. </li></ul><ul><li>To engage your students forward on many learning continuums. </li></ul><ul><li>To identify the students readiness levels, interests, learning styles . </li></ul><ul><li>To use an on-going assessment process. </li></ul>
    18. 18. WHEN WOULD YOU USE CUBING/THINK DOTS? <ul><li>After a unit has been presented and students are familiar with the elements of the unit and conceptual skills, Cubing/ThinkDots is an activity to help students to Think about and make sense of the unit and concepts they are studying. The teacher first defines readiness levels, interests and learning styles in the class, using on-going assessment. Decide what you want your students to know, do, and understand. </li></ul>
    19. 19. DIRECTIONS FOR CUBING <ul><li>First Step: (use on of the cubes) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Write 6 questions that ask for information on the selected unit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use your 6 levels of Bloom intelligence levels or any of the cubing statements to design questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make questions that use these levels that probe the specifics of your unit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep one question opinion based---no right or wrong. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second Step: (use other cubes) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the first cube as you average cube, create 2 more using one as a lower level and one as a higher level. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember all cubes need to cover the same type of questions, just geared to the level and one as a higher level. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Label your cubes so you know which level of readiness you are addressing. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Third Step: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Always remember to have an easy problem on each cube and a hard one regardless the levels. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color code the cubes for easy identification, also if students change cubes for questions, for learning style groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide on the rules. Will the students be asked to do all 6 sides? Roll and do any 4 sides? Do any two questions on each of the cubes? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Places to get questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Old quizzes, worksheets, textbook-study problems, student generated, etc. </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Social Studies Level 1
    21. 21. Social Studies Level 2
    22. 22. Social Studies Level 3
    23. 23. DIRECTIONS FOR THINK DOTS <ul><li>First Steps: </li></ul><ul><li>-For each readiness level, write six activities on the pre-printed ThinkDots template should be created. </li></ul><ul><li>- Use your 6 levels of Bloom intelligence levels or any of the ThinkDots statements to write a activity for each card. </li></ul><ul><li>- Make the questions that use these levels that probe the specifics of your unit. </li></ul><ul><li>- Keep one question opinion based—no right or wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>Second Steps: </li></ul><ul><li>- Then cut each page into the six sections. </li></ul><ul><li>- On the back of each card, dots corresponding to the dots on the faces of a die should be drawn on each of the six sections of the page. </li></ul><ul><li>- Use the hole punch to make holes in one corner or in the top of each activity card. </li></ul><ul><li>- Use a 1” metal ring to hold each set of six cards together. </li></ul><ul><li>- Teacher may create an Activity Sheet to correspond to the lesson for easy recording and management. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Age of Exploration R Define the Columbian Exchange and list items that were introduced from the as a result. R Define Exploration R Identify one explorer from our unit of European Explorers and identify the “who, what, when, where and why.” R Draw and label different types of ships used for exploration, such as the CARAVEL R Make a timeline of key events in the history of exploration (you may use the timeline template) R Find three different exploration routes on a map or globe (use your textbook if necessary).
    25. 25. Age of Exploration S/C Describe three of the first European Explorers and their exploration goals. S/C Make a Venn Diagram comparing and contrasting Spanish Exploration and Portuguese exploration. S/C Compare 5 explorers from our unit of European Explorers. Categorize the “who, what, when, where and why” – for each. S/C Compare and contrast methods of exploration, past and present. Select and appropriate graphic organizer. S/C Compare and contrast technology used in exploration, past and present. *Select and appropriate graphic organizer. S/C If you were a young Spaniard approached by Christopher Columbus to go on his first voyage, would you go? Explain.
    26. 26. Age of Exploration <ul><li>ST </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the following reasons for European Exploration: </li></ul><ul><li>establishing trade routes </li></ul><ul><li>finding new natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>spreading religious beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>colonization </li></ul>ST Research two navigation tools that made exploration possible (for example, the astrolabe or magnetic compass) ST If you were hired by Prince Henry the Navigator to teach Portuguese Sailors during the 15 th century, what navigation instruments or principles would you teach to them? Explain. ST What would your diary entry for September 6, 1522 read like if you were a member of Ferdinand Magellan’s crew and had just completed your voyage around the world? ST Explorers vs. Settlers What inspired European explorers to chart a course for the , and how did their motivation differ from families that would migrate to this hemisphere decades later. ST If you were a young Spaniard approached by Christopher Columbus to go on his first voyage, would you go? Explain.
    27. 27. STUDENTS USE CUBES/THINK DOTs <ul><li>Cubing </li></ul><ul><li>Students begin cubing by sitting with other students using cubes of the same color. </li></ul><ul><li>Students take turns rolling their cube. </li></ul><ul><li>If the first roll is an activity that the student does not want to do a second roll is allowed. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers can create an Activity Sheet to correspond to the lesson for easy recording and management. </li></ul><ul><li>Think Dots </li></ul><ul><li>Students begin Think Dots by sitting with other student using activity cards of the same color. </li></ul><ul><li>Students roll the die and complete the activity on the card that corresponds to the dots thrown on the die. </li></ul><ul><li>If the first roll is an activity that the student does not want to do a second roll is allowed. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers can create an Activity Sheet to correspond to the lesson for easy recording and management. </li></ul>
    28. 28. CUBING/THINK DOTS <ul><li>Suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>Use colored paper to indicate different readiness levels, interests or learning styles. </li></ul><ul><li>Have students work in small groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Let students choose which activities- for example: choose any three or have students choose just one to work on over a number of days. </li></ul><ul><li>After students have worked on activities individually, have them come together in groups by levels, interest or learning style to synthesize. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Assess <ul><li>Assessing provides direction for the teacher to adjust to needs in order to ensure growth and success. </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing using a rubric is a key to understanding and attending to student interest and learning profile needs. </li></ul>
    30. 30. Cubing/Think Dots Rubric 3 2 1 -Evidence of alignment with Bloom’s Taxonomy -Evidence that activities are designed for readiness, interest, or learning styles -Evidence of what students are to Know, Understand, and Do -Some evidence of alignment -Some evidence of design for readiness, interest, or learning styles -Some evidence of what students are to Know, Understand, and Do -No evidence of alignment -No evidence of readiness, interest, or learning styles -No evidence of what students are to Know, Understand, and Do

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